Tātaiako - Cultural Competencies for Teachers of Māori Learners: - PDF

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Tātaiako - Cultural Competencies for Teachers of Māori Learners: A resource for use with the Graduating Teacher Standards and Registered Teacher Contents Introduction... 1 Purpose of this material... 1

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Tātaiako - Cultural Competencies for Teachers of Māori Learners: A resource for use with the Graduating Teacher Standards and Registered Teacher Contents Introduction... 1 Purpose of this material... 1 Background information... 2 What is culture?... 2 Cultural competence... 2 Cultural responsiveness... 3 Effective Teaching Profile... 3 Using this material... 5 For the team leader or school or setting leader... 5 For the classroom teacher... 6 Gathering evidence... 7 Registered Teacher... 8 Aligning the Registered Teacher to the Cultural Competencies Framework for Teachers of Māori Learners... 8 Registered Teacher Cultural Competence Tool Graduating Teacher Standards: Aotearoa New Zealand Aligning the Graduating Teacher Standards to the Cultural Competencies for Teachers of Māori Learners... 33 Introduction This material has been developed by Haemata Limited as part of a wider project sponsored by the Ministry of Education in association with the New Zealand Teachers Council to: investigate the notion of cultural competence as it may apply to the teaching sector and develop a set of statements of cultural competence for teachers of Māori learners in the New Zealand education setting (schools and early education centres). The project Cultural Competence in the New Zealand Teaching Workforce was established as a joint venture between the Ministry and the New Zealand Teachers Council (the Teachers Council), recognising the key role and vested interest both organisations have in developing quality teachers for the New Zealand teaching workforce and in raising Māori learner achievement. Haemata Limited was engaged in October 2010 to deliver five outputs, one of which was to draft material which could be used by the Teachers Council to strengthen the focus on cultural competence that already exists in their standards. Purpose of this material The purpose of this resource is to provide teachers with information, prompts and questions to stimulate thinking and discussion about their current practice and how responsive that practice is to the specific learning and cultural needs of Māori learners. It is designed to assist teachers to focus on what they are doing to support Māori learners in achieving their educational potential and to enjoy education achievement as Māori. The material is linked to the Cultural Competencies for Teachers of Māori Learners developed as part of the wider project and may be useful to professional development providers wishing to explore the notion of cultural competence in relation to the Graduating Teacher Standards and Registered Teacher. It is hoped that the information and questions will help assist teachers in developing more culturally responsive: relationships with Māori learners, whānau, hapū and Māori communities learning environments, and teaching approaches and practices. It should be noted that this material is NOT intended as: a checklist for assessment of culturally responsive teachers exemplars or benchmarks for assessment of culturally responsive teachers a one size fits all model of an exemplary culturally responsive teacher. 1 Background information What is culture? Culture can be described in terms of both its visible and invisible elements: The visible are the signs, images and iconography that are immediately recognizable as representing that culture and that theoretically create an appropriate context for learning. The invisible are the values, morals, modes of communication and decision making and problem-solving processes along with the world views and knowledge - producing processes that assists individuals and groups with meaning and sense-making. Hence the notion that the creation of learning contexts needs to allow for the existence of both visible and invisible elements. 1 Cultural competence Cultural competence, in terms of teaching, is to affirm and validate the culture/s of each learner. It acknowledges that all learners and teachers come to the classroom as culturally located individuals and that all interactions and learning are culturally defined. Culturally competent teachers are able to use the learner s culture/s as a building block to learn and teach. They understand how to utilise the learner s culture/s to aid the teaching and learning process, as well as to facilitate relationships and professional growth. Culturally competent teachers get to know the learner and work to ensure that the learning environment, learning partnerships and learning discussions acknowledge and respect the learner s culture/s. For Māori learners this includes collaborating and consulting with parents, whānau and iwi to learn and better understand what the Māori community values and wants for their children, and what Māori learners need in order to enjoy education success as Māori. Teacher cultural competence involves understanding, respecting and valuing culture, and knowing how to use culture as an asset in the teaching and learning process, both inside and beyond the classroom. 