Trusted Digital Archives. Experiences from the Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg, nestor and DIN. Dr. Christian Keitel Johannesburg, 27/2/ PDF

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Trusted Digital Archives. Experiences from the Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg, nestor and DIN Dr. Christian Keitel Johannesburg, 27/2/2013 Table of Contents Some fundamental concepts Solutions of the Landesarchiv

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Trusted Digital Archives. Experiences from the Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg, nestor and DIN Dr. Christian Keitel Johannesburg, 27/2/2013 Table of Contents Some fundamental concepts Solutions of the Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg DIN-Standard and nestor-certification 2 Trusted Traditional Archives Archives were old and hence trustworthy. Can I trust the archive? Ius archivi/concept of unbroken custody (jurisprudence) Archival objects were regarded as authentic. Are the objects what they purport to be? Examination of data carrier and information (diplomatics) 3 Trusted Digital Archives? Archives are young were old and hence trustworthy. Can I trust the archive? Ius archivi/concept of unbroken custody (jurisprudence) Archival objects were regarded as authentic. Are the objects what they purport to be? Examination of data carrier and information (diplomatics) 4 Report of the Task Force on Archiving of Digital Information (1995) Repositories claiming to serve an archival function must be able to prove that they are who they say they are by meeting or exceeding the standards and criteria of an independently-administered program for archival certification. Claiming trustworthiness by means of diplomatics. Any more questions about the authenticity of digital objects? 5 The New Landscape All users should get the opportunity to check the authenticity of archival objects (digital diplomatics) Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg All users should get information about the trustworthiness of the archive (criteria catalogues) Nestor and DIN 6 7 Baden-Württemberg and Germany Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg Staatsarchiv Wertheim Generallandesarchiv Karlsruhe Staatsarchiv Ludwigsburg inkl. Hohenlohezentralarchiv Neuenstein Hauptstaatsarchiv Stuttgart Staatsarchiv Freiburg Staatsarchiv Sigmaringen 8 50 km Digital Preservation in Baden- Württemberg 1974 First 2-day workshop 1987 Archive law: Machine-readable information is equal to paper documents 2002 First digital object archived 2006 Programming of DIMAG 9 The Problem Digital preservation needs to store digital objects in a concrete physical way Specific carrier Specific file Specific file format The physical manifestations have a short lifetime Transfers to other manifestations are unavoidable How to maintain authenticity? 10 Enabling the User to Get His Questions Answered Task can t be postponed Digital preservation knows two states and four means to maintain authenticity (1) Maintain integrity via hash values (frozen state) (2) Maintain authenticity via metadata (transition state) (3) Maintain a net of references (4) Document what you do 11 (1) Hash Values (Frozen State) Each DIMAG file has its own hash-value-file DIMAG recalculates the hash values and compares them with the value in the hash-value-file New files: every day All files: every week 12 How We Obtain Historical Information Author Reality User Original text Archival object Creation date Date of use t 13 How We Trace Back Our Digital History Author Reality User Original digital text The fifth copy Creation date Date of use t 14 Task Author Reality User Compare each copy with its predecessor Original Copy1 Copy2 Copy3 Copy4 Copy5 Creation date Date of use t 15 Problem Author Reality User Originaltext Copy1 Copy2 Copy3 Copy4 Copy5 Creation date Date of use t 16 and Solution Author Reality User Original Copy1 Copy2 Copy3 Copy4 Copy5 MD Original MD Copy 1 MD Copy 2 MD Copy 3 MD Copy 4 t Creation date Date of use MD = Metadata 17 (2) Metadata (Transition State) - IngestList Catch central metadata of the objects to be archived (significant properties) as early as possible Count fields and rows of the original data base table Export tables as csv Count rows and field delimiters of the csv Compare metadata (number of rows and fields/field delimiters) 18 (3) Maintain a Net of References Metadata Metadata Document 1 Metadata Metadata Document 2 Metadata 19 20 (4) Document What You Do - DIMAG (4) Document What You Do- DIMAG Internal procedures XML-schemes File format descriptions DIMAG handles these documents as if they were genuine archival objects 21 The International Landscape ISO 16363: criteria Certification process by external experts (ISO 16919) DIN 31644: criteria Extended peer-reviewed self-assessment or certification by external experts Data seal of approval 16 criteria Peer-reviewed self-assessment European Framework for Audit and Certification of Digitial Repositories 22 The National Landscape Working groups at nestor, the German competence network for digital preservation (founded in 2002) DIN, the German Institute for Standardization Main developments Criteria catalogue (DIN 31644, predecessor at nestor) Certification versus DIN (nestor) 23 DIN Purpose: Trustworthiness of the archive No compulsory technical implementation 4 principles: Documentation, transparency, adequateness, measurablity 