Predişcan Mariana, Braduţanu - PDF

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FCS THT HC DUC MPLY SISTC T CHG Predişcan Mariana, Braduţanu Daniela, oiban oxana adina Management Department, Faculty of comics and Business dministration, West University of Timişoara

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FCS THT HC DUC MPLY SISTC T CHG Predişcan Mariana, Braduţanu Daniela, oiban oxana adina Management Department, Faculty of comics and Business dministration, West University of Timişoara bstract: This paper is part of change management. The extent to which managers succeed to reduce the resistance to change from the part of the affected employees contributes greatly to the achievement of the targeted objectives that follow a change process. This paper aims to present a number of forces located both inside and outside the organization, forces that through their manner of expression may exert a direct influence on the increase or decrease of the opposition s intensity of those affected by the change. The identification and analysis of these forces give to the involved managers in coordinating changes the possibility to reduce efficiently and effectively employees resistance to change. Keywords: change, resistance to change, change in organizations, reduce resistance to change. JL classification: 30, 39 Introduction The complexity of the world in which we live makes the pace at which changes invade our life to be more accelerated. verything around us is accelerating. The pace of technical invations, techlogical discoveries abound all fields of science and techlogy, but also in the social area, generating a need for extensive changes in organizations. However, regardless of their kwledge, intelligence or quantity of data acquired over the life by people, they still remain social beings who do t like frequent changes. s lvintoffler stated in 1970 the most disturbing thing is that most people, including the educated and refined ones, consider the idea of change so threatening that they try to deny its existence . Psychologists (Claes Janssen, 1982, Conner, 1998) explain that human resistance to change is a perfectly natural process. It is human nature to exercise opposition to a process laden with uncertainties and anxieties that generate discomfort and doubts. Kurt Lewin (1951) explains in a logical manner correlated with the laws of physics that a change does t occur if the factors of a force that generates change are met with similar oncoming factors of a force that generates resistance to change. The force field analysis is the tool proposed by Kurt Lewin that allows us to identify and analyze the two major categories of forces that act as opposites. 1606 n important ingredient that can greatly contribute to the lack or failure of a change is resistance to change. mployees opposition towards manager s proposed changes occur in any change process. We consider that the intensity of this force varies from one change to ather, depending on a set of factors. In the existing literature many experts present that resistance to change can be reduced by using some specific methods or techniques. To do this, first must be assessed the level of commitment to change. epresentative methods proposed by specialists to assess commitment to change are: - Chart commitment proposed by. Beckhard and. Harris; - Curve commitment proposed by Michael Ward. Kotter and Schlesinger (1979) propose several ways to reduce resistance to change: - Training and communication; - Participation and involvement; - Facilitation and support; - egotiation and agreement; - Manipulation and cooperation; - Coercion. The role of the reducing resistance to change methods alongside managers kwledge and skills are essential for a successful implementation. Managers who have the responsibility to coordinate a change must have the ability to choose and then use the appropriate method for each employee in direct correlation with the reasons underlying its opposition. ur belief is that the intensity with which an employee opposes a proposed change is influenced by a number of factors and this intensity can vary from one change to ather, from one period to ather, from one employee to ather, from one organization to ather and even from one country to ather, depending on the manner of expression of certain forces, deemed by us responsible for increasing or reducing employee resistance towards change. Forces that enhances or reduces employee resistance to change The great diversity of forces identified as exercising influence on the acceptance or rejection of the change ideas in an organization has imposed their grouping into categories. In relation to the place from which it generates action, we can speak of internal forces, within the organization, and external forces, specific to the environment in which the organization operates. We believe that internal forces exert more influence and their better understanding might be achieved if the subsystems that generate them are analyzed (change, employee, manager, organization). Internal forces In the vast category of the internal forces we can include: - Forces that relate with the particularities of the decided change to be implemented; - Forces connected with employees; - Forces which are related to the managers that coordinate the change; - Forces connected with the organization features and processes that take place within it. Certainly, the greatest influence on the manner in which employees respond to a change is change itself. The manner in which it enhances or reduces employee resistance to change is correlated with several dimensions of change: amplitude (the vertical size of change) that reflects the gap between the old and the new state; 1607 stretch (the horizontal size of change) that reflects the number of employees affected by the change; the frequency with which the change is made; the way in which it keeps or t certain elements of continuity from the past; the way in which the anuncement of the change has been prepared; the urgency of the change and the speed of its implementation required by managers; and last but t least, the extent to which the proposed change amends the way in which employees achieve their tasks. Briefly, the influence of the change on employee resistance to change is also reflected in Table 1. C H G Tab.1. The influence of the change on the intensity of the resistance to change manifested by employees mplitude small big Stretch local general Frequency repeated singular Continuity connected to the discontinuous past Surprise expected change unexpected change Urgency small big Implementation speed small big Changes the way things are done to a small extent to a large extent The manner in which each employee assesses change can generate a bigger or small opposition from employee s part. In this category we can also include as influence factors the following: the nature of employees activity, their trust in the manager who coordinates the change, the extent to which they agree or disagree with company s strategy and policy, qualification and how quickly they can find a similar job in ather organization, job security, their potential for leadership, thinking style, age, temperament, their position in the organization s hierarchy as well as their seniority. Shortly, employee s influence on the intensity of resistance to change is also reflected in Table 2. Tab.2. mployee influence on the intensity of resistance to change M P L Their perception positive negative The nature of their activities invative routine Trust in the change agent big small ttitude towards company s policy agreement disagreement