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Technical guide qüé=ìëé=çñ=ëí~åç~êçë=ñçê=üçí=ãáñéë= = g~åì~êó=ommu The Technical Department for Transport, Roads and Bridges Engineering and Road Safety (Service d'études techniques des routes et autoroutes

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Technical guide qüé=ìëé=çñ=ëí~åç~êçë=ñçê=üçí=ãáñéë= = g~åì~êó=ommu The Technical Department for Transport, Roads and Bridges Engineering and Road Safety (Service d'études techniques des routes et autoroutes - Sétra) is a technical department within the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure. Its field of activities is the road, the transportation and the engineering structures. The Sétra supports the public owner The Sétra supplies State agencies and local communities (counties, large cities and urban communities) with informations, methodologies and tools suited to the specificities of the networks in order to: improve the projects quality; help with the asset management; define, apply and evaluate the public policies; guarantee the coherence of the road network and state of the art; put forward the public interests, in particular within the framework of European standardization; bring an expertise on complex projects. The Sétra, producer of the state of the art Within a very large scale, beyond the road and engineering structures, in the field of transport, intermodality, sustainable development, the Sétra: takes into account the needs of project owners and prime contractors, managers and operators; fosters the exchanges of experience; evaluates technical progress and the scientific results; develops knowledge and good practices through technical guides, softwares; contributes to the training and information of the technical community. The Sétra, a work in partnership The Sétra associates all the players of the French road community to its action: operational services; research organizations; Scientific and Technical Network (Réseau Scientifique et Technique de l'equipement RST), in particular the Public Works Regional Engineering Offices (Centres d'études techniques de l'equipement CETE), companies and professional organizations; motorway concessionary operators; other organizations such as French Rail Network Company (Réseau Ferré de France RFF) and French Waterways Network (Voies Navigables de France - VNF); Departments like the department for Ecology and Sustainable Development The Sétra regularly exchanges its experience and projects with its foreign counterparts, through bilateral cooperations, presentations in conferences and congresses, by welcoming delegations, through missions and expertises in other countries. It takes part in the European standardization commissions and many authorities and international working groups. The Sétra is an organization for technical approval, as an EOTA member (European Organisation for Technical Approvals). Technical guide qüé=ìëé=çñ=ëí~åç~êçë=ñçê=üçí=ãáñéë= = Published by Sétra and carried out by the French Road Engineering Committee (CFTR) This document is the translation of the work Utilisation des normes enrobés à chaud , published in January 2008 under the reference The CFTR is a federative structure which joins together various components of the French road community in order to work out an expression of the state of the art shared by all and used as reference to the road professionals in the fields of pavements, earthworks and road drainage. Main actions of the CFTR: laying down documents expressing the state of the art, drawing up technical advices on fitness for the use of processes, products and equipments, as well as qualification documents for equipments; issuing approvals for road laboratories; carrying out procedures of certification and conformity with standards. French Road Engineering Committee Association ruled under the law of 1st july Its Head office is located at: 10 rue Washington Paris Phone: 33 (0) Fax: 33 (0) mél : internet : This guide was drafted as part of the activities of the sectoral committee on methodology of the French Road Engineering Committee (CFTR), by working group made up of representatives of the Scientific and Technical Network of the Ministry with responsibility for public works, the technical directorates of contractors and builders in the field of roads and civil aviation (STAC, ADP) and motorway companies (ASFA). Its content has been validated by a survey conducted among CFTR members. Drafting Committee: Georges Aussedat (UNPG) Thomas Caillot (Sétra) Samuel Charpentier (CETE Normandie-Centre LRPC de Blois) Jean-Luc Delorme (DREIF LREP) Bernard Depaux (STAC) Hervé Guiraud (Sétra) François Jullemier (ADP) Jean-François Lafon (CETE Sud-Ouest LRPC de Toulouse) Francis Letaudin (SACER) Benoît Masson (ASFA) Jean-Paul Michaut (Société Colas) Samir Soliman (EUROVIA Management) Patrick Vangrevenynghe (CETE Méditerranée LRPC d'aix) François Verhee (USIRF) 4 january 2008 Contents 1 - References to standards, terminology References to standards Remarks The bituminous materials used in France, use and characteristics Use Classification Characteristics of mixes and