species Pablo Muñoz-Rojas, Claudio Quezada- Romegialli & David Véliz Conservation Genetics Resources ISSN Volume 4 Number 2 - PDF

Isolation and characterization of ten microsatellite loci in the catfish Trichomycterus areolatus (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae), with crossamplification in seven Trichomycterinae species Pablo Muñoz-Rojas,

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Isolation and characterization of ten microsatellite loci in the catfish Trichomycterus areolatus (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae), with crossamplification in seven Trichomycterinae species Pablo Muñoz-Rojas, Claudio Quezada- Romegialli & David Véliz Conservation Genetics Resources ISSN Volume 4 Number 2 Conservation Genet Resour (2012) 4: DOI /s Your article is protected by copyright and all rights are held exclusively by Springer Science+Business Media B.V.. This e-offprint is for personal use only and shall not be selfarchived in electronic repositories. If you wish to self-archive your work, please use the accepted author s version for posting to your own website or your institution s repository. You may further deposit the accepted author s version on a funder s repository at a funder s request, provided it is not made publicly available until 12 months after publication. 1 23 Conservation Genet Resour (2012) 4: DOI /s TECHNICAL NOTE Isolation and characterization of ten microsatellite loci in the catfish Trichomycterus areolatus (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae), with cross-amplification in seven Trichomycterinae species Pablo Muñoz-Rojas Claudio Quezada-Romegialli David Véliz Received: 28 October 2011 / Accepted: 9 November 2011 / Published online: 20 November 2011 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V Abstract A total of ten microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized in the endangered freshwater catfish Trichomycterus areolatus from Chile. Samples from three separate watersheds were also analyzed. The mean number of alleles per locus in a sample of 63 individuals was 4 (1 13 alleles per locus) and the observed heterozygosities ranged from 0 to Hardy Weinberg equilibrium was observed in all loci except for a few isolated cases, while none of the loci exhibited significant linkage disequilibrium. Cross-amplification analysis showed a low number of loci and alleles amplified in other seven species of the Family Trichomycteridae. Keywords Microsatellite markers Population genetics Trichomycterus areolatus Cross-amplification Introduction Freshwater fauna are among the most threatened taxa of the planet (Ricciardi and Rasmussen 1999; Saunders et al. 2002). In Chile, 64% of the freshwater fish are in danger of extinction and 29% are vulnerable or insufficiently known (Habit et al. 2006; Vila et al. 2006); currently there are few effective protection measures for these organisms. One of these threatened species is the river catfish Trichomycterus areolatus (Valenciennes 1840), which is P. Muñoz-Rojas C. Quezada-Romegialli D. Véliz (&) Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago, Chile P. Muñoz-Rojas C. Quezada-Romegialli D. Véliz Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad of Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago, Chile widely distributed in Chile from Huasco ( S) to Chiloe ( S) (Arratia 1981; Dyer 2000). This species has conservation problems, as do all the species of the subfamily Trichomycterinae in Chile (Habit et al. 2006; Vila et al. 2006; Quezada-Romegialli et al. 2010). In order to improve the plans of population conservation, we describe here the isolation and characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellite loci for the Chilean Andean catfish T. areolatus. Total genomic DNA was extracted from ethanol-preserved fin clips using the