34 criteria C 1 Selection of information objects and representations The digital archive has defined criteria for the selection of information objects and representations. The scope is limited by legal regulations, by the institution s mission, and by further objectives. Published criteria for the selection 24 C1 Selection of information objects and their representations C2 Responsibility for preservation C3 Designated communities C4 Access C5 Interpretability C6 Legal and contractual basis C7 Legal conformity C8 Funding C9 Personnel C10 Organisation and processes C11 Preservation measures C12 Crisis / successorship management C13 Significant properties C14 Integrity: Ingest interface C15 Integrity: Functions of the archival storage C16 Integrity: user interface C17 Authenticity: Ingest C18 Authenticity: Preservation measures C 19 Authenticity: Use C20 Technical authority C21 Transfer packages C 22 Transformation of the transfer packages into archival packages C 23 Archival packages C 24 Interpretability of the archival packages C 25 Transformation of archival packages into access packages C26 Access packages C27 Identification C28 Descriptive metadata C29 Structural metadata C30 Technical metadata C31 Logging the preservation measures C32 Administrative metadata C33 IT infrastructure C34 Security 25 C1 Selection of information objects and their representations C2 Responsibility for preservation C3 Designated communities C4 Access C5 Interpretability C6 Legal and contractual basis C7 Legal conformity C8 Funding C9 Personnel C10 Organisation and processes C11 Preservation measures C12 Crisis / successorship management C13 Significant properties C14 Integrity: Ingest interface C15 Integrity: Functions of the archival storage C16 Integrity: user interface C17 Authenticity: Ingest C18 Authenticity: Preservation measures C 19 Authenticity: Use C20 Technical authority C21 Transfer packages C 22 Transformation of the transfer packages into archival packages C 23 Archival packages C 24 Interpretability of the archival packages C 25 Transformation of archival packages into access packages C26 Access packages C27 Identification C28 Descriptive metadata C29 Structural metadata C30 Technical metadata C31 Logging the preservation measures C32 Administrative metadata C33 IT infrastructure C34 Security 26 C1 Selection of information objects and their representations C2 Responsibility for preservation C3 Designated communities C4 Access C5 Interpretability C6 Legal and contractual basis C7 Legal conformity C8 Funding C9 Personnel C10 Organisation and processes C11 Preservation measures C12 Crisis / successorship management C13 Significant properties C14 Integrity: Ingest interface C15 Integrity: Functions of the archival storage C16 Integrity: user interface C17 Authenticity: Ingest C18 Authenticity: Preservation measures C 19 Authenticity: Use C20 Technical authority C21 Transfer packages C 22 Transformation of the transfer packages into archival packages C 23 Archival packages C 24 Interpretability of the archival packages C 25 Transformation of archival packages into access packages C26 Access packages C27 Identification C28 Descriptive metadata C29 Structural metadata C30 Technical metadata C31 Logging the preservation measures C32 Administrative metadata C33 IT infrastructure C34 Security 27 The User s Questions C 19 Authenticity: Use The digital archive allows the user to evaluate the object s authenticity and enables the administration of the archive to preserve it. Documentation C 31 of the Logging processes the preservation measures The digital repository logs the preservation measures and any changes to the representations. Logs 28 Adequateness Implementations must be consistent with the archive s objective. An example: An archive wants to preserve just the text of web sites (no pictures, no sounds ) For a political archive of East Asia studies, it might be sufficient. For the archive of an academy of arts, it s not enough. 29 Nestor Certification - Overview Discussed since 2004 Nestor working group on certification started in 2010 Part of the European framework for certification of digital repositories Pilot certification of the German National Library Extended certification starts in Extended Certification -Process Defining the scope All criteria applicable? Questions for each criterion Current conditions? Rating? Documentation? Evaluation by 1 st reviewer Fixing by 2 nd reviewer 31 C 21 Transfer packages The digital repository has issued specifications regarding its transfer packages. The digital repository agrees with the producers on the transfer packages to be ingested (content data and metadata). The transfer packages are checked on the basis of the specifications. Which specifications does the digital repository have regarding transfer packages? Which content data are acceptable? Which metadata are required? Are there special requirements and processes for the creation of transfer packages? Which measures exist for validating the conformity of transfer packages? Will the repository reject defective transfer packages before ingesting, or will it take corrective measures within a defined work area? 32 Prospects Extended certification rollout in 2013 The nestor working group on certification will address formal certification in 2013 English translation of DIN standard and/or guidance document in Questions?
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