ПРАКТИКУМ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ - PDF

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МИНОБРНАУКИ РОССИИ ФГБОУ ВПО «УРАЛЬСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЛЕСОТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ» Кафедра профессиональных коммуникаций Л.Р. Гаряева Т.С. Григорьева ПРАКТИКУМ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ Методические указания для

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МИНОБРНАУКИ РОССИИ ФГБОУ ВПО «УРАЛЬСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЛЕСОТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ» Кафедра профессиональных коммуникаций Л.Р. Гаряева Т.С. Григорьева ПРАКТИКУМ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ Методические указания для студентов V курса ЛХФ очной формы обучения по специальностям «Лесное хозяйство», «Лесное дело», «Садово-парковое и ландшафтное строительство», «Земельный кадастр»; дисциплина «Профессиональный английский язык» Екатеринбург 2011 Печатается по рекомендации методической комиссии ИКЖ. Протокол 2 от 04 октября 2010 г. Рецензент ассистент каф. профессиональных коммуникаций В.В. Каргаполова Редактор А.Л. Ленская Оператор компьютерной верстки Г.И. Романова Подписано в печать Поз. 111 Плоская печать Формат /16 Тираж 50 экз. Заказ Печ. л. 2,09 Цена 11 руб. 28 коп. Редакционно-издательский отдел УГЛТУ Отдел оперативной полиграфии УГЛТУ 2 INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY UNIT 1 1. Read the international words and guess what they mean Action, donor, technological, provision, plantation, rehabilitation, natural, complex, geography, process, model, version, type, system, aspect, display, diagram, form, energy, examine, operate, information, transfer, classify, mass, universe, planet, global, balance, dynamic, equilibrium, positive, negative, affect, result. 2. Before you read - Name types of cooperation 3. Read and translate the text Trends in International Cooperation International cooperation in forestry has been marked in recent years by increasing complexity and changes in perception of the role of forestry in development. The natural world is very complex. Geography was concerned chiefly with describing 'how things were'. Then, in an attempt to understand the complex interrelationships among processes on the earth's surface, geographers introduced the use of models. Models are simplified representations of reality, in much the same way as a model train is a scaled-down version of the real thing. One type of model is a system. A system is a way of identifying an aspect of reality, known as a unit (e.g. a river valley), understanding the relationships between its separate components and then investigating how the unit interacts with the wider environment. A systems model is usually displayed as a flow diagram that, in its simplest form, can be shown as a black box system. Such models allow us to identify inputs to a system (i.e. the entry of energy and/or matter) and outputs from the system (i.e. the mass, energy or change of state which leaves the system). However, the 'black box' (named because we cannot see into it) does not allow us to examine the processes which operate within the system. A more sophisticated model needs to incorporate information about what is happening internally and might look more like Figure where: a store is a part of the system which can hold energy or matter a transfer is part of the system which redistributes energy or matter from one point to another a flow is any movement within the system. Systems can be classified as being: Closed: where there are inputs and outputs of energy but not of mass (or matter). Earth itself is often considered a closed system because it receives energy from the sun and loses heat into space but there is no transfer of matter be- 3 tween the universe and the planet. The global hydrological cycle is also a system of this type. Open: where there are inputs and outputs of both energy and matter. Such a system interacts with other, co-existing systems as well as with the surrounding environment. Positive feedback occurs when the change has a 'snowball' effect with change becoming greater and greater. This moves the whole system away from equilibrium. Negative feedback occurs when the system acts to lessen the effects of the initial change and the processes within the system then work to restore the balance or equilibrium of the entire system. The political changes that took place in Eastern Europe offered new opportunities for cooperation in the fields of protection and management of forest resources. When a system's inputs and outputs are balanced, it is said to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium. If one element in a system changes as a result of an outside influence it upsets the balance and affects other components in the system. This process is called feedback and may be either positive or negative. 4. Match these words with their definitions 1) feedback 2) interrelationship 3) environment 4) flow 5) equilibrium a) response by a system to any change in its inputs b) the way in which two or more things affect each often because they are related c) the natural world including the land, water, air, plants and animals d) a situation in which there is a balance between different forces or aspects e) the continues movement 5. Complete these sentences using the words in the box Hold, moves, feedback, model, equilibrium, representations, system, identify, flow, unit, open/closed 1. To understand the complex interrelationships among processes on the earth s surface, geographers introduced the use of 2. Models are simplified of reality. 3. One type of model is a 4. An aspect of reality is known as a 5. Models allow us to input to a system and outputs from the system. 6. A store is a part of the system which can energy a matter. 4 7. A is any movement within the system. 