Structural transformation of the city of Istanbul, Türkiye - PDF

Structural transformation of the city of Istanbul, Türkiye Associate Prof. Dr. Meryem HAYIR Yildiz Technical University Istanbul as a Mega- City As an agglomeration or Mega-City or

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Structural transformation of the city of Istanbul, Türkiye Associate Prof. Dr. Meryem HAYIR Yildiz Technical University Istanbul as a Mega- City As an agglomeration or Mega-City or a big city, Istanbul, has expanded as it has never been in the last 60 years. The most important reason for this expansion is rapid population which grew in parallel with structural change after World War II. During this period, there has been a transition from statist economy to liberal economy in Turkey. Thanks to that, there have been opportunities for foreign capitals. Marmara region and especially the capital city of the Ottoman Empire have been preferred by foreign capitals for their trained staff, convenient climate and transportation facilities. That is to say, new opening establishments led to the need for cheap labor force. Also, during this period, the increase of population density in rural areas has led to a further reduction in job opportunities which has already been scarce because of mechanization. During this period, attractive and unattractive factors occurred simultaneously and it accelerated the migration from the less preferred rural areas to the more preferred cities. This unplanned migration has led to an increase in population density and to an expansion in settlement areas especially in Istanbul. In consequence of this expansion Istanbul has become a Mega-City in a short time. Istanbul in 1300,1950 and 2008 Çağlar, Esen, İstanbul Rantla mı büyümeli insan sermayesi ile mi?, Population growth is high in suburbs such as Beylikduzu, Çekmeköy, Esenyurt, Başakşehir, Pendik, Silivri, Tuzla. There are districts within these regions which have appealing functions as the centers. Centers in Istanbul Population movements from center to periphery in Istanbul have started to threaten water basins and forestry areas of the city. Recently, the highest population growth has been observed in the area located between Büyükçekmece Lake and Küçükçekmece Lake. Millions of people have started to reside in this region within a short time. Population growth, which is generally between the two highways, will shift to north more due to the third highway to surround the city from the north, which has started to be constructed. If forestry areas can be protected through measures to be taken, the city will rapidly extend towards agricultural areas of Çatalca. Thus, rural area in Istanbul will completely disappear. The extension in the Anatolian side that is in the direction of east due to Ömerli Dam Lake Basin in the north will go beyond the borders of Istanbul. In Istanbul (a mega-city), different settlement characteristics have begun to emerge over time. Onwards from 1950, in opposition to the areas that developed unplanned such as Ümraniye, Zeytinburnu, Alibeyköy Gecekondu District Planned residing areas 1950 s Levent, 1960 s Ataköy, today s Beylikdüzü, Acarkent, Ataşehir, Arıköy, Bahçeşehir and Başakşehir are some of the examples of İstanbul cities. Levent is the first Garden City in Turkey. Levent and the surrounding area has the new center business district of Istanbul in the last time. The first step in the structural change; housing renewal housing in Istanbul, thereof of them are planned to demolition. There are Two reasons for this; Firstly, level of earthquake risk the secondly, is the presence of an unplanned and illegal settlements Ayazma Ağaoğlu My World Europe The collapse of a gecekondu (slum) quarter and instead built new houses for the middle and upper income groups (2500 $/m² ) The second reason for structural change; Segregation of Urban Structure The separation of industrial, commercial and residential areas The separation and segregation in the residential areas (Economic and Social) Changes in urban life Shoping Centers Ataköy served as a dormitory in past, but in time in addition to the function of a dormitory it became an important cultural and commercial center. The first shopping center, Galeria was opened there in 1988 and then, were opened lot of new ones in there. This situation can be shown as an example of suburbanization. 63% shopping centers were opened after 20 years and the vast majority of them were located in suburban areas. The distribution of shopping centers around Ataköy in Istanbul Resource: Google Maps and personal references 75% of shopping centers don't have Turkish names. However, there are not many differences in terms of the products exported Ataköy Construction of sites was started by Türkiye Emlak Kredi Bank in st Part consisting of 55 apartment blocks was started. 