road mastic asphalts Type test and level of mix design for bituminous coated materials Type test Mix design level Characteristics of the aggregate The characteristics of fines The characteristics of fillers Quality of fines and particles mm in sands and graded aggregate Coating binders Reclaimed asphalt The use of reclaimed asphalt Average binder content and its range Minimum penetration or maximum T R&B of the binder in the reclaimed asphalt and their ranges The grading uniformity of reclaimed asphalt Intrinsic characteristics and angularity Manufacture, laying, tests (reminder) Manufacture Laying and tests How to use this guide Annexe A : Mix design Annexe B : Minimum specifications for aggregate in mixes Annexe C : Performance summary tables Empirical approach Annexe D : Performance summary tables Fundamental approach Annexe E : Reclaimed asphalt information sheet Annexe F : List of tables 36 5 january 2008 The French standards which are derived from European standards for mixes specify families of mixes, their compositions and their performance. They cover the contexts where mixes are used in France, for wearing courses, base courses or sub-base and roadbase layers. This documents sets out to select those European standards which apply in the French context and to supplement them with the characteristics of the aggregate and the features of manufacturing, laying and testing which are specific to France. In addition, it sets out the nomenclature and the composition of the mixes used, the different stages of the mix design which are applied and how these correspond to European standards. These French standards which are derived from European standardization give no indication about the transport and laying of the mixes nor their use according to traffic, altitude or climate. Consequently, the French standard NF P , which replaces the standard NF P of 1992, concerning manufacture, transport and laying is an indispensable supplement to the series of French standards. This standard lays down the requirements concerning deformation of the substrate or existing pavement before the laying of a new layer of mix, the proportions to be used for tack coats, the thicknesses to be laid depending on the type of mix, the tests to be performed and the corresponding specifications for in-situ density for all layers and the macrotexture for wearing courses. This guide does not detail the last items but refers readers to the document in which they are set out. The NF EN standards currently allow for two different mix design approaches: the first, known as the empirical approach, consists of selecting the grading curve, the void contents, the water resistance, the resistance to rutting, the grading envelope and curve and the binder content; the second, known as the fundamental approach, applies a number of requirements with regard to water resistance, voids contents and rutting resistance but adds the complex and fatigue moduli. In the second approach, the binder content and the grading curve are not fixed. It is this approach which is the most frequently used in France. It is obvious that these approaches cannot be combined, so one or other must be selected. Ultimately, in Europe, the empirical approach should be replaced by the fundamental approach. N.B.: It should be borne in mind that binder content is expressed as a percentage of the total mass of the mix. Some of the provisions in this document may be used for products, binders or aggregate which are not currently covered by the standards. 6 january 2008 1 - References to standards, terminology References to standards NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Méthode d essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 1 : teneur en liant soluble (Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for mix asphalt - Part 1 : soluble binder content) NE EN : Mélanges bitumineux Méthode d essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 2 : granulométrie (Bituminous mixtures - Test method for hot mix asphalt - Part 2: Determination of particle size distribution) NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Méthode d essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 5 : masse maximale (masse volumique réelle) des matériaux bitumineux (Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 5: Determination of the maximum density) NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Méthode d essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 12 : détermination de la sensibilité à l eau des éprouvettes bitumineuses (Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 12 : determination of the water sensitivity of bituminous specimens) NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Méthode d essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 19 : perméabilité des éprouvettes (Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 19 : permeability of specimen) NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Méthode d essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 20 : essai cubes ou éprouvettes Marshall (Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 