8. System can be classified as being and 9. When a system's inputs and outputs are balanced, it is said about a state of dynamic 10. may be either positive are negative. 11. Positive feedback the whole system away from equilibrium. 6. Say if it is true or false 1. The natural world is very complex. 2. Models are complicated representations of reality. 3. Models allow us to identify inputs to a system and outputs from the system. 4. The black box allow us to examine the processes which operate within the system. 5. A transfer is a part of the system which redistributes energy or matter from one point to another. 6. Earth is often considered as an open system. 7. There is no transfer of matter between the universe and the planet. 8. When a system's inputs and outputs are balanced, it is said to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium. 9. Negative feedback moves the whole system away from equilibrium. 7. Explain the following terms - inputs and outputs - an open system - dynamic equilibrium - feedback 8. Choose the correct form of the verb 1. The natural world ( is/are) very complex. 2. Models ( is/are) simplified representations of reality. 3. A system ( is/are) a way of identifying an aspect of reality. 4. A system model ( is/are) displayed as a flow diagram. 5. Earth ( is/are) often considered as a closed system. 6. There ( is/are) no transfer of matter between the universe and the planet. 7. The global hydrological cycle ( is/are) a closed system. 8. There ( is/are) inputs and outputs of both energy or matter. 9. System's inputs and outputs ( is/are) balanced. 9. Make a short summary of the text 5 UNIT 2 1. Read the international words and guess what they mean Forum (pl. fora), special, import, orientation, biologists, unique, ecosystem, focus, ecology, organism, individual, region, biosphere, ecosphere, formation, climate, tendency, sensitive, biome, relief, temperature, instrument. 2. Before you read Name parts of speech of the following words Import, contact, committee, environment, contribution, ecological, individual, population, physical, different, natural, nature, entirely, partly. identify, environmentally, typify, bank. 3. Read and translate the text Forms of Cooperation (I) International cooperation may take many forms. A systems approach to studies of the living environment was adopted by biologists and environmentalists long before geographers incorporated it into their way of thinking. The unique contribution of ecosystems to our understanding of the natural world is due to its focus on the interactions between living organisms and their environment. In the past, the importance of these interactions was often overlooked and ecological disasters have occurred such as the 'Dust Bowl' of the 1930s in the USA. The basis for all cooperation is contact and dialogue among countries. An organism is any individual form of life; groups of similar organisms are known as a species. All of the members of a species living in an area are known as a population. The physical space, region or area in which a population lives is called a habitat and all the different species sharing a population's habitat are known as a community. An ecosystem is created when we consider a community of species interacting with each other and the non-living environment of energy and matter. Not all ecosystems are natural; reservoirs, agricultural fields and garden ponds are all examples of ecosystems created by human intervention within the natural world. The size of an ecosystem is determined entirely by the requirements of the researchers studying it. For example, an ecosystem may comprise a single tree, woodland or an entire forest stretching across thousands of kilometres, depending on the focus of the study being undertaken. There are few clear-cut boundaries between different ecosystems. Even the apparently clear interface between land and sea is far from being a distinct boundary; this is partly because some species of animal have adapted to function equally well both in the sea and on land and also because of the formation of ecosystems such as salt marshes which form transition zones between land and sea. 6 Many ecosystems are extremely fragile; in order to protect them we now recognize the importance of having a detailed understanding of how they function and interact so that we can predict the likely outcomes of human initiatives and interferences, and act to reduce those which are damaging. Climate patterns are the most important factor in determining which organisms can survive in a particular type of habitat. Certain animal species (most notably humans) have been able to adapt remarkably well to varying climatic conditions, whereas other species (particularly plants) have adapted slowly, over long periods of geological time, to live in very specific habitats and are now restricted to a particular climate and/or soil type. This tendency for plant species to be environmentally sensitive has led biologists to divide the earth's land surface (the biosphere) into large regions typified by distinctive climate and plant-life forms; such regions are called biomes. Within every biome there may be a range of ecosystems, reflecting plant adaptations to local soils, drainage, relief and micro-climates (i.e. local variations in temperature, moisture and light conditions). The hydrosphere (earth's surface water) is sub-divided into aquatic life zones instead of biomes, the key factor being water salinity instead of climate. Lakes and streams make up the freshwater life zone, while estuaries, coasts, seas and deep oceans comprise the marine life zone. Both life zones support a range of ecosystems appropriate to the specific local environmental conditions. More and more attention is also being given to non-wood products. 4. Match the following words with their meaning 1) ecology a) сообщество 2) habitat b) биологический вид, вид 3) organism c) популяция (биол.), население (демогр.) 4) species d) наука, изучающая взаимоотношения живых организмов друг с другом и окружающей средой