3, 4, 5, 8 and 13 are constructed as a building floor, on behalf of the terrain scene placed in the highest level of use and started being constructed in. From this date due to the intense interest of the houses 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 Ataköy. As for parts, and finally the upper income level Ataköy mansions were built. Autopia is a center which has square meters area to be sold or hired. It is claimed that Autopia is the biggest auto mall in Europe with 490 stores. In Autopia built in Beylikdüzü, there are 79 one-hand stores, 209 second-hand stores, 84 services, 61 Café-Restaurants, 51 offices, 6 banks and a park area with the capacity of 2500 cars Kuyumcukent, is a gold and wedding shopping center. It has square meters area and has 2500 stores. MASKO, MODOKO, TEKSTİLKENT, KUYUMCUKENT, OTO CENTER, İSTOÇ are some of the another examples. A study about İSTOÇ shows that the main reasons for the businesses to displace their centers and come to İSTOÇ are the transportation, adjacency to link roads and parking Especially after 2000, there can be seen lots of similar examples in suburbs in Istanbul. 80% of today s Shopping Centers in İstanbul were constructed after 2000 and in peripheries (Total Shopping Center in Istanbul 135) and After 16% Before Unknown % 1% % % % % Figure 6:Periodic distribution of shopping centers in Istanbul Gentrification in the City Demirören Shopping Centre in İstiklal Street in the History settlement Beyoğlu from the autside 8-storey from the inside Gentrification in The Old City of History Peninsula The separation of commercial center Ayazağa. City view from the high buildings of the city, Sapphire 236 meters high in Levent Social segregation and social polarization There are some parts where social segregation and social polarization has emerged because of population growth in the last years in Büyükçekmece, Pendik, Beylikdüzü, Başakşehir, Ataşehir, Küçükçekmece, Silivri, Esenyurt, Maltepe, Sancaktepe, Çekmeköy, Kağıthane. These areas are very close to each other but separated in the way of life because there are areas on the one hand, where non-qualified workers settle (Altınşehir, Halkalı, İkitelli) and on the other hand, where qualified workers settle (Halkalı Toplu Konut, Başakşehir, Bahçeşehir, and so on). Within these districts, in contrast to the buildings in 1990 there have been constructed new buildings which consist of social facilities to meet the growing needs of people. Even if just 4,344,128 (24%) (TurkStat 2011) people are living in these districts 41% of shopping centers are in there. So as a natural city process İstanbul has begun to experience post-suburbanization. By shifting some of the services and trade centers to the suburban areas some of the suburbs such as Beylikdüzü, Pendik, Ataşehir, Maslak emerge as the secondorder centers centers (Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality). Istanbul spread outward from east to west line with the unplanned centers in addition to planned centers. Gatedcommunity entrance. This settlement structure has been increasing in Istanbul Schoping Center Car Park Restaurant und Café Kinderspielplatz Becken Changes in urban life Deindustrialization Percent Before 1950 Industry Employees Industry Organization Period Resource: Hayir, 2010 Dezentralisierung der Industrie von der Anzahl der Mitarbeiter in Istanbul Quelle: Hayir_2010 nach, DİE, 1927, s. 32 Quelle: Hayır, 2010 nach STANDL, 1994: und İSO, 2010 Arbeitersiedlung Sefaköy Jetzt Sefaköy Residenz jetzt Einkaufszentrum Arbeitersiedlung Sefaköy Inselchen der Polarisierung Arbeitersiedlung Sefaköy Industriestandort Sefaköy Quelle: ( ) GEPLATE INDUSTRIE STANDORT İKİTELLİ BEI BAŞAKŞEHIR Quelle: eigene Fotos, 2009 Quelle: eigene Fotos, 2009 Einiges Fotos von neue Wohnsiedlung Kayaşehir Bauboom in Istanbul Quelle: eigene Fotos, 2009 These structural changes is applied in the global and national policies in Istanbul. By this national and international policy through Istanbul as a important regional Mega-city in the Continent and in the World. Of course, the many similar problems experienced in the Mega- City Mega-city Istanbul has also in the process of globalization, rapid change. In this way the efforts of government, Istanbul has become a financial and commercial center raised. But first reason for this development is the location of the city. The location of the city brought to Istanbul from first as a regional center. The influence of the Turkish economy boom in the last 10 years in addition to location advantages are more important role was played as a global city. Istanbul stands as a global city 29th Place in the advanced producer service centers in the world economy (Taylor, 2011:24), 30 in the financial sector (Taylor, 2011: 27) and 25 in Network Connections (Taylor, 2011: 30). From the perspective of the spatial strategies of firms, advanced manufacturing services, is in 5th place ads (Taylor, 2011:34). Examined according to the project of 'Golobal Urban Analysis' A Survey of Cities in Globalization, Taylor and his colleagues at the 525 world cities, Istanbul is a global city in 37th Course (Global Cities Index: The Top 100 City) (Taylor, 20011:54). In the same study, 10 chapters, the Middle East / Nort African Cities in a globalizing world , the city of Istanbul in several sectors first place. (Bassens, David, Ben and Frank Witloch Derudder: 2011: ). As an important regional manager and the city center will in some areas to a major global center, especially in the last 20 years, as the waves of globalization, what is the impact of globalization is an important issue to be examined is affected. Thank you
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