20 : indentation using cube or Marschall specimens) NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Méthode d essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 21 : essai plaques (Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 21 : indentation using plate specimens) NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Méthode d essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 22 : essai d orniérage (Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 22 : wheel tracking) NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Méthode d essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 24 : résistance à la fatigue (Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 24 : Resistance to fatigue) NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Méthode d essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 26 : module (Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 26 : stiffness) NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Méthode d essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 31 : confection d éprouvette à la presse à compactage giratoire (Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 31 : specimen preparation by gyratory compactor) NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Méthode d essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 41 : résistance aux fluides de déverglaçage (Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 41 : resistance to de-icing fluids) NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Méthode d essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 43 : résistance aux carburants (Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 43: Resistance to fuel) NF EN : Granulats pour mélanges hydrocarbonés et pour enduits superficiels utilisés dans la construction des chaussées, aérodromes et d autres zones de circulation (Aggregates for bituminous mixtures and surface treatments for roads, airfields and other trafficked areas) XP P : Granulats Éléments de définition, conformité et codification (Aggregates - Defining elements, conformity and coding) NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Spécifications des matériaux - Partie 1 : enrobés bitumineux (Bituminous mixtures - Material specifications - Part 1 : asphalt concrete) NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Spécifications des matériaux - Partie 2 : bétons bitumineux très minces (Bituminous mixtures - Material specifications - Part 2 : asphalt concrete for very thin layers) NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Spécifications des matériaux - Partie 3 : bétons bitumineux souples (Bituminous mixtures - Material specification - Part 3 : soft asphalt) 7 january 2008 NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Spécifications des matériaux - Partie 6 : asphaltes coulés routiers (Bituminous mixtures - Material specifications - Part 6 : mastic asphalt) NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Spécifications des matériaux - Partie 7 : bétons bitumineux drainants (Bituminous mixtures - Material specifications - Part 7 : porous asphalt) NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Spécifications des matériaux - Partie 8 : agrégats d enrobés (Bituminous mixtures - Material specifications - Part 8 : reclaimed asphalt) NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Spécifications des matériaux - Partie 20 : épreuve de formulation (Bituminous mixtures - Materials specifications - Part 20 : type testing) NF EN : Mélanges bitumineux Spécifications des matériaux - Partie 21 : maîtrise de la production (Bituminous mixtures - Material specifications - Part 21 : factory production control) NF P : Enrobés hydrocarbonés- Terminologie composants et composition des mélanges mise en œuvre- produits- techniques et procédés (Asphalt - Terminology - Components and composition of mixtures - Implementation - Products - Techniques and processes) 8 january 2008 Terminology AC: asphalte coulé routier (road mastic asphalt) AT: asphalte coulé pour trottoir (footpath mastic asphalt) BBSG: béton bitumineux semi grenu (semi-course asphalt concrete) BBME: béton bitumineux à module élevé (high modulus asphalt concrete) BBM: béton bitumineux mince (asphalt concrete for thin layers) BBTM: béton bitumineux très mince (asphalt concrete for very thin layers) BBDr: béton bitumineux drainant (porous asphalt) BBA: béton bitumineux aéronautique (airfield asphalt concrete) BBCS: béton bitumineux pour couches de surface de chaussées souples à faible trafic (asphalt concrete for low traffic flexible pavements) EME: enrobé à module élevé (high modulus asphalt concrete) GB: grave bitume (road base asphalt) GSP: gyratory shear press ( PCG : Presse à Cisaillement Giratoire) Remarks Each product standard includes, before the NF EN standard proper, a national foreword which provides guidance on the characteristics which are suggested should be used in France among the very large number of possibilities provided by the European standard. Asphalt concrete for low traffic flexible pavements (BBCS) musts not be confused with the standards for soft asphalt (NF EN ) for which the binders are classified on the basis of the viscosity of the bitumen and not its penetration grade. Hot Rolled Asphalt (NF EN ), Stone Mastic Asphalt (NF EN ) and Soft Asphalt (NF EN ) are not used in France and there is no French experience on how they behave under heavy 13 tonne axle load traffic. Consequently, these products are not dealt with in this document. 