RAILWAYS. Introduction. Jarosław Zwolski, PhD CE - PDF

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RAILWAYS Introduction Jarosław Zwolski, PhD CE Jarosław Zwolski PhD CE o building H3, room 113 o o o pl tutorials: Mondays 13:00 15:00 Thuesdays

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RAILWAYS Introduction Jarosław Zwolski, PhD CE Jarosław Zwolski PhD CE o building H3, room 113 o o o pl tutorials: Mondays 13:00 15:00 Thuesdays 13:00 15:00 1. Dz. U. nr 151.: Rozporządzenie Ministra Transportu i Gospodarki Morskiej w sprawie warunków technicznych, jakim powinny odpowiadać budowle kolejowe i ich usytuowanie. (PL) 2. Dz. U. nr 33.: Rozporządzenie Ministra Transportu i Gospodarki Morskiej z dnia 26 lutego 1996 r. w sprawie warunków technicznych jakim powinny odpowiadać skrzyżowania linii kolejowych z drogami publicznymi i ich usytuowanie (ze zmianami: Dziennik Ustaw Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej Nr 100 z , pozycja (PL) 3. Bonnet, Practical railway engineering, (EN) 4. Esveld Coenraad, Modern Railway Track, 2nd ed. Zaltbommel: MRT-Productions, (EN) 5. PN-EN Railway applications Track Track alignment design parameters, (EN) 6. Id-1 (D-1) Warunki techniczne utrzymania nawierzchni na liniach kolejowych - PKP Polskie Linie Kolejowe S.A., Warszawa (PL) 7. Id-3 (D-4) Warunki techniczne utrzymania podtorza kolejowego - PKP Polskie Linie Kolejowe S.A., Warszawa (PL) 8. (PL) 9. (PL) 1825 Stephenson s Locomotion is able to transport Englishmen with a speed of 22 km/h, 27 years later a French locomotive Crampton reached the staggering speed of 112 km/h. It was the time of travelling in carts pulled by horses and even oxen intensive development of railway network. World wars proved strategic importance of railways. After II World War steam traction was gradually substituted by electric and Diesel engines slow turn from railways to car transportation. Early 80 - increase of interest in rail transportation due to growing fuel costs, especially after the oil crisis started in October 1973 and then in now development of high speed railways (over 250 km/h), speed record: 574 km/h, by TGV. The success of railways has been settled by the invention of a more efficient traction than the horse steam traction: Thomas Newcomen - a steam engine, James Watt a improved steam engine, Nicolas Cugnot a vehicle with a steam engine, Richard Trevithick a locomotive with steam traction, George Stephenson Locomotion and the first train with steam traction, 70 of XX cen. decline of steam traction. Nowadays steam traction is used in India and Pakistan. History of electric traction development: Werner von Siemens prototype of electric traction locomotive, Magnus Volk first electric railway line, General Electric electric railway, electric locomotive by Siemens: 205 km/h, AEG: 210 km/h, locomotive CC7107 French SNCF: 329 km/h, early multisystem locomotives (for different power supply), locomotive Eurosprinter by Siemens: 357 km/h, 3 rd April, 2007 V150 unit by TGV: 574,8 km/h. Simultaneously Diesel traction was developed: Rudolf Diesel first internal combustion engine, to America, Italy and Germany work on traction transfer, Before WW II - Fiat, Breda, Bugatti, Maybach - early light Diesel traction trains, 50, 60, 70 intensive development of multitask Diesel locomotives Essential delimitation of passenger transportation systems is saturation of communication flows by traffic. Many cities suffer from traffic jams on motorways during rush hours. Similarly, many airports work on the verge of capacity. On this background railways, especially High Speed Railways offer the ability to transport many passengers, with higher speed than cars and planes. The advantage of railways over car is that on selected lines train speed is much higher than a car speed. Travelling by train is considered more comfortable and more productive for passengers, who needn t focus their attention on driving. Nowadays jet planes travel 3 time faster than high speed trains. Nevertheless, on distances km travelling by train and by plane takes the same time. It is caused by: Airports location (usually far from city centres) what requires a time to get there. Getting on and off in the case of trains is much easier, shorter and less stressful than boarding on and off a plane. Frequency and capacity of trains is higher than those offered by planes. Means of transportation Brutto weight/ 1 transportation unit Mean transport distance Mean speed Efficiency coeficient [T] [km] [km/h] [Tkm/HP/h] Horse Passenger car Lorry Tramway ? Passenger railways Freight railways