VILNIUS UNIVERSITY TOMAS NEMUNAS MICKEVIČIUS REFLECTION ON THE GREEK CONCEPTION OF PRODUCTION IN HEIDEGGER S PHILOSOPHY OF TECHNOLOGY - PDF

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VILNIUS UNIVERSITY TOMAS NEMUNAS MICKEVIČIUS REFLECTION ON THE GREEK CONCEPTION OF PRODUCTION IN HEIDEGGER S PHILOSOPHY OF TECHNOLOGY Summary of doctoral dissertation Humanities, Philosophy (01H) Vilnius,

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VILNIUS UNIVERSITY TOMAS NEMUNAS MICKEVIČIUS REFLECTION ON THE GREEK CONCEPTION OF PRODUCTION IN HEIDEGGER S PHILOSOPHY OF TECHNOLOGY Summary of doctoral dissertation Humanities, Philosophy (01H) Vilnius, 2017 Doctoral dissertation was prepared at Vilnius University, Faculty of Philosophy in Scientific advisor Assoc. Prof. Dr. Naglis Kardelis (Vilnius University, Humanities, Philosophy 01H). Counsellor Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mintautas Gutauskas (Vilnius University, Humanities, Philosophy 01H). The dissertation will be defended at public meeting of the Dissertation Defence Board Chairman Prof. Dr. Skirmantas Jankauskas (Vilnius University, Humanities, Philosophy 01H). Members: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Povilas Aleksandravičius (Mykolas Romeris University, Humanities, Philosophy 01H); Prof. Dr. Algis Mickūnas (Ohio University, Humanities, Philosophy 01H); Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nerijus Milerius (Vilnius University, Humanities, Philosophy 01H); Assoc. Prof. Dr. Kristupas Sabolius (Vilnius University, Humanities, Philosophy 01H). The public defence of the dissertation will be held at 10 am on February 24, 2017, Faculty of Philosophy, Vilnius University (auditorium 201). Address: Universiteto str. 9, Vilnius Lithuania. The summary of the dissertation was mailed on January 24, The dissertation is available at the library of Vilnius University. 2 VILNIAUS UNIVERSITETAS TOMAS NEMUNAS MICKEVIČIUS GRAIKIŠKOSIOS GAMINIMO SAMPRATOS APMĄSTYMAS HEIDEGGERIO TECHNIKOS FILOSOFIJOJE Daktaro disertacijos santrauka Humanitariniai mokslai, filosofija (01H) Vilnius, 2017 Disertacija rengta metais Vilniaus universitete, Filosofijos fakultete Mokslinis vadovas doc. dr. Naglis Kardelis (Vilniaus universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filosofija 01H). Konsultantas doc. dr. Mintautas Gutauskas (Vilniaus universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filosofija 01H). Disertacija bus ginama viešame gynimo tarybos posėdyje: Pirmininkas prof. dr. Skirmantas Jankauskas (Vilniaus Universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filosofija 01H). Nariai: doc. dr. Povilas Aleksandravičius (Mykolo Romerio universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filosofija 01H); prof. dr. Algis Mickūnas (Ohajo universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filosofija 01H); doc. dr. Nerijus Milerius (Vilniaus universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filosofija 01H); doc. dr. Kristupas Sabolius (Vilniaus universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, filosofija 01H). Disertacija bus ginama viešame gynimo tarybos posėdyje 2017 m. vasario 24 d. 10 valandą Filosofijos fakultete 201 auditorijoje. Adresas: Universiteto g. 9, Vilnius, Lietuva. Disertacijos santrauka išsiuntinėta 2017 m. sausio 24 d. Disertaciją galima peržiūrėti Vilniaus universiteto bibliotekoje. 4 REFLECTION ON THE GREEK CONCEPTION OF PRODUCTION IN HEIDEGGER S PHILOSOPHY OF TECHNOLOGY Summary of doctoral dissertation The problem of the research We are living in a constantly evolving technoscientific civilization, and thus philosophy just cannot miss the task to think about this subject. As professor Arthur Bradley argues in his study 1 : we are currently in the midst of a technological turn in contemporary continental philosophy. If that is really the case, the thinking of German philosopher Martin Heidegger is very significant here, because, as is noticed by many scholars, his philosophy is one of the most influential in the field of philosophy of technology. On the other hand, Heidegger himself is one of the main thinkers of the last century, whose thinking is still attempted to be understood and interpreted in various ways (for example, in the recent books by Thomas Sheehan 2 and Richard Capobianco 3 ). This dissertation also offers its own view on Heideggerian thinking the one that emphasizes the centrality of topic of technology for it. From the ninth decade of last century the connection between Heidegger s famous work Being and time and his later conception of modern technology has been being discussed. Later there appeared attempts to think over the connection between even earlier texts dedicated to explicate the conception of Ancient Greek philosophy as arising through the basic experience of production (Herstellung) and his conception of modern technology. Dissertation joins the discussion, presents the uniting view of it and offers new arguments on the subject. 1 Arthur Bradley, Originary Technicity: The Theory of Technology from Marx to Derrida. