Unarmored dinoflagellates present during a bloom of Ceratoperidinium falcatum in Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California - PDF

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Vol. 49, Nº3: , diciembre 2014 DOI /S RESEARCH NOTE Unarmored dinoflagellates present during a bloom of Ceratoperidinium falcatum in Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California

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Vol. 49, Nº3: , diciembre 2014 DOI /S RESEARCH NOTE Unarmored dinoflagellates present during a bloom of Ceratoperidinium falcatum in Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California Dinoflagelados desnudos presentes durante un florecimiento de Ceratoperidinium falcatum en Bahía de La Paz, Golfo de California Ismael Gárate-Lizárraga 1 1 Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas, Departamento de Plancton y Ecología Marina, Apartado postal 592, La Paz, B.C.S , México. Abstract.- During a sampling on January 2013 in the southwest part of Bahía de La Paz, a moderate bloom of the dinoflagellate Ceratoperidinium falcatum was detected. Its abundance varied from 11,200 to 145,400 cells L 1 during this period in seawater temperature at 23 C and salinity of The specimens were solitary cells. Few two-celled chains were observed. Young cells were relatively small, m long; m wide, from ovately elongate to fusiform. Mature individuals were m long and m wide. Including C. falcatum, 21 species belonging to 5 orders of unarmored dinoflagellates were identified during this bloom. Four species are new records for the Gulf of California and three are new records for the Pacific coast of Mexico. Key words: Unarmored dinoflagellates, proliferation, Ceratoperidinium falcatum, Gulf of California INTRODUCTION Microalgae proliferations are frequent and periodic throughout the year in Bahía de La Paz in the southwestern part of the Gulf of California (Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2001, 2006). The majority of red tides along both coast zones of the gulf have been produced by dinoflagellate species (Cortés-Altamirano 2002, Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2001, 2006) and proliferations of naked dinoflagellates are common (Cortés-Altamirano 2002, Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2004a). Noctiluca scintillans, Gymnodinium catenatum, Gyrodinium instriatum, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, C. fulvescens, Katodinium glaucum and Amphidinium carterae are the most common blooming species recorded in Bahía de La Paz (Gárate-Lizárraga 2012, Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2001, 2004a, 2006, 2009). The unarmored dinoflagellates comprise several orders which lack cellulose plates, but have a membranous outer covering of small vesicles (Hallegraeff et al. 2010). Main unarmored dinoflagellates orders reported in Bahía de La Paz are: Gymnodiniales, Brachidiniales, Noctilucales and Actiniscales. Most studies of Gymnodiniales have been focused on the species responsible for harmful algal blooms, which are abundant in coastal waters of the Gulf of California (Cortés-Altamirano 2002, Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2001, 2009; Gárate-Lizárraga 2012, 2014). This report describes the first proliferation of Ceratoperidinium falcatum (Kofoid et Swezy) Reñé et de Salas in Bahía de La Paz. Composition of naked dinoflagellate species during this proliferation is given. MATERIALS AND METHODS Bahía de La Paz is the largest bay on the east side of Baja California Peninsula. The bay constantly exchanges water with the Gulf of California through a wide northern and a southern opening (Gómez-Valdés et al. 2003). The main northern channel is wide and deep (up to 300 m), while the southern mouth is shallow and associated with a shallow basin about 10 m deep. There is a shallow lagoon, the Ensenada of La Paz, connected to the bay by a narrow inlet (1.2 km wide) with an average depth of 7 m. As part of a continuing toxic or noxious microalgae monitoring program, phytoplankton bottle samples were collected monthly at one fixed sampling station in the bay (Fig. 1; station 1, N, W) and another one in the mouth of the lagoon (Fig. 1; station 