salt-extraction method (Aljanabi and Martinez 1997) from samples collected from the Limari watershed (Los Aromos: S), Choapa watershed (Choapa Pueblo: S) and Maipo watershed (Estero Puangue: S). The library was developed by ATG Genetics (Vancouver, BC, Canada). Template DNA was digested by the restriction enzyme HaeIII and the microsatellite enrichment by biotin capture of dinucleotide (TC n and GA n ) microsatellites. The first 36 plasmid clones containing a dinucleotide motif were purified and amplified by PCR. Seventeen primer pairs were designed using Primer5 and tested in our laboratory, of which ten gave reliable amplifications and polymorphic markers using agarose gel electrophoresis. In order to evaluate polymorphism in an automatic sequencer, reverse primers of each microsatellite were marked with a fluorescent dye. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification mixtures (12 ll) contained 100 ng template DNA, 0.25 lm ofeach primer, 100 lm of each dntp, 2 mm MgCl ll 10 9 PCR buffer and 0.5 U Taq platinum Polymerase (Invitrogen). Cycling conditions consisted of an initial denaturing step of 3 min at 95 C, followed by 35 cycles of 30 s at 95 C, 30 s at the specific temperature, 1 min 30 s at 72 C, and a final elongation step at 72 C for 5 min. PCR products were genotyped in Macrogen Inc (http://www.macrogen.com) 444 Conservation Genet Resour (2012) 4: Table 1 Primer sequences and characteristics for ten microsatellite loci for Trichomycterus areolatus, including their polymorphism in three populations (LA, Los Aromos S W; CC, Choapa S W; PU, Puangue S W) Locus Primer sequence ( ) Repeat motif Tm ( C) GenBank accession no. Sample N Ho/He N A Size range (bp) Taredi1 F: GAATTCTGAGTGCAGAGCTCT (CA) 9 55 JN LA R: CATACCAGCTGTGAAATTCATACA CC PU / Taredi4 F: TTTTGAAACCGTCGCTGGAC (GT) JN LA / R: CTGTCCTCAGGCTCTTTAC CC PU 6 083/ Taredi6 F: TTTTCAGCTCACCACAATGC (TG) JN LA R: GCTGCGTCACATGGTGTTAT CC PU 4 0/ Taredi10 F: CCGTGTTGTTTATTCGAGCTC (CA) 9 55 JN LA / R: GCAGTTATCAGCTGAACCAG CC / PU / * Taredi11 F: CGAGAGCGAGATCGTGTGTA (CA) JN LA / R: TCATAAATCAACGATGCGTCA CC / PU Taredi14 F: TCTTACAGTATTTAACATCCTGG (CA) JN LA / R: GAATTCAGTTCAGCTTTATTCAC CC /0.81* PU / Taredi17 F: CATAAACTGTGTATGTGTGTCA (GT) JN LA R: GGGGTTCGTTTTCAGAACTG CC PU 12 0/0.38* Taredi21 F: AACCACAAGGTTTGAGCGTC (AC) JN LA / R: AACACTGCTGCATAGACCAG CC / PU Taredi212 F: GGTCTGGAATAAAAATTACAAACACA (GA) JN LA / R: ACCGAACAGGTGTCACCATC CC / PU /0.86* Taredi24 F: CCAAGTGGAGCTGCTAGAAA (GT) 20 (CA) 9 55 JN LA / R: CTGCACGCTCCTTTTCCAAA CC / PU 8 0/ Tm annealing temperature, N number of analyzed individuals, NA number of alleles; * P \ 0.01 for significant departures from HWE, tested after 3,000 permutation in Genetix (Belkhir et al. 1996) using the internal size standard LIZ 500 (Applied Biosystems). Clone sequences were published in Genbank with the following accession numbers: JN to JN (Table 1). In the 63 individuals from three geographically isolated watersheds of the central zone of Chile we observed between 1 and 13 alleles per locus (Table 1); some alleles were found in all three watersheds. The Los Aromos site (LA, Limarí watershed) had the least allele diversity (1 6 alleles per locus), while Choapa (CC, Choapa watershed) had from one to 8 alleles per locus and Puangue (PU, Puangue watershed) presented the greatest allele richness (1 13 alleles/locus) (Table 2). Deviations from Hardy Weinberg expectations (HWE) were calculated using the permutation test associated with the F IS calculation performed with GENETIX software (Belkhir et al. 1996). Significant deviations from HWE were observed only in three out of ten loci in the Puangue River (Taredi10, Taredi17 and Taredi212) and one from Choapa (Taredi14). MICROCHECKER software (Oosterhout et al. 2004) was used to identify genotyping errors due to null alleles, large allele