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, p Thomas Sheehan, Making Sense of Heidegger: A Paradigm Shift. London New York: Rowman & Littlefield, Richard Capobianco, Heidegger s Way of Being. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, Review of methods and literature The methodical basis of this dissertation is formed by the texts written by Michael Zimmermann 4 and Hans Ruin 5 texts, dedicated to explicate the motive of production (Herstellung, found in early Heidegger s lectures on Ancient Greeks) as a ground for the conception of modern technology. The explication of the connection between Being and time and the conception of modern technology is done with the help of the texts by Miguel de Beistegui, Trish Glazebrook, Graham Harman, Jeff Malpas, and, first of all, Hubert Dreyfus 6 and Mark Sinclair 7. The manifoldness of mature Heideggerian conception of technology is reconstructed also with the help of variety of scholars work (for example, the economic dimension of technologization is revealed in accordance with a book by Vytautas Rubavičius 8, while the relationship between Christian world-view and modern technology is revealed with accordance to a text by Arvydas Šliogeris 9 ). The ambivalence of Heideggerian evaluation of modern technology is also revealed in accordance with the texts relevant to this subject (for example, Gianni Vattimo 10 and Rita Šerpytytė 11 ). The novelty of this dissertation lies in the fact that it attempts to reveal the whole of Heidegger s path of thinking on modern technology with its divisions and aspects in showing the main uniting structure of these namely, the structure of 4 Michael Zimmermann, Heidegger s Confrontation with Modernity: Technology, Politics, Art. Indiana: Indiana University Press, Hans Ruin, Gestell: Enframing as the Essence of Technology, in Martin Heidegger: Key Concepts (ed. Davis, B.). New York: Routledge, 2014; etc. 6 Hubert Dreyfus, Heidegger s History of the Being of Equipment, in Heidegger: A Critical Reader (eds. Dreyfus, H; Hall, H.). Oxford: Blackwell, 1992, Mark Sinclair, Heidegger, Aristotle and the Work of Art: Poiesis in Being. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, Vytautas Rubavičius, Postmodernusis kapitalizmas. Vilnius: Kitos knygos, Arvydas Šliogeris, Filosofijos likimas, in Mickūnas, A.; Šliogeris, A. Filosofijos likimas. Vilnius: Baltos lankos, 2009, p Gianni Vattimo, The End of Modernity: Nihilism and Hermeneutics in Postmodern Culture. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University, Rita Šerpytytė, Nihilizmas ir Vakarų filosofija. Vilnius: Vilniaus universiteto leidykla, production, firstly explicated in the early lecture courses and texts on Ancient Greek philosophy. The dissertation also sheds light on the importance of the conception of production (as well as modern technology) for the whole of Heidegger s thought. It also reactualizes unique and detailed Heideggerian interpretation of the producing behavior (herstellende Verhalten) as the main underlying origin of Ancient Greek thinking. The structure of dissertation is composed by introduction, three main chapters and conclusions. In the first chapter the early lecture courses and texts dedicated to explicate the origin of Ancient Greek thinking in primary experience of production (Herstellung) are presented. The dissertation starts with the presentation of this conception because it is held to be the origin of later Heidegger s reflections on modern technology and it is constantly returned to it in later chapters. Also, in the first chapter the field of the discussion on the connection between Being and time and the conception of modern technology is presented. In the second chapter the mature Heideggerian conception of technology, which is expressed through the names of Machination (Machenschaft) and Enframing (Gestell), is presented. It is shown how this conception is related with the mentioned early lecture courses on productive behavior as underlying horizon for the development of Ancient Greek thinking. The third chapter is dedicated to show the ambivalence of Heideggerian evaluation of modern technology: from an attempt to overcome (überwinden) the dominion of modern technological revealing of being to a less explicated suggestion to assimilate (aneignen) the technoscientific knowledge into the authentic experience of being itself. Again, it is shown how the latter suggestion is connected to the mentioned early lecture courses and texts. Conclusions of the research 1. The thread of Heidegger s conception of technology implicit, not yet explicit can be traced back to the earliest of his lectures and texts. This thesis is enabled, as is noticed by some scholars, by the circumstance that many of the motives of those lectures and texts recur in Heidegger s later descriptions of modern technology. 