1 R.Bishop, M.Berryman, T.Cavanagh and L.Teddy, (March 2007) Te Kotahitanga Phase 3: Establishing a Culturally Responsive Pedagogy of Relations in Mainstream Secondary School Classrooms, pp Cultural responsiveness Earl et al (2008) 2 in their exploratory project to understand more about quality teaching for Māori and Pasifika students state that cultural responsiveness is much more than introducing myths or metaphors into class. It means interacting with their families to truly understand their reality; it means understanding the socio-political history and how it impacts on classroom life; it means challenging personal beliefs and actions; and, it means changing practices to engage all students in their learning and make the classroom a positive learning place for all students. 3 They also state that cultural responsiveness is a way of being and of thinking that requires teachers to confront their own personal beliefs and their relationships with students and with communities, as well as to learn new customs and new languages 4. Effective Teaching Profile The Effective Teaching Profile (ETP) underpins the professional learning support offered through Te Kotahitanga 5 and represents an operationalisation of Māori aspirations for education. It attempts to illustrate what a culturally responsive pedagogy of relations might look like in practice and has been included here in order to provide the teacher and school/kura with principled knowledge and information about what an effective teacher understands and is able to demonstrate. 2 Earl, L. M. with Timperley, H., and Stewart, G. (2008). Learning from QTR&D Programme: Findings of the External Evaluation 3 Ibid, page 12 4 Ibid, page 13 5 Te Kotahitanga is a Ministry of Education sponsored research and professional development programme offered by Waikato University. The ETP forms the basis of the professional development initiative. 3 Te Kotahitanga Effective Teaching Profile (Bishop, et al. 2003) Effective teachers of Māori students create a culturally appropriate and responsive context for learning in their classroom. In doing so they demonstrate: they positively and vehemently reject deficit theorising as a means of explaining Māori students educational achievement levels (and professional development projects need to ensure that this happens); and teachers know and understand how to bring about change in Māori students educational achievement and are professionally committed to doing so (and professional development projects need to ensure that this happens); in the following observable ways: Manaakitanga: They care for the students as culturally located human beings above all else. (Mana refers to authority and āki is the task of urging someone to act. It refers to the task of building and nurturing a supportive and loving environment.) Mana motuhake: They care for the performance of their students. (In modern times mana has taken on various meanings such as legitimation and authority and can also relate to an individual s or a group s ability to participate at the local and global level. Mana motuhake involves the development of personal or group identity and independence.) Whakapiringatanga: They are able to create a secure, well-managed learning environment by incorporating routine pedagogical knowledge with pedagogical imagination. (Whakapiringatanga is a process wherein specific individual roles and responsibilities are required to achieve individual and group outcomes.) Wānanga: They are able to engage in effective teaching interactions with Māori students as Māori. (As well as being known as Māori centres of learning, wānanga as a learning forum involves a rich and dynamic sharing of knowledge. With this exchange of views, ideas are given life and spirit through dialogue, debate and careful consideration in order to reshape and accommodate new knowledge.) Ako: They can use a range of strategies that promote effective teaching interactions and relationships with their learners. (Ako means to learn as well as to teach. It refers both to the acquisition of knowledge and to the processing and imparting of knowledge. More importantly ako is a teaching-learning practice that involves teachers and students learning in an interactive dialogic relationship.) Kotahitanga: They promote, monitor and reflect on outcomes that in turn lead to improvements in educational achievement for Māori students. (Kotahitanga is a collaborative response towards a commonly held vision, goal or other such purpose or outcome.) 