2, N; W). Phytoplankton samples were collected into plastic flasks, fixed with Lugol s solution and later preserved with 4% formalin. Identification and cell counts were made in 5 ml settling chambers and the cells were studied under an inverted Carl Zeiss phase-contrast microscope (Utermöhl 1958). Both surface and vertical tows from 15 m depth were made with a phytoplankton 20 m mesh net. A portion of each sample was immediately fixed with acid 577 Figure 1. Map of the study area indicating sampling stations for microalgae monitoring in Bahía de La Paz / Mapa del área de estudio indicando las estaciones de monitoreo de microalgas en la Bahía de La Paz Lugol s solution and later preserved in 4% formalin. Live phytoplankton samples were used to properly identify some uncommon species also found in the bottle samples. Sea surface temperature was measured with a bucket thermometer (Kahlsico International, El Cajon, CA, USA). Salinity was measured with a refractometer (Model STX3, Vee Gee Scientific, Kirkland, WA). An Olympus CH2 compound microscope was used to measure cells. A digital Konus camera (8.1 MP) recorded images. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Ceratoperidinium falcatum was the main responsible species in the proliferation detected at the mouth of Bahía de La Paz on January Seawater temperature was 23 C and salinity was The specimens were solitary cells (Figs. 2A-L). Few two-celled chains were observed. Young cells were solitary, relatively small, m long, m wide, from ovately elongate to fusiform (Figs. 2A-D). Mature individuals were m long and m wide (n= 30). Some mature specimens had article cells (Figs. 2J-K), which are more differentiated and the apex is thickened, matching those observed by Konovalova (2003). It is likely that these cells bear generative functions of the mother sporont organism (Konovalova 2003). These article cells can be observed in live specimens, (Fig. 2J) but also in fixed cells (Figs. 2K-L). Retractile appendices (both apical and antapical) are present at least during some life-cycle stages (Figs. 2G-L). According to Konovalova (2003), C. falcatum has about 9 developmental stages in its life cycle. Five life stages were observed during this event (Figs. 2A-L), coinciding with Konovalova (2003) and also reported by Gárate-Lizárraga et al. (2010) in Bahía de La Paz. Unarmored dinoflagellates abundance varied from 29,000 to 193,000 cells L 1. Abundances of C. falcatum during this event were moderate (11, ,400 cells L 1 ). Gárate-Lizárraga et al. (2009) reported C. falcatum in Bahía de La Paz ranging from cells L 1. Alonso- Rodríguez et al. (2010) reported very low densities of C. falcatum: 603 cells L 1 from Islas Marietas and 1672 cells L 1 in Bahía Banderas. This species is well distributed along the Pacific coast of Mexico (Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2007, 2010; Maciel-Baltazar & Hernández-Becerril 2013). Including C. falcatum, a total of 21 species belonging to 5 orders of naked dinoflagellates were identified during this bloom (Table 1; Figs. 2-3). The most representative order was Gymnodiniales with 14 species (Table 1). Gymnodinium gelbum, Gyrodinium lachryma, and Takayama tasmanica are new records for the Pacific coast of Mexico. Achradina pulchra, Gyrodinium acutum, Karenia bicuneiformis and Pronoctiluca spinifera are new records for the Gulf of California. The measurements and regional distribution data for each species are given and the species are alphabetically arranged. 578 Gárate-Lizárraga Unarmored dinoflagellates in a Ceratoperidinium falcatum bloom Table 1. Abundance of unarmored dinoflagellates detected during the proliferation of Ceratoperidinium falcatum at January 2013 in Bahía de La Paz / Abundancia de dinoflagelados desnudos detectados durante la proliferación de Ceratoperidinium falcatum entre el de enero 2013, en Bahía de La Paz ACHRADINA PULCHRA LOHMANN (FIG. 3A) References: Schiller 1937, p. 5, figs. 2 a-c; Hernández- Becerril & Bravo-Sierra 2004, p. 420, figs. 5-8; Meave del Castillo et al. 2012, 426, figs ; Omura et al. 2012, p. 134, Achradina pulchra (a-f). Dimensions: cells are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: Recorded from the west