dropout and scoring of stutter peaks. The analyses suggested that null alleles may be present in three loci in Puangue (Taredi10, Taredi17 and Taredi 212) and one locus from Choapa (Taredi14). Furthermore, no significant linkage disequilibrium was detected among pairs of the Conservation Genet Resour (2012) 4: Table 2 Number of alleles from cross-species amplification in seven South American catfishes Species N Locus (Taredi) Trichomycterus punctulatus Valenciennes, Trichomycterus aff rivulatus Valenciennes, Trichomycterus laucaensis Arratia, Trichomycterus chungaraensis Arratia, Trichomycterus cf chiltoni (Eigenmann, 1927) Bullockia maldonadoi (Eigenmann, 1928) Hatcheria macrei (Girard, 1855) N is the number of individuals tested studied loci, indicating that the loci are probably not closely linked on chromosomes; thus the loci may be considered as independent markers. In addition, the analysis of cross amplification using 23 individuals of 7 other species of South American catfish found amplifiable loci in all species (e.g., Taredi1) and others which did not amplify (e.g. Taredi11 y Taredi21). Species of the same genus amplified from 3 to 7 of the ten loci analyzed; Hatcheria macrei was the species which showed the smallest number of amplified loci (N = 2), which is expectable in this type of cross amplification given that the phylogenetic relations among the species are not clear. Interestingly, 5 of the 10 loci amplified in Bullockia maldonadoi, suggesting that this genus may be closer to the species T. areolatus than to the genus Hatcheria. These results show the utility of these 10 independent markers to devise plans of genetic conservation for populations of T. areolatus which are currently threatened, and will potentially be useful for other species of the family Trichomycteridae. Acknowledgments We thank C. Newton and ATG Genetics, M. Espinoza for lab assistance and L. Eaton for reviewing the English version of the manuscript. This study was supported by Fondecyt to DV. DV also thanks Grant PFB-23 (CONICYT, Chile) and Grant ICM P PM thanks IEB master grant and CQR thanks CONICYT doctoral grant. References Aljanabi SM, Martinez I (1997) Universal and rapid salt-extraction of high quality genomic DNA for PCR-based techniques. Nucleic Acids Res 25: Arratia G (1981) Géneros de peces de aguas continentales de Chile. Museo Nacional de Historia Natural Chile, Publicaciones Ocasionales 4: Belkhir K, Borsa P, Chikhi L, Raufaste N, Bonhomme F (1996) Genetix 4.05, Logiciel sous Windows pour la Génétique des Populations. Laboratoire Génome, populations, interactions, CNRS UMR 5000, Université de Montpellier II, Montpellier Dyer D (2000) Systematic review and biogeography of the freshwater fishes of Chile. Estud Oceanol 19:77 98 Habit E, Dyer B, Vila I (2006) Estado de conocimiento de los peces dulceacuícolas de Chile. Gayana 70: Oosterhout C, Hutchinson W, Wills D, Shipley P (2004) MICRO- CHECKER: software for identifying and correcting genotyping errors in microsatellite data. Mol Ecol Notes 4: Quezada-Romegialli C, Fuentes M, Véliz D (2010) Comparative population genetics of Basilichthys microlepidotus (Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae) and Trichomycterus areolatus (Siluriformes : Trichomycteridae) in north central Chile. Environ Biol Fishes 89: Ricciardi A, Rasmussen J (1999) Extinction rates of North American freshwater fauna. Conserv Biol 13: Saunders D, Meeuwig J, Vincent A (2002) Freshwater protected areas: strategies for conservation. Conserv Biol 16:30 41 Vila I, Pardo R, Dyer B, Habit E (2006) Peces límnicos: diversidad, origen y estado de conservación. In: Vila I, Veloso A, Schlatter R, Ramírez C (eds) Macrófitas y vertebrados de los sistemas límnicos de Chile. Editorial Universitaria, Santiago de Chile, pp
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