4 Using this material These suggestions are intended as strategies to generate discussion and thinking about what it means to be a culturally competent teacher and, in a wider context, what it means to be a culturally responsive school, educational setting and community. They could be implemented alongside the reflective questions in the Culturally Responsive Registered Teacher tool. For the team t leader or school or setting leader These suggestions below could be carried out at a school-wide or team meeting or professional learning opportunity. Use the round robin strategy to determine what teachers understand about cultural competence and cultural responsiveness in their teaching practices/classroom/school or setting. Use the Y-chart strategy to discuss what a culturally competent and/or responsive teacher/classroom/school or setting looks like, feels like, sounds like. Use the Y-chart to explore what the culturally competent and/or responsive teacher looks like, feels like, sounds like in that culturally competent and/or responsive classroom/school or setting. Introduce and discuss as a team the Graduating Teacher Standards (GTS) or Registered Teacher (RTC) as appropriate, and cultural competence self-reflection table. Based on the discussions and learning that comes out of the professional learning activity suggestions above, ask teachers how they could include this in their appraisal and professional learning and development plan. As a school/team discuss how the discussion and learning could feed into the school goals and targets for Māori learners; the goals, targets and actions of Ka Hikitia; and the overarching outcomes of Māori enjoying education success as Māori. As a school/team take one of the overarching statements from the GTS/RTC and discuss how this applies to the teachers and school/centre. Questions you might ask are: What is the teachers, leaders, school/centre s role in enabling the achievement of ākonga Māori? Under the Treaty of Waitangi, what does equitable outcomes mean for us as a staff, and as a community? How do we promote and ensure equitable outcomes for ākonga Māori? How do teachers and the school show awareness of, and respect for, te reo Māori and tikanga Māori, and Māori culture and heritage? 5 Think about and respond to the Cultural Competencies for Teachers of Māori Learners that have been developed around five dimensions: Ako Manaakitanga Whanaungatanga Wānanga Tangata Whenuatanga Questions might include: How is the teaching in my class/our kura/school effective for Māori learners? How are the language and cultural practices in my class/our kura/school respectful of Māori culture, language and values? How are the relationships in my class/our kura/school effective with Māori learners? Are the engagement practices in my class/our kura/school effective for Māori parents, whānau and iwi? How do the learning contexts and systems in my class/in our kura/school acknowledge local environment, culture, tikanga and reo? For the classroom c teacher These suggestions below could be carried out individually, with a colleague, or with your teaching or syndicate team at a professional learning and development meeting where the focus is on how to be a more culturally competent teacher. Carry out a SWOT analysis to identify your strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in regard to becoming a culturally competent teacher. The key is to be honest. This is a good starting point in thinking about what you might need to be doing to become more culturally responsive to ākonga Māori in your school or setting. Refer to the Teacher Competencies for Māori Learners to identify your strengths, potential/opportunities, and next steps in becoming a culturally competent teacher/leader. Ask a colleague for their perspective about what you do well as a culturally responsive teacher. Ako describes a teaching and learning relationship where the educator is also learning from the student (2008, p. 20) 6. Collect student voice about how well you are developing as a culturally responsive teacher, and ask them how they think the classroom environment (content, activities, way they are taught) could be improved to help them become more comfortable, and help them learn. Then, reflect on what that means for you as a teacher. 6 Ministry of Education (2008). Ka Hikitia Managing for Success: The Māori Education Strategy Gathering evidence Possible sources of evidence include the sources provided in the Registered Teacher (see page 5 of Registered Teacher ), that is, observations, discussions and documentation. Also collect student, parent, and whānau voice as sources of evidence. In addition to these sources of evidence, see suggestions identified in the Registered Teacher Cultural Competence Tool. 7 Registered Teacher Aligning the Registered Teacher to the Cultural Competencies Framewor ramework for Teachers of Māori Learners Each criterion in the RTC has a link to the Cultural Competencies Framework for Teachers of Māori Learners. The following table identifies the most obvious of those links. However, each criterion and its key indicators may link to multiple competencies. 