Inland water Sea shipping Airlines Efficiency coeficient transportation work (brutto weight of the transportation unit [T] times the distance [km]) done in 1 hour divided by the engine power [HP]. The railway network consists of railroads, stations and other infrastructure required for the safe and efficient transport of passengers and goods by trains. A railroad consists of railway track, turnouts and crossings. A classical railway track is made of two parallel rails with a constant gauge, supported by sleepers buried in ballast. Under the ballast layer there is the subballast layer and the formation. Depending upon the situation of the local terrain it can be embankment or cutting. Typical cross-section of a double track line Typical cross-section of a single track line Since ancient times people have been conscious that wheels move much easier on a hard, flat and smooth surface. The less friction between the wheel and the rail, the smaller force is needed to move the vehicle. Due to this fact ancient Romans built paved roads laying plates in two parallel rows with the distance of chariot wheels. The distance between the ruts cut by chariot wheels in Pompea is half a centimeter less than the nowadays used standard track gauge: 1435 mm. In XVII century miners from Alzatia used carts with wheels protected by a wooden ring moving on wooden rails for transport of crushed rock. One horse was able to pull a few carts with coal weighing around 1 tonne. Track with L-shaped Frołow rails made of cast iron, 1763 source: Track with U-shaped Reynold s rails made of cast iron, 1767 Lougborough, Anglia, 1789 Jessop rail (cast iron): 1 wooden sleeper, 2 iron stool, 3 piecewise rail with non-equal height, 4 - pivot Wooden beam reinforced by steel flat rail: 1 wooden sleeper, 2 wooden beam, 3 flatshaped rail, 4 wooden wedge English Railways and Freight Cars, as Illustrated in Strickland s Report, 1826 Steel rail with constant height: 1 iron stool, 2 steel rail, 3 steel wedge Stephenson two-headed rail (1830) : 1 wooden sleeper, 2 iron stool, 3 two-headed rail, 4 wooden wedge, 5 - nail Standard steel rail S60 type Rolling edge Producer mark Holes for bolts side view Prototype of S60 rail was the Vignoles rail (1830) Standard steel rail S60 type Railway rail S49 Railway rail UIC60 Tramway rail Ri-60N Block rail LK-1 Depending on service field: Commercial railways obliged to transport all goods accordingly to transport regulation and table of fares open for public service, Industrial railways are the property of industrial companies and serve for internal transportation. Depending on gauge: standard gauge distance 1435 mm between rails, wide gauge distance more than 1435 mm (e.g.: Russia: 1524 mm, 1676 mm - Spain, 1600 mm - Ireland), narrow gauge distance smaller than 1435 mm (e.g.: 1000 mm, 750 mm, 600 mm widely used as local, industrial or tourist railways). the track gauge The track gauge is a distance between inner edges of rail heads Allowable deviation from the nominal gauge on straight sections are: + 10 mm and 3 mm. a for standard gauge = 14 mm, for the gauge more narrow than 900 mm = 10 mm source: Standard gauge 1435 mm Wide gauge 1524 mm Narrow gauge 760 mm On the beginning of 90 in XX century Polish designers lead by eng. Suwalski constructed boogies with wheelsets enabling the lengthening of axles. This makes the exchange of boogies at the change of the track gauge unnecessary. This procedure is carried out automatically without unloading the wagons. The SUW 2000 system is used in passenger as well as in freight railway transport. source: Depending on importance: main lines the most important in the national network, first category lines for fast passenger and distant freight traffic, second category lines for traffic of medium intensity and speed, local importance lines for local service with low intensity and speed. Parameters of Polish railway lines Category Intensity of traffic Maximal speed Axle load T V max V f P [Tg/year] [km/h] [km/h] [kn] main lines (0) T V max V f 120 P 221 first category (1) 10 T V max V f P 221 second category (2) 3 T V max V f P 210 local importance (3) T 3 V max 60 V f 50 P 200 Depending on number of tracks: single track, double track, multiple track. In Poland on double track lines the traffic runs on the right hand side, which means: on the right hand track looking in the direction of the motion. The run on the left hand track is treated as run on the improper track. Principle of track numbering 1 2 kilometrage of the line Depending on terrain characteristic: lowland lines the steepest slopes reach 5-10 