coast of Baja California Peninsula, to the Gulf of Tehuantepec (Hernández-Becerril & Bravo-Sierra 2004). Recently reported in Bahía de Acapulco (Meave del Castillo et al. 2012). This is the first record for the Gulf of California. ACTINISCUS PENTASTERIAS (EHRENBERG) EHRENBERG (FIG. 3B) Basionym: Dictyota pentasterias Ehrenberg References: Hernández-Becerril & Bravo-Sierra 2004, p. 419, figs. 2-4; Hoppenrath et al. 2009, p. 132, fig. 55g-h; Gárate-Lizárraga 2012, p. 46, figs ; Omura et al. 2012, p. O 75, Actiniscus pentasterias (a-f). Dimensions: cells are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: recorded along the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula and from the Gulf of California to the Gulf of Tehuantepec (Okolodkov & Gárate- Lizárraga, 2006, Gárate-Lizárraga 2012, Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2014). 581 AKASHIWO SANGUINEA (K.HIRASAKA) G.HANSEN & Ø.MOESTRUP (FIG. 3C) Basionym: Gymnodinium sanguineum K.Hirasaka Synonyms: G. splendens M. Lebour, G. nelsonii G.W. Martin References: Lebour 1925: 43, pl. 5, fig. 1; Avancini et al. 2006, p. 265, figs. A-C; Hoppenrath et al. 2009, p. 124, figs. 53k-l; Hallegraeff et al. 2010, p. 147, fig. 1. Dimensions: cells are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: bloom-forming species found along the Pacific coast of Mexico (Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2001, 2007, 2014; Okolodkov & Gárate-Lizárraga 2006). BALECHINA COERULEA (DOGIEL) F.J.R.TAYLOR (FIG. 3D) Basionym: Gymnodinium coeruleum Dogiel References: Taylor 1976, p. 113, pl. 37, fig. 447; pl. 40, fig. 481; Steidinger & Tangen 1997, p. 461; Gárate-Lizárraga et al p. 22, fig. 20. Dimensions: cells are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: along the Pacific coast of Mexico (Okolodkov & Gárate-Lizárraga 2006, Meave del Castillo et al. 2012, Maciel-Baltazar & Hernández-Becerril 2013). CERATOPERIDINIUM FALCATUM (KOFOID ET SWEZY) REÑÉ ET DE SALAS (FIGS. 2A-L) Basionym: Gyrodinium falcatum Kofoid & Swezy 1921 Synonyms: Gymnodinium fusus Schütt (1895) per parte, incl. only fig. 81, pl. 25. G. caudatum, Pseliodinium vaubanii Sournia (1972). References: Okolodkov & Dodge 1997: 356, figs. 3-8, 27-28; Konovalova 2003, p. 169, figs. 1-9; Gómez 2007, p. 275, figs. 2-22; Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2010, p. 54, figs. 2-21; Reñé et al. 2013, p. 678, figs. 3a-c. Dimensions: mature individuals are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: well-distributed along the Pacific coast of Mexico (Okolodkov & Gárate-Lizárraga 2006, Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2010, Maciel-Baltazar & Hernández- Becerril 2013). COCHLODINIUM FULVESCENS M. IWATAKI, H. KAWAMI & K. MATSUOKA (FIG. 3E) References: Iwataki et al. 2007, p. 235, figs. 1-9; Matsuoka et al p. 264, figs. 3A-G. Morquecho-Escamilla & Alonso-Rodríguez 2008, p. 5, figs. 2A-C. Dimensions: cells are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: has been reported in Bahía de La Paz (Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2009, Gárate-Lizárraga 2014), Bahía de Mazatlán (Morquecho-Escamilla & Alonso- Rodríguez 2008) and Bahía de Acapulco (Meave del Castillo et al. 2012). COCHLODINIUM PIRUM (SCHÜTT) LEMMERMANN (FIG. 3F) Basionym: Gymnodinium pirum Schütt References: Schütt 1895 p. 166, pl. 23, figs. 76: 1-4; Kofoid & Swezy 1921, p. 374, pl. 9, fig. 101; text figure GG, 3. Dimensions: cells are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: recorded once for the Pacific coast of Mexico (Caballasi-Flores 1985). This is the first report in the Bahía de La Paz. GYMNODINIUM CATENATUM H.W. GRAHAM (FIG. 3G) References: Graham 1943, p. 259, figs. 1-2; Cortés- Altamirano et al. 1999, p. 52, figs. 2a-c; Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2004b, p. 298, figs. 2A-D. Dimensions: cells are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: broadly distributed along the Mexican Pacific (Okolodkov & Gárate-Lizárraga 2006, Band-Schmidt et al. 2010). It is the main species responsible for red tides along the Pacific coast of Mexico (Graham 1943, Mee et al. 1986, Cortés-Altamirano et al. 1999, Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2004b, 2009, Díaz-Ortíz