7 The most important here is the conception of the origin of Ancient Greek metaphysics in the producing behavior, expressed through the basic name of being produced (Hergestelltsein) of the thirties. The motives essential for it the experience of being through the horizon of presence (Vorhandenheit and Anwesenheit), the conceptual horizon of causality and the experience of nature through the structure of an artifact all constantly recur in later Heidegger s reflections on modern technology. To this period of early Heidegger s reflection on basic experience of production also belongs the famous work Being and time. There is a close connection between the essential conception of readiness-to-hand (Zuhandenheit) and the conception of the modern technological revealing of being. There is also a close connection between the conception of presence-at-hand (Vorhandenheit) and the conception of modern technology as revealing reality as sheer image as well as between the conception of spatiality (Räumlichkeit) and the later descriptions of the impact of modern technology on the experience of space. The possibility that already in this early period of thinking Heidegger suggested that there is a primary connection between man and technology and between being and technology is to be considered. 2. The first term explicitly dedicated to name the technological revealing of being is the conception of Machination (Machenschaft) of the forties. With this conception the motive of being produced from the early lectures is developed in machinational-technological revealing of being prevails the structure of producibility of reality, as well as the experience of reality through the mode of presence (Anwesenheit) belonging to the latter. In this conception the first evaluation of modern technology is found: it is treated negatively and the authentic experience of being (Seyn) itself is counterposed to it. In the historical dimension, which arose in this period of Heidegger s thinking, the most important is Christian world-view: the conception of God as the creator of the Universe reflects the primary experience of reality through the structure of production (with the conceptual horizon of causality belonging to it) and is closely related to the modern technological world-view; the conception of entity as ens creatum also prepares the way for the dominion of the structure of technological producibility of reality. 8 3. Despite the fact that in the mature conception of modern technology as the collection of various modes of placing (stellen) the famous conception of Enframing (Gestell) producing (herstellen) is explicitly named as only one way of placing, it still should be said that in the conception of Enframing, similarly to the conception of Machination (Machenschaft), the priority of experience of producibility of reality, formulated in the early lectures and texts dedicated to the Ancient Greek philosophy, is preserved as well. In this period of his thinking on modern technology Heidegger argues that parallel to the turning of reality to sheer resource by the essence of technology there happens at the same time the turning of the so processed reality into merchandise for economic use. But it was the impact of the all encompassing technologization on the human that concerned Heidegger the most: the technologization of the social organization which becomes artificially producible, and, most importantly, the technologization of human as living being itself, which becomes more and more susceptible to technological producing and manipulation. In this period the impact of modern natural science on the development of modern technological revealing of being is emphasized: the former, by eliminating the distinction between natural and artificial beings, prepares the way for the dominion of the structure of technological producibility of reality. 4. There should be separated two main positions of Heidegger towards modern technology: the negative one and the positive one. According to Heidegger, modern technology is dangerous not only because of its destructive force, but, first of all, because of its impact on man s relation to being the former destroys the insight into the latter. The conception of technology as a mode of revealing of being as well as the historical dimension of technological revealing of being enabled Heidegger to formulate the programme of overcoming (Überwindung) of technology, which disperses in few directions. First, Heidegger suggests the conception of Other thinking (andere Denken), dedicated to reflect on being itself and counterposed to the classical way of reflecting on the being of beings, which is now taken over by technoscience. Second, in Heidegger s thinking a critique of the conceptual horizon of causality, the origin of which was explicated in the early analyses of production and which Heidegger treats as an essential element of the technological revealing of being, can be found: to a non- 9 causal way of thinking serves the experience of the thing (Das Ding) itself and the tautological or tautophatic evading the structure of causality modes of thinking. 