8 REGISTERED TEACHER CRITERIA Professional relationships and professional values CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF MĀORI LEARNERS i Competency Behavioural indicators Fully registered teachers: Registered teache t eachers Leaders 1. Establish and maintain i. Engage in ethical, respectful, WHANAUNGATANGA: Has respectful working relationships Is visible, welcoming and accessible to effective professional positive and collaborative Actively engages in with Māori learners and their whānau Māori parents, whānau, hapū, iwi and the relationships focused on professional relationships respectful working which enhance Māori learner Māori community. the learning and well- with: relationships with Māori achievement. Actively builds and maintains respectful being of ākonga ākonga learners, parents and Actively seeks ways to work with working relationships with Māori learners, teaching colleagues, support whānau, hapū, iwi, and whānau to maximise Māori learner their parents, whānau, hapū, iwi and staff and other professionals the Māori community success. communities which enable Māori to whānau and other carers of participate in important decisions about ākonga their children s learning. agencies, groups and Demonstrates an appreciation of how individuals in the community whānau and iwi operate. Ensures that the school/centre, teachers and whānau work together to maximise Māori learner success. 9 REGISTERED TEACHER CRITERIA Professional relationships and professional values CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF MĀORI LEARNERS i Competency Behavioural indicators Fully registered teachers: Registered teache t eachers Leaders 2. Demonstrate commitment i. Take all reasonable steps to MANAAKITANGA: Displays respect, integrity and sincerity Actively acknowledges and follows to promoting the well- provide and maintain a Demonstrates integrity, when engaging with Māori learners and appropriate protocols when engaging with being of all ākonga teaching and learning sincerity and respect their whānau, hapū, iwi and Māori parents, whānau, hapū, iwi and environment that is physically, towards Māori beliefs, communities. communities. socially, culturally and language and culture Demonstrably cares about Māori Communications with Māori learners are emotionally safe learners, what they think and why. demonstrably underpinned by cross- ii. Acknowledge and respect the Displays respect for the local Māori cultural values of integrity and sincerity. languages, heritages and culture (ngā tikanga ā-iwi) in engaging Understands local tikanga and Māori cultures of all ākonga with Māori learners, their parents, culture sufficiently to be able to respond whānau, hapū, iwi and communities. appropriately to Māori learners, their Incorporates Māori culture (including parents, whānau, hapū and Māori tikanga ā-iwi) in curriculum delivery community about what happens at the and design processes. school/centre. Can desribe how the Treaty of Waitangi Leads and supports staff to provide a influences their practice as a teacher in respectful and caring environment to the New Zealand educational setting. enable Māori achievement. Actively acknowledges and acts upon the implications of the Treaty of Waitangi for themeselves as a leader and their school/centre. 10 REGISTERED TEACHER CRITERIA Professional relationships and professional values CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF MĀORI LEARNERS i Competency Behavioural indicators Fully registered teachers: Registered teache t eachers Leaders 3. Demonstrate commitment i. Demonstrate respect for the TANGATA Harnesses the rich cultural capital which Consciously provides resources and sets to bicultural partnership heritages, languages and WHENUATANGA: Māori learners bring to the classroom expectations that staff will engage with and in Aotearoa New Zealand cultures of both partners to Affirms Māori learners by providing culturally responsive and learn about the local tikanga, environment, the Treaty of Waitangi as Māori provides engaging contexts for learning. and community, and their inter-related contexts for learning Actively facilitates the participation of history. where the identity, whānau and people with the knowledge Understands and can explain the effect of language and culture of local context, tikanga, history and the local history on local iwi, whānau, ( cultural locatedness ) language to support classroom teaching Māori community, Māori learners, the of Māori learners and and learning programmes. environment and the school/ centre. their whānau is Consciously uses and actively Actively acknowledges Māori parents, local affirmed encourages the use of local Māori hapū, iwi and the Māori community as key contexts (such as whakapapa, stakeholders in the school/centre. environment, tikanga, language, Ensures that teachers know how to history, place, economy, politics, local acknowledge and utilise the cultural capital icons, geography, etc) to support Māori which Māori learners bring to the learners learning. classroom in order to maximise learner success. 11 REGISTERED TEACHER CRITERIA Professional relationships and professional values CULTURAL COMPET
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