Preface. Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, November Japke Karreman - PDF

Description
Cruise tourism development in a small destination Japke Karreman Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management Master Thesis 30 credits Preface This master thesis is part of the two year

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 25
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information
Category:

Retail

Publish on:

Views: 5 | Pages: 25

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Transcript
Cruise tourism development in a small destination Japke Karreman Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management Master Thesis 30 credits 2012 Preface This master thesis is part of the two year master program Nature-based tourism (naturbasert reiseliv) at the Norwegian university of life sciences (Universitetet for miljø- og biovitenskap) in Ås, Norway. This master is part of the Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management. This master thesis is a project for Luster municipality. I am thankful that I had the opportunity to work on this project. I would like to thank my contact person in Luster, Torkjel Solbraa, and also all the people that were willing to participate in an interview, both in Skjolden, Olden and Flåm. Also I would like to thank my supervisor, Ole Hofstad, for helping me throughout the whole process. A final thanks goes to family and friends who have motivated and supported me and thereby helped me to finish this master thesis. Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, November 2012 Japke Karreman I Abstract This master thesis looks at the development of cruise tourism in a small destination. Cruise tourism is a rapidly growing industry in both large and small destinations, but since small destinations are affected by cruise tourism development different than large destinations, this study focuses on a small destination, in this case Skjolden. Skjolden has a recent history of cruise tourism. Interviews are taken with residents who are involved with cruise tourism, to find out about their opinions and attitudes and how they experience that cruise tourism affects the destination. The interviews were taken with the main objective of the study in mind: How can a small destination develop cruise tourism in a sustainable way? Several aspects are considered in answering this question, one of which is the general development of (cruise) tourism in a (small) destination; why tourists choose a certain destination, different stages in the development of a destination and important differences between land-based and cruise tourism. Another aspect that is discussed is the impacts that cruise tourism has on a destination. The impacts are divided into economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts. The different impacts are equally important and there is an element of overlap between them. Apart from the impacts discussed in the literature, this master thesis also looks at the attitudes of the residents and how they experience different impacts. Although it is very important to know the impacts of cruise tourism and in what way those can be influenced, it is also important to know who has the power to influence them, so this master thesis briefly looks into that matter as well. Keywords: Cruise tourism, tourism development, small destination, economic impact, socio-cultural impact, environmental impact, residents attitudes II Sammendrag Denne masteroppgaven ser på utviklingen av cruiseturismen i en liten destinasjon. Cruiseturismen er en raskt voksende industri i både store og små destinasjoner, men siden små destinasjoner er påvirket av utviklingen i cruisefarten på andre måter enn store destinasjoner, fokuserer denne studien på en liten destinasjon, i dette tilfellet Skjolden. Skjolden har en relativt ny plass i historien om cruiseturismen på Vestlandet. Intervjuer er gjennomført med innbyggere som er involvert i cruiseturisme for å finne ut om deres meninger og holdninger og hvordan de opplever at cruiseturismen påvirker destinasjonen. Intervjuene ble gjort med det viktigste målet for denne studien i tankene: Hvordan kan en liten destinasjon utvikle cruiseturismen på en bærekraftig måte? Flere aspekter er vurdert for å svare på dette spørsmålet, hvorav en er den generelle utviklingen av (cruise)turisme i en (liten) destinasjon, hvorfor turister velger en bestemt destinasjon, ulike stadier i utviklingen av en destinasjon og viktige forskjeller mellom landbasert turisme og cruiseturisme. Et annet aspekt som diskuteres er de virkninger som cruiseturismen har på en destinasjon. Konsekvensene er delt inn i økonomiske, sosiokulturelle og miljømessige konsekvenser. De ulike konsekvensene er like viktige og det er et element av overlapping mellom dem. Bortsett fra virkningene omtalt i litteraturen, ser denne masteroppgaven også på holdningene til beboerne og hvordan de opplever ulike konsekvenser. Selv om det er svært viktig å vite konsekvensene av cruiseturismen og på hvilken måte de kan påvirkes, er det også viktig å vite hvem som har makt til å påvirke dem, så denne