et al. 2010, Quijano-Scheggia et al. 2012). GYMNODINIUM GELBUM KOFOID (FIG. 3H) References: Kofoid 1931, p. 13, pl 1. fig. 1; Wood 1968, p. 65, fig 163; Elbrächter 1979, p. 7, figs , Dimensions: cells are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: first record for the Pacific coast of Mexico. Few records of G. gelbum have been reported worldwide (Kofoid 1931, Wood 1963, 1968, Elbrächter 1979). In the past, it is possible that specimens fixed in Lugol s solution could be confused with single cells of Gymnodinium catenatum because they are very similar. GYMNODINIUM GRACILE BERGH (FIG. 3I) References: Elbrächter 1979, p. 7, figs , Hoppenrath et al. 2009, p. 124, figs. 53a-f; Gárate-Lizárraga 2012, p. 46, fig Gárate-Lizárraga Unarmored dinoflagellates in a Ceratoperidinium falcatum bloom Dimensions: cells are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: broadly distributed along the Pacific coast of Mexico (Okolodkov & Gárate-Lizárraga 2006, Gárate-Lizárraga 2012). GYRODINIUM ACUTUM (SCHÜTT) KOFOID & SWEZY (FIG. 3J) Basionym: Gyrodinium spirale var. acuta Schütt References: Schütt 1895, p. 164, pl. 21, fig. 66 Kofoid & Swezy 1921, p. 274, fig. CC, 7. Dimensions: cells are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: previously reported in the Bahía de Acapulco, Guerrero (Meave del Castillo et al. 2012). This is the first report in the Gulf of California. GYRODINIUM LACHRYMA (MEUNIER) KOFOID & SWEZY (FIG. 3K) Basionym: Spirodinium lachryma Meunier References: Kofoid & Swezy 1921, p. 314, fig. EE, 6; Lebour 1925, p. 43, fig. 14c; Dodge 1982, p. 98, fig. 12C; Hallegraeff et al. 2010, p. 155, fig. 4.6A Dimensions: cells are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: new record for the Pacific coast of Mexico. GYRODINIUM RUBRUM (KOFOID & SWEZY) TAKANO & T.HORIGUICHI (FIG. 3L) Basionym: Gymnodinium rubrum Koifoid & Swezy References: Kofoid & Swezy 1921, p. 253, fig. A, Y4, pl. 8, fig. 86. Dimensions: cells are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: this species have been previously reported twice; Meave del Castillo & Hernández-Becerril (1998) in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca and in Bahía de La Paz (Okolodkov & Gárate-Lizárraga 2006). This is the second report for Bahía de La Paz. GYRODINIUM SPIRALE (BERGH) KOFOID & SWEZY (FIG. 3M) Basionym: Gymnodinium spirale Bergh References: Kofoid & Swezy 1921, p. 332, pl. 4, fig. 43, fig. DD, 14; Hulburt 1957, p. 202, pl. 3, fig. 4, Hallegraeff et al. 2010, p. 155, fig. 4.6B. Dimensions: cells are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: broadly distributed along the Pacific coast of Mexico (Okolodkov & Gárate-Lizárraga 2006). Densities of 30,000 cells L 1 were reported in Bahía de La Paz (Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2009). Blooms of this species have occurred in shrimp farms with densities ranging from 424 to 1200 x 10 3 cells L 1. KARENIA BICUNEIFORMIS BOTES, SYM & PITCHER (FIG. 3N) References: Botes et al. 2003, p , figs ; Hallegraeff et al. 2010, p. 149, fig. 4.4A-D; Maciel-Baltazar & Hernández-Becerril 2013, p. 248, fig. 2O. Dimensions: cells are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: Meave del Castillo & Zamudio- Reséndiz (2012) report that K. bicuneiformis is restricted to Bahía de Acapulco and the Gulf of Tehuantepec; also reported by Maciel-Baltazar & Hernández-Becerril (2013). This is the first record for the Gulf of California. LEPIDODINIUM CHLOROPHORUM (M. ELBRÄCHTER & E. SCHNEPF) GERT HANSEN, L. BOTES & M. DE SALAS (FIG. 3O) Basionym: Gymnodinium chlorophorum M. Elbrächter & E. Schnepf References: Elbrächter & Schnepf 1996, p. 382, gs. 1-3; Hoppenrath et al. 2009, p. 124, fig. 53g; Hallegraeff et al. 2010, p. 147, fig. 4.2G, Omura et al. 2012, p. 76, Lepidodinium chlorophorum (a-h). Dimensions: cells are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: This species was previously recorded by Gárate-Lizárraga et al. (2014) in Bahía de La Paz. This is the second record for the Pacific coast of Mexico. Two-celled specimens of L. chlorophorum were observed. The formation of chains is not known in this species. Therefore they could be fusing or dividing cells. NOCTILUCA SCINTILLANS (MACARTNEY) KOFOID & SWEZY (FIG. 3P) Basionym: Medusa scintillans Macartney Referencias: Steidinger & Tangen 1997, p. 466, pl. 23; Avancini et al. 2006, p. 361, figs. A-C; Esqueda-Lara & Hernández-Becerril 2010, p. 179, figs. 172a-b. Dimensions: cells are m in diameter. 