5. On the other hand, one can find in Heidegger s thought a positive treatment of modern technology. Formerly argued that modern technology leaves beings without being and eliminates the insight of the latter, Heidegger starts to claim the positive role of technology in man s way towards the experience of being itself (Ereignis): in the process of technoscientific exploitation of beings there appears a place for the experience of being itself. What is more, the negative conception of overcoming (Überwindung) of technology is replaced by a more positive conception of Verwindung of technology: there exists in Heidegger s thought a less explicated and enigmatic suggestion to assimilate (aneignen) the technoscientifically revealed reality into the authentic experience of being itself. Though the late positive evaluation of modern technology with its suggestions to reflect on the primary connection between man and technology and between being itself and technology is explicated only in a fragmentary way, the possibility that this evaluation has a more solid ground in early lecture courses dedicated to Ancient Greek philosophy as well as in major work Being and time (the texts concerning the primary experience of production) is to be considered. 6. The ambivalence of Heideggerian treatment of technology can be seen through the ambivalence of his interpretations of basic Ancient Greek concepts: φύσις and τέχνη. On the one hand, Heidegger as is usually done opposes them: technological understanding of φύσις distorts the authentic experience of it. On the other hand, in Heideggerian corpus one can find the claim that in the φύσις itself springs the origin of technology. Such treatment of φύσις repeats the idea formulated in the early lecture courses dedicated to the Ancient Greek thinking: the Greeks experienced φύσις through the primary experience of production. In one of his ways (Wege) of thinking Heidegger suggests that the technoscientific view of reality does not distort the experience of it, but rather reveals the real structure of it; but there is a more careful reflection (Besinnung) of this process needed. 10 ABOUT THE AUTHOR Education Doctoral studies of Philosophy at Vilnius University MA in Philosophy at Vilnius University BA in Philosophy at Vilnius University Vilnius Gabija secondary school. Teaching Seminars of Introduction to Philosophy and Ethics. Grants 2013 Research Council of Lithuania PhD grant for Academic Achievements. Research interests Ancient Greek philosophy, Heidegger s philosophy. Personal informaton 11 PUBLICATIONS ON THE TOPIC OF DISSERTATION 1. Heideggeris ir Platonas: tiesos samprata, Problemos 83, 2013, Vilnius: Vilniaus universiteto leidykla; 2. Heideggerio technikos sampratos užuomazgos senovės graikų interpretacijose, Problemos 90, 2016, Vilnius: Vilniaus universiteto leidykla. PAPERS PRESENTED ON THE TOPIC OF DISSERTATION 1. Heidegger s Ambivalence About The Φύσις-Τέχνη Relationship, conference Phenomenology and Beyond ( ) at Reykjavík University, Iceland; 2. Two Heidegger s Ways Towards Technology, conference Science, Technology and Society: Philosophical Perspectives ( ) at Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia. 12 GRAIKIŠKOSIOS GAMINIMO SAMPRATOS APMĄSTYMAS HEIDEGGERIO TECHNIKOS FILOSOFIJOJE Daktaro disertacijos santrauka Temos aktualumas Gyvename vis labiau besivystančioje technomokslinėje civilizacijoje, tad filosofija tiesiog negali neapmąstyti šio reiškinio. Kaip teigia britų profesorius Arthuras Bradley savo studijoje 12 : mes šiuo metu esame šiuolaikinės kontinentinės filosofijos technologiniame posūkyje. Jeigu iš tiesų taip ir yra, tai kaip tik vokiečių filosofo Martino Heideggerio mąstymas neabejotinai čia turi didelę reikšmę, nes jo unikali technikos filosofija, kaip pripažįsta tyrinėtojai, yra įtakinga technikos filosofijos srityje. Kita vertus, pats Heideggeris vis dar yra vienas svarbiausių praėjusio amžiaus mąstytojų, kurio mąstymo esmė vis dar bandoma suprasti ir įvairiai interpretuojama (pvz., Thomaso Sheehano 13 ar Richardo Capobianco 14 knygos). Ši disertacija taip pat pasiūlo savąjį Heideggerio mąstymo interpretacijos variantą tokį, kuris akcentuoja technikos temos primatą jame. Nuo praėjusio šimtmečio devintojo dešimtmečio svarstomas Heideggerio garsiojo veikalo Būtis ir laikas ir moderniosios technikos sampratos ryšys, vėliau radosi svarstymų apie dar ankstesnių Heideggerio tekstų, skirtų aptarti senovės graikų mąstymo kiltį pamatinėje gaminimo (Herstellung) veikloje, ryšį su moderniosios technikos samprata. Disertacija įsiterpiama į šią diskusiją, ji pristatoma ir pasiūlomi nauji argumentai. 12 Arthur Bradley, Originary Technicity: The Theory of Technology from Marx to Derrida. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, p Thomas Sheehan, Making Sense of Heidegger: A Paradigm Shift, London New York: Rowman & Littlefield, Richard Capobianco, Heidegger s Way of Being. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, Metodų ir literatūros apžvalga Disertacijos metodinį pagrindą sudaro Michaelo Zimmermanno 15 ir Hanso Ruino 16 tekstai, skirti eksplikuoti ankstyvosiose Heideggerio senovės graikams skirtose paskaitose pasirodžiusį gaminimo (Herstellung) motyvą kaip moderniosios technikos sampratos pamatą. Skleidžiant veikalo Būtis ir laikas bei moderniosios technikos sampratos ryšį pasitarnauja Miguelio de Beistegui, Trish Glazebrook, Grahamo Harmano, Jeffo Malpaso, ir, pirmiausia, Huberto Dreyfuso 17 (1992) bei Marko Sinclairo 18 (2006) tekstai. Brandžiosios
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