permil, sub-mountain lines - the steepest slopes reach permil, mountain lines - the steepest slopes reach permil. (Natural adhesion of the wheel to the rail enables running on the slope of permil without slippage), special mountain lines - A rack-and-pinion railway (a railway with a toothed rack rail, usually between the running rails, which ensures traction). The steepest slope of the rack railway is 250 permil. Profile of a rack railway track Montreux-Glion: maximal slope 130 permil. Track of a rack railway with Abt system Depending on location in relation to the ground : surface lines tracks on the level of the terrain (conventional railways, tramway, funicular), overhead lines tracks run on long viaducts over the terrain (conventional railways, cableways), underground lines tracks in tunnels under the ground (conventional railways, tube). Cableway surface railway - Zakopane Conventional surface railway Overhead railway on a viaduct - Kuala Lumpur, Malesia Cableway overhead railway a support of the traction line and a cabine Underground in a tunnel - Berlin Railway line runs in tunnels and on viaducts - Landwasser Viaduct Switzerland Depending on traction: steam, electric, diesel, magnetic, cable. Depending on function: Long distance passenger train, Regional train, Suburban train, Tramway, Underground. railway lines, railway sidings, railroad yards, classification yards railway stations, railway stops, halts, terminus civil engineering structures: bridges, viaducts, culverts, tunnels, footbridges, underpasses, retaining walls, grade crossings, other auxiliary buildings. Railway lines: single or double track Railway siding It is a track section distinct from a through route such as a main line or branch line or spur. It may connect to a through track or to other sidings at either end. The distinction between sidings and other types of track is that a siding generally denotes an auxiliary or not exactly specified usage. Sidings often have lighter rails, meant for lower speed or less heavy traffic. A particular form of siding is the passing siding (called a crossing loop in British usage). This is a section of track parallel to a through line and connected to it at both ends by switches. Passing sidings allow trains travelling in opposite directions to pass, and for fast, high priority trains to pass slower or lower priority trains going the same direction. They are important for efficiency on single track lines, and add to the capacity of other lines. Passing siding Source: Rail yard (railroad yard) It is a complex series of railroad tracks for storing, sorting, or loading/unloading, railroad cars and/or locomotives. Railroad yards have many parallel tracks for keeping rolling stock stored off the mainline, so that they do not obstruct the flow of traffic. Railroad cars are moved around by specially designed yard switchers, a type of locomotive. Cars in a railroad yard may be sorted by numerous categories, including railroad company, loaded or unloaded, destination, car type, or whether they need repairs. Railroad yards are normally built where there is a need to store cars while they are not being loaded or unloaded, or are waiting to be assembled into trains. Large yards may have a tower to control operations. A rail yard in Los Angeles Source: Classification yard (US) or marshalling yard (UK) It is a railroad yard found at some freight train stations, used to separate railroad cars on to one of several tracks. First the cars are taken to a track, sometimes called a lead or a drill. From there the cars are sent through a series of switches called a ladder onto the classification tracks. Larger yards tend to put the lead on an artificially built hill called a hump to use the force of gravity to propel the cars through the ladder. Freight trains which consist of isolated cars must be made into trains and divided according to their destinations. Thus the cars must be shunted several times along their route in contrast to a unit train, which carries, for example, automobiles from the plant to a port, or coal from a mine to the power plant. This shunting is done partly at the starting and final destinations and partly (for longdistance-hauling) in classification yards. Chicago and North Western Railway's Proviso Yard in Chicago, Illinois, 1942. Railway passenger station Civil engineering structures bridge, viaduct, tunnel, culvert, footbridge, retaining wall, underpass Grade crossing Auxiliary buildings Water tower Locomotive shed Control tower Control tower at branch line
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