583 Regional distribution: Broadly distributed along the Pacific coast of Mexico (Okolodkov & Gárate-Lizárraga 2006). One of the most common species that form red tides in the Gulf of California (Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2001, 2006). POLYKRIKOS HARTMANNII ZIMMERMANN (FIG. 3Q) Taxonomic synonym: Pheopolykrikos hartmannii (Zimmerman) Matsuoka & Fukuyo References: Hulburt 1957, p. 204, pl. 4, fig. 7, Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2009, p. 21, figs. 30, 31; Hoppenrath et al. 2009, p. 31, figs. 2A-C. Dimensions: cells are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: Scarcely reported in the Pacific coast of Mexico (Okolodkov & Gárate-Lizárraga 2006, Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2009). It was recently recorded in the Gulf of Tehuantepec (Maciel-Baltazar & Hernández- Becerril 2013). PRONOCTILUCA SPINIFERA (LOHMANN) SCHILLER (FIG. 3R) References: Taylor 1976, p. 188, pl. 37, fig. 429; Dodge 1982, p. 112, fig. 13G; Omura et al. 2012, p. 133, Pronoctiluca spinifera (a-d), Maciel-Baltazar & Hernández-Becerril 2013, p. 188, fig. 3G. Dimensions: cells are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: scarcely reported along the west coast of Baja California Sur (Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2007); recently in the Gulf of Tehuantepec (Maciel-Baltazar & Hernández-Becerril 2013). This is the first report for the Gulf of California. SPATULODINIUM PSEUDONOCTILUCA (POUCHET) CACHON & CACHON EX LOEBLICH & LOEBLICH (FIG. 3S) Basionym: Gymnodinium pseudonoctiluca Pouchet References: Dodge 1982, p. 136, fig. 16D; Avancini et al. 2006, p. 413, figs. A-C; Hoppenrath et al. 2009, p. 132, figs. 55g-h; Gárate-Lizárraga 2011, p. 35, figs Dimensions: young cells are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: from Bahía Magdalena to the Gulf of Tehuantepec (Okolodkov & Gárate-Lizárraga 2006, Gárate-Lizárraga 2011). TAKAYAMA TASMANICA DE SALAS, BOLCH & HALLEGRAEFF (FIG. 3T) References: de Salas et al. 2003, p. 1235, fig. 2-12; Hallegraeff et al. 2010, 149, figs. 4.4E G.; Gu et al. 2013, 260, figs Dimensions: cells are m long and m wide. Regional distribution: this is the first record for the Pacific coast of Mexico. In Bahía de La Paz, monitoring of live microalgae that form red tides started in 2000 during a bloom of C. polykrikoides (Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2004a). Since then, many microalgae bearing a soft cell membrane (dinoflagellates and raphidophytes) have been identified (Gárate-Lizárraga et al. 2004a; 2009). Correct identification of naked dinoflagellates in Bahía de La Paz is a good example of the importance of working with fresh samples. The morphology of naked dinoflagellates changes during observation under a light microscope. Likewise, cells tend to form an outer hyaline membrane or a temporary hyaline cyst (Figs. 2A-E and Fig. 3F); otherwise, they would explode. Specimens fixed with Lugol s solution could not always be correctly identified. Live samples are important when studying unarmored species and other naked dinoflagellates. Nevertheless, molecular analyses could be performed to combine the morphological and molecular information. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The projects were funded by grants from the Instituto Politécnico Nacional (SIP , SIP and SIP ). I.G.L is a COFAA and EDI fellow. Thanks to María Clara Ramírez-Jáuregui (ICMyL-UNAM, Mazatlán) for the literature search. I also thank the anonymous reviewers who provided useful comments and suggestions which help to improve the manuscript. LITERATURE CITED Alonso-Rodríguez R, ED Frausto-Sotelo & SA Barón- Campis Registro de Gyrodinium falcatum (Kofoid and Swezy, 1921) en dos regiones del Pacífico Mexicano. En: Vargas-Amado G, O Vargas-Ponce, A Rodríguez- Contreras, M Harker & AS Monroy-Sais. XVIII Congreso Mexicano de Botánica, pp. Guadala
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