masteroppgaven ser kort på det også. Nøkkelord: cruiseturisme, reiselivsutvikling, liten destinasjon, økonomiske konsekvenser, sosiokulturell påvirkning, miljøpåvirkning, beboernes holdninger III Contents 1. Introduction Cruise tourism Cruise tourism in Norway Study site Main objective and research questions Overview Theory Tourism development Push and pull factors Different stages in tourism development Differences between cruise tourism and land based tourism Impacts of tourism development Economic impact Social and cultural impacts Environmental impact Residents attitudes to tourism Methods Choice of method Data collection Documentation In-depth interviews Selection of respondents and taking the interviews Data analysis Validity and reliability Ethical dilemma Results The role of Røysi, Luster municipality and the cruise companies IV 4.2 Tourism development Push and pull factors Different stages in tourism development Differences between cruise tourism and land based tourism Impacts of tourism development Economic impact Social and cultural impacts Environmental impact Residents attitudes to tourism Discussion Shortcomings of this study Choice of study area Validity and reliability of the data Validity Reliability Conclusion Cruise tourism development in a small destination Important impacts of cruise tourism Suggestions for further research References V 1. Introduction 1.1 Cruise tourism In the past two decades, Tourism has grown by 300 percent and with a growth rate of 5.9 percent it is one of the fastest growing industries globally. It is the second largest industry in the world. For some countries, it is the most important source of revenue. Tourism also generates many jobs, more than 74 million worldwide in It generates 3.8 percent of global GDP (Bailey et al. 2004). Already more than 100 years ago, a form of cruise tourism existed, but modern cruise tourism originated in the early 1970s in Miami, US. It started with cruises throughout the Caribbean and then developed into a worldwide industry (World Tourism Organization 2010). It is one of the fastest growing tourism industries (Cruise Norway 2011). In the first few decades after its emergence, the cruise industry had a growth rate of more than 8 percent. Up to 2020 a growth rate of 4.1 percent has been forecasted (Bailey et al. 2004; World Tourism Organization 2010). In 2003, 9.8 million people took a holiday on a cruise ship. This generated 14.7 billion US dollar in gross revenues. This was 3.2 percent more than the previous year. The cruise line industry is dominated by North America, which accounts for 80 percent of cruise ship passengers. In 2003, 7.9 million cruise tourists started their cruise in North America. The Caribbean is the most popular destination, followed by the Mediterranean and Europe (Bailey et al. 2004). The cruise industry can sustain high growth rates due to the continuous investments in innovation and improvement. New ships are built every year, with higher capacity and innovative facilities and activities. Also the marketing is handled in an innovative way (World Tourism Organization 2010). In the whole of Europe the cruise industry created 307,526 jobs in 2010, which created a total income of 9.3 billion. For small destinations this means mostly some jobs in transport and utilities and hospitality, which together account for 18 percent of the total employment and 20 percent of the total income (G.P. Wild (International) Limited & Business Research & Economic Advisors 2011). 1.2 Cruise tourism in Norway According to a survey conducted in 2010, the cruise tourism sector in Norway creates around 1,600 jobs in the high season and 1,100 jobs outside the season. The economic impact is approximately 2 1 billion kroner per year, which is around 260 million Euros. When indirect effects are included, cruise tourism is estimated to create 3,200 jobs in the high season and 2,200 jobs outside the season. The economic impact is then 4 billion kroner, which is around 520 million Euros. The employment effects are the highest in small ports (Handelsdepartementet 2012). The total amount of cruise passengers coming to Norway has almost doubled from 1.1 million in 2006 to more than 2 million in Even though less ships come to Norway, the amount of passengers increases, because the ships are getting bigger (Cruise Norway 2011). In 2011 Norway had 41 cruise ports, of which 30 were active. In the same year 13 of those had more than 50 calls. The biggest markets for Norway are the UK and Germany, followed by the US, Italy, Spain, France and the Netherlands (NHO Reiseliv 2010). In 2001 there came 195 cruise ship to Bergen. From these ships, 104,766 passengers came on land, who spend a total of 63 million kroner. In Hardanger there came 39 ships, divided over Eidfjord, Jondal and Ulvik. Those three places got respectively 19, 3 and 17 ships. A total of 17,500 passengers came on land, which all together spend 5.8 million kroner, of which 4.5 million kroner for tours and shopping. That is an average of 331 kroner per passenger. In Bergen the average spending of passengers was 600 kroner and crew spend around 300 kroner per person. People spend more in Bergen than in Hardanger, because there are more shopping opportunities in Bergen (Andersen & Ellingsen 2003). 