and strategy Level of training big relatively low Possibility of reintegration into the small big labor market 1608 Y S Thinking style creativeinvative conservative Leadership potential small big Job security small big Temperament melancholic choleric ge young old Position in the organization important insignificant Seniority big small The intensity of employee opposition may be correlated with certain qualities and skills that the manager responsible for coordinating the changes have. Insofar as they have specific kwledge and apply change management principles, certain characteristics of their personality and management style can help reduce or increase employee resistance to change. Briefly, manager s influence on the intensity of employee resistance to change is also reflected in Table 3. Tab.3. Manager s influence on the intensity of employee resistance to change M G I Management style participatory authoritative Managerial abilities excellent satisfactory Holds and applies kwledge of yes change management Holds and applies specific methods to reduce efficiently resistance to change yes Communication and negotiation excellent relatively low abilities The degree of trust inspired to small big employees Leadership potential big small Position in the organization top manager bottom line manager ge maturity very young xperience big small Personality and charisma strong weak Invative creative potential big small Just as there are huge differences between the characteristics of the changes decided to be implemented in organizations, there are also huge differences between the attitudes of employees and managers, differences at the training level, commitment to organizational values and even their own personality. We find that there are a number of specific elements and processes that take place in organizations and they might contribute to a higher or reduced level of resistance to change from employees part. 1609 We include in this category: organization s size, characteristics of the production processes (mass production, small production or series only), how much delegation of authority is used, characteristics of the organizational structure (a mechanistic structure where there are written policies and procedures to be strictly observed or an organic structure, where the goal is the achievement of the individual objectives), the way in which the payment and motivational systems are designed to work, the quality of the information system, characteristics of the organizational culture and the existence of trade unions in the company. Shortly, the influence of organization s peculiarities on employee resistance to change is also reflected in Table 4. Tab.4. The influence of organization s peculiarities on employee resistance to change G I Z T I Complexity of the activity big (high tech) small (routine activities) Degree of centralization small big Production characteristics small production and unique mass production products Type of the organizational structure organic mechanistic The use of motivational systems for yes employees fair payment system aligned with yes the market labor The quality of the information system big small The hierarchy distance small big rganizational culture pro change conservative The pace of change in the big reduced organization rganization s market position high low The average age of stuff low high The existence of strong trade unions o yes xternal forces ver the years it was found that a set of an increasingly complex and dynamic environmental forces exert a more powerful action over organizations. ven though we are tempted to believe that only internal forces exert an influence on employee s resistance to change, the reality is different. People react to a change also in terms of the specific characteristics of the business environment. We include in the category of external forces the following: the pace of the national ecomy development, the purchasing power of citizens, the unemployment level in the region, the professional reintegration opportunities, national culture characteristics, the dependence of an area or locality, as well as living standards. 1610 Briefly, the influence of the external forces on the intensity of employee resistance to change is reflected in Table 5. Tab.5. The influence of the external forces on the intensity of employee resistance to change X T L F C S The pace of the national ecomy small big development The purchasing power of citizens small big The ecomy is in crisis or recession yes The unemployment level in the big small national ecomy pportunities to change job small big etraining opportunities small big Social instability big small ational culture pro change conservative Dependence on a certain area big small The existence of some strategies yes and policies to promote the entrepreneurial phemen Banking and insurance weak strong Wage dependence high low Standard of living reduced acceptable Conclusions: educing resistance to change is a well defined and crucial phase in a process of change implementation in organizations. Successfully reducing employee s resistance to change creates preconditions for achieving a greater measure of objectives. For a successful completion of the reducing resistance to change phase important resources are needed. These resources are: necessary expertise in the field of change management, action coordination by competent change agents, time resources that will allow employees to accept the change as well as financial resources, necessary for motivating the affected by the change employees. By kwing the forces that can increase or reduce employees strength of opposition to the new ideas for change, managers can better coordinate the process, reducing the resources required to achieve the necessary commitment from those affected by the change, so that the implemented change is t reversible. kwledgments This work was cofinaced from the uropean Social Fund through Sectorial perational Programme Human esources Development , project number PSDU/107/1.5/S/77213,, Ph.D. for a career in interdisciplinary ecomic research at the uropean Standards (DCCT). 1611 eferences lvintoffler (1989) Şocul viitorului - ditura Politică, Bucureşti Beckhard ichard & Harris euben T. (1987) - rganizationaltransitions. Managing complex change- ddison-wesleypublishing Company, US Conner, D.. (1998). Managing at the speed of change. How resilient managers succeed and prosper where others fail. Chichester: Wiley Kotter, J. P., & Schlesinger, L.. (1979)-Choosing strategies for change. Harvard Business eview, march - april 1979 Kotter J. & Cohen D (2008) - Inima schimbarii. Povestiri adevarate despre felul in care oamenii isi transforma organizațiile- ditura Meteor Press, Bucureşti Kilian M. BennebroekGravenhorst- Different View on esistance to Change - Power Dynamics and rganizational Change IV Symposium at the 11thWP Conference in Lisbon, Portugal, May 2003 John P. Kotter, Leonard. Schlesinger Choosind Strategies for change, Harvard Business eview, march - april Predişcan Mariana Schimbare organizaţională ce, când, cum să schimbăm? ditura Universităţii de Vest Timişoara -2004; Predișcan Mariana, Braduţanu Daniela (2012) - Change gent Force Generating esistance To Change Within n rganization? -ctauniversitatisdanubius. comica, Vol 8, o 6 Predișcan Mariana, Săcui Violeta (2011) pportunity to reduce resistance to change in a process of organizational change - nalele Universităţii din radea Fasciula Ştiinţe comice 2011, Tom XX, Volumul II Wald Michael (1995) - 50 ssential management tehniques, GowerPublishing Limited, ngland 1612
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