Traditional Meat Products. Asist. Prof. Ümran ENSOY - PDF

Traditional Meat Products Asist. Prof. Ümran ENSOY 1 Traditional Food: You may hear the term traditional foods and wonder, what exactly does that mean? Traditional foods are those eaten by people over

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Traditional Meat Products Asist. Prof. Ümran ENSOY 1 Traditional Food: You may hear the term traditional foods and wonder, what exactly does that mean? Traditional foods are those eaten by people over the longer course of civilization and which have supported health cultivated, produced, and harvested from the earth and out of nature foods which are wholly unaltered and organic, and contain the highest levels of nutrition. These foods have been eaten for millennia by people around the world. They are not processed or packaged and sent all over the planet, so in many cases traditional foods are also those found in your local community. 2 Traditional Meat Products 3 Meat? meat as a substrate is optimal for the growth of bacteria, water activity 0.96 to 0.97, ph 5.6 to 5.8, nutrients and growth factors are abundantly available, storage and preservation of meat is necessary for the suppression of microbial growth or the elimination of microorganisms and prevention of recontamination, therefore, meat is extremely susceptible to foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria, 4 Traditional methods? the traditional methods which comprise microbial reduction: 1) water activity ( drying, salting) and/ or ph (fermentation, acidification), 2) smoking, storage at refrigeration or freezing temperatures, 3) use of curing aids (nitrite and nitrate), meat has to be high quality with regard to safety and quality. 5 TMP Turkey has variety of traditional meat products; Sucuk Pastırma Döner kebap Kavurma Çiğ köfte 6 Sucuk One of the most important and widely consumed traditional Turkish meat product, Dried, uncooked, cured and fermented sausage, Produced from beef or buffalo meat Consist of ground meat and sheep tail fat and curing agents (nitrite and nitrate), with various spices including cumin, garlic, salt, and black and red pepper 7 Sucuk Sucuk processing stages are; Stuffing sausage mixture into natural sausage casings Fermentation at 22-23ºC by either microorganisms naturally present or added starter cultures Drying for several weeks at ambient temperature and humidity due to fermentation, the final product has an increased shelflife as a consequence of the inhibition of the pathogenic and spoliage bacteria, 8 Starter Cultures Used in Fermented Meat Products Bacteria Lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lb. alimentarius, Lb. casei, Lb. curvatus, Lb. plantarum, Lb. pentosus, Lb. sake, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, P. pentosaceus Bacteria Actinobacteria Kocuria varians Streptomyces griseus Bifidobacterium spp. Staphylococci Staphylococcus xylosus, Staph. carnosus subsp. carnosus, Staph. carnosus subsp. utilis, Staph. equorum 9 Composition and Changes During Fermentation growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and concomitant acidification of the product, reduction of nitrates to nitrites and formation of nitrosomyoglobin solubilization and gelification of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins, degradation of proteins and lipids, dehydration. 10 Acidification, Dehydration and Microbial Antagonism low ph and water activity exert an inhibitory effect towards pathogens, lactic and acetic acids are the major fermentation products, the dry matter content ranges between 50-75%, the water activity value ranges between and depends on ripening. 11 Generation of Flavor Volatiles Routes: by hydrolysis of phospholipids, followed by oxidation of free fatty acids, microorganisms produce organic acids: convert amino acids and peptides to flavor-active alcohols, aldehydes, and acids, modify products of lipid oxidation, aroma is also determined by the addition of spices. 12 Turkish standards for sucuk are; Maximum fat and moisture content 40% Salt content 5% ph Minimum protein level 20% Zero tolerance to pathogens 13 PASTIRMA: Derived from the Turkish verb bastırma which means pressing. Traditional Turkish meat product is the most popular dry-cured but non fermented meat product. Pastırma is produced from whole muscle obtained from certain parts of beef and water buffalo carcasses. 14 Pastırma Proceesing stages consist of Cutting off tendon and fat, Curing Drying and Pressing Coating with çemen and Drying The production of pastırma takes about 1 month according to the size of muscle used. 26 different types of pastırma may be produced from a mature cattle carcass. 15 Pastırma Turkish standards for pastırma are maximum fat (intramuscular fat) of 40% 8.5% salt ph maximum moisture content of 40% maximum çemen level of 10% zero tolerance to pathogens 16 Pastırma Çemen, the external coating, is very important for pastırma manufacture. Çemen is prepared from fenugreek flour, mashed fresh garlic and red pepper a slurry like paste prepared by mixing these ingredients with water Coating with çemen results in a special taste, aroma and colour. Çemen paste including 50% water, 10-15% çemen flour, 15-20% red pepper and 15-20% garlic gives good microbiological stability and sensory properties. 17 Kavurma In the past, kavurma was utilized only to conserve meat, but currently is preferred as a processed meat. In traditional processing, beef or mutton meat is diced and mixed with 2-5% salt, and then fried in animal fat using a double sided steam cauldron. After cooking, it is kept in almost anaerobic conditions by submerging in the solidified animal fat in the container. Recently, it has also become commercially available in vacuumpackaged forms. 18 Kavurma Kavurma is considered as a ready-to-eat meat product since it is generally consumed without further processing or cooking. Turkish standards for kavurma are; 35% maximum fat 40% maximum moisture 7% maximum salt ph Zero tolerance to pathogens 19 Çiğ Köfte (Raw meat balls) Turkish raw meat balls are prepared by kneading ground meat with thin bulgur, hot red pepper, black pepper, onions, garlic and variety of spices for a couple of hours. generally consumed within a few hours without any cooking process. Çiğ köfte can be kept in refrigerator up to 24 hours until they are consumed. 20 Thank you for your attention. 21
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