1.3 Study site Skjolden lies innermost in the Sognefjord, the longest navigable fjord in the world. The closest large town is Sogndal and is one and a half hour away by car. There are some other small towns around Skjolden, like Gaupne and Hafslo. Skjolden can be reached via Sogndal and in summer also via the Sognefjellet. Approximately 300 people live in Skjolden (Cruise Destination Skjolden - Sognefjord 2012). Although Skjolden already received some form of cruise tourism more than 100 years ago, the first modern cruise ships came to Skjolden in In 2008 and 2009 there was not yet a cruise quay in Skjolden, so the ships would anchor and tender boats were used to ship passengers to the land. Those two years were used as try outs to see whether cruise tourism in Skjolden was desirable and possible. In 2008 there came 5 cruise ships and in 2009 there came 13. In 2010 a cruise quay was build, and there came 11 cruise ships. In 2011 the cruise quay was officially opened and again 11 2 ships called in Skjolden. In 2012 there came 21 cruise ships to Skjolden, with a total number of passengers of 30,000 (Cruise Norway 2011). The quay has a length of about 130 metres, and can therefore accommodate all current sizes of ships and is prepared for even bigger ships. At the quay there is a service building with a restaurant and from 2012 also a souvenir shop. The distance to the centre of Skjolden is approximately 700 metres (Cruise Destination Skjolden - Sognefjord 2012). Choice of study area I choose Skjolden as a case for this study, because it is a small destination and it only recently got cruise tourism. It is important to see how things can be done sustainable from an early stage in the development. I also took some interviews in Olden and Flåm, to get a better understanding. Olden and Flåm have a much longer history of cruise tourism. 1.4 Main objective and research questions The main objective of this thesis is to gain insight into how a small destination can develop cruise tourism in a sustainable way. Explanation of objective Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world and cruise tourism is one of the biggest growing sub-industries of tourism. It is important that destinations maintain some control over the development of cruise tourism (and tourism in general), so they are not impacted in a negative way. In order to learn more about this, a number of research questions become important: How can a small destination develop cruise tourism in a sustainable way? The study is limited to small destinations. Development in small destinations is different than in big destinations, for example because the impacts are different. If 3000 people visit a town of 300 residents, the impact is much bigger than if they visit a city with several hundred thousand inhabitants. How can a small destination develop cruise tourism in a sustainable way? It is important to know about tourism development in general, to know what factors are important. This resulted in the first research question: Q1: What factors are important for the development of (cruise) tourism of a (small) destination? 3 This question in answered by describing destination development in general. How can a small destination develop cruise tourism in a sustainable way? Then it is important to know the differences between land based tourism and cruise tourism. How can a small destination develop cruise tourism in a sustainable way? Sustainability in this case is meant as both economic, socio-cultural and environmental sustainability. It is important that the development of cruise tourism brings more positive than negative impacts. The managers of a destination should know the impacts and know to what extend those impacts can be influenced. This resulted in two more research questions: Q2: What are the impacts of cruise tourism on a small destination? This question is answered by using the literature of what impacts are known to be related to tourism and cruise tourism. Q3: What are the attitudes of the residents about cruise tourism in a small destination? Different people react different to certain impacts. Some impacts are negative to one person and positive to another person. 1.5 Overview In chapter 1 I describe the background of cruise tourism development in general and in Norway. I describe the study area, Skjolden. Also I present my main question along with three research questions. Chapter 2, the theory, is divided in three parts, based on the research questions. Part 2.1 is based on the first research question: What factors are important for the development of (cruise) tourism of a (small) destination? It describes why people go on a certain holiday, the so called push factors, and what people base their choice of destination on, the so called pull factors. Then it discusses the different stages in tourism development, which is important to know about if one want to have an influence on the development. Finally this part talks about important