9 january 2008 2 - The bituminous materials used in France, use and characteristics Use The following bituminous materials are used in pavement layers: wearing courses: BBSG, BBME, BBM, BBTM, BBDR for all types of traffic, BBA for all airfield traffic, BBCS for low traffic flexible pavements and AC; base courses: BBSG, BBME, BBM for all types of traffic. BBA for all airfield traffic and BBCS for low traffic flexible pavements; sub-base and roadbase layers: GB, EME for all types of traffic Classification Table 1 below uses the terminology used in this document and states the corresponding European standard, the number of the relevant table and the use which is made of the mix. The fourth column states which of the mix design tables in Annex A should be used. French name European standard Use Mix design Characteristics of the aggregate Specification* BBSG Wearing course Annex A Table 16 Annex B Table 20 Annex C empirical and fundamental BBSG Base course Annex A Table 16 Annex B Table 20 Annex C empirical and fundamental BBME Wearing course Annex A Table 16 Annex B Table 20 Annex C fundamental BBME Base course Annex A Table 16 Annex B Table 20 Annex C fundamental BBCS Wearing course Annex A Table 16 Annex B Table 20 Annex C empirical BBCS Base course Annex A Table 16 Annex B Table 20 Annex C empirical BBA Wearing course Annex A Table 16 Annex B Table 20 Annex C empirical and fundamental BBA Base course Annex A Table 16 Annex B Table 20 Annex C empirical and fundamental BBM Wearing course Annex A Table 16 Annex B Table 20 Annex C empirical BBM Base course Annex A Table 16 Annex B Table 20 Annex C empirical BBTM Wearing course Annex A Table 17 Annex B Table 20 Annex C empirical BBDr Wearing course Annex A Table 18 Annex B Table 20 Annex C empirical GB Road base layer Annex A Table 16 Annex B Table 20 Annex C empirical and fundamental GB Sub-base layer Annex A Table 16 Annex B Table 20 Annex C empirical and fundamental 10 january 2008 EME Road base layer Annex A Table 16 Annex B Table 20 Annex C fundamental EME Sub-base layer Annex A Table 16 Annex B Table 20 Annex C fundamental AC Wearing course Annex A Table 19 Annex B Table 20 Annex C empirical * Readers are reminded that in all cases the binder content is expressed as a percentage of the total mass of the mix. Table 1: Name and reference In addition to this classification, a use, a class and a type may be defined as shown in Table 2 below. French name European name Use Class Type BBSG EB Ø roul liant Wearing course 1, 2 or3 0/10 or 0/14 BBSG EB Ø liai liant Base course 1, 2 or3 0/10 or 0/14 BBME EB Ø roul liant Wearing course 1, 2 or3 0/10 or 0/14 BBME EB Ø liai liant Base course 1, 2 or3 0/10 or 0/14 BBCS EB Ø roul liant Wearing course No class 0/10 or 0/14 BBCS EB Ø liai liant Base course No class 0/10 or 0/14 BBA EB Ø roul liant Wearing course 1, 2 or 3 C or D and 0/10 or 0/14 BBA EB Ø liai liant Base course 1, 2 or 3 C or D and 0/10 or 0/14 BBM EB Ø roul liant Wearing course 1, 2 or 3 A, B or C and 0/10 or 0/14 BBM EB Ø liai liant Base course 1, 2 or 3 A, B or C and 0/10 or 0/14 BBTM BBTM Ø classe liant Wearing course 1 or 2 0/6 or 0/10 BBDr BBDr Ø liant Wearing course 1 or 2 0/6 or 0/10 GB EB Ø assise liant Road base layer 2, 3 or 4 0/14 or 0/20 GB EB Ø assise liant Sub-base layer 2, 3 or 4 0/14 or 0/20 EME EB Ø assise liant Road base layer 1 or 2 0/10, 0/14 or 0/20 EME EB Ø assise liant Sub-base layer 1 or 2 0/10, 0/14 or 0/20 Ø: diameter of largest aggregate particle Binder:state the penetration grade used Examples: Table 2: Use, class and type BBSG 1 0/10: class 1 semi-coarse asphalt concrete with 0/10 grading (EB 10 roul 35/50) BBA D 2 0/14: class 2 gap graded airfield asphalt concrete with a grading of 0/14 (EB 14 roul 35/50) The tables in Annex A and B show the tests to be performed and the correspondence between the French mixes named above and the characteristics of the aggregate as laid down in European standard NF EN and the French standard XP P Characteristics of mixes and road mastic asphalts The characteristics of mixes and road mastic asphalts must comply with those in the national forewords for the corresponding product standards. 11 january 2008 3 - Type test and level of mix design for bituminous coated materials Type test The type test is performed in a laboratory. It is not compulsory to perform a type test for each construction project as it is possible to use the results of previous tests. The type tests are described in the standard NF P The decision to use previous results or to perform a new test should be made with reference to the importance of the project, its size, the date of the previous studies and how representative they are. The study should have been p
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