differences between land based tourism and cruise tourism, in term of transport, service, food, accommodation and the organisation of the industry. Part 2.2 is based on the research question: What are the impacts of cruise tourism on a small destination? The impacts are divided into economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts. Both positive and negative impacts are described. Part 2.3 looks at the research question: What are the attitudes of the residents about cruise tourism in a small 4 destination? It looks at what is being said in the literature about residents attitudes to tourism. Also it looks at some articles which describe the attitudes of residents in some case studies, one of which is related to cruise tourism. Chapter 3 describes the methods that I used and the execution of them. In chapter 4 I describe the results of the interviews. Sometimes I use quotes of a respondent, but mostly I summarise and interpret what the respondents said. The results are divided into the same three parts as the theory, and those parts thus relate to the three research questions. The information from the interviews is also compared to the relevant theories about it. On top of the three parts relating to the research questions, the results start with a part about the role of Røysi, Luster municipality and the cruise companies on the development of cruise tourism in Skjolden. Chapter 5 gives a critical look at the paper and looks at the reliability and the validity. Chapter 6 is the conclusion. 5 2. Theory 2.1 Tourism development Push and pull factors Tourism has been growing rapidly and is now one of the biggest industries in the world. The factors that stimulate the demand for tourism can be called push factors. Below are some important push factors (Weaver & Lawton 2010): Economic factors When countries get richer, the people, or at least the ones with more money, can travel more. Social factors During the years, people have gotten more free time, and thus travelling has become a bigger part of life. Also the attitude to tourism has changed. Demographic factors Reduced family size, population increase, urbanisation and increased life expectancy are all factors that contribute in a growth in tourism. Technological factors Improving transportation systems and information technology, e.g. computerised reservation systems, make the tourism industry more accessible. Political factors Certain political factors, such as more open borders, lessen the restriction to travel, so more people can and will travel. A destination cannot easily influence push factors, but it can influence pull factors. There are many different pull factors. It depends on the destination which are the most important pull factors (Weaver & Lawton 2010): Geographical proximity to markets More tourists come from close by than from far away, because the cost of travelling to the destination. To compensate this, destinations can increase the marketing in far away origin regions. Accessibility to markets Better infrastructural and political accessibility will attract more tourists. Availability of attractions Attractions differ in terms of quality, quantity, diversity, uniqueness, carrying capacity, market image and accessibility. There are pre-existing and created attractions, the latter of which could be built 6 attractions, but could for example also be festivals. Attractions can be susceptible to fashion or change in demand. Cultural links Tourists might prefer to go to countries more similar to their own, based on culture, language and/or religion. Availability of services It is important for a destination to provide proper services, such as accommodation, toilets and dining facilities. Affordability Exchange rates of a country cannot be influenced by destination managers, but if the high prices are a problem, they could do more marketing for higher-end markets. Peace, stability and safety A destination is more attracting if it is save to go there, when there is no war and less crime and terrorism. Destinations are also more attracting if there are less natural disasters, if the drinking water and the food are safe, if there are less diseases and if the traffic is safer. Positive market image The market image is based on many of the above factors. It can be descriptive, the objective perception, or evaluative, the subjective perception. Marketing can be important in creating a positive market image. Pro-tourism policies Policies can be implemented to increase the pull factor of a destination. One example is a campaign amongst the residents to promote a welcoming attitude towards the tourists Different stages in tourism development The most common way to describe the development of a tourist destination is by use of Butlers destination cycle, also called the Butler sequence (Butler 1980; Weaver & Lawton 2010). This is a model describing five stages of growth, which are exploration, involvement, development, consolidation and stagnation. A prerequisite for the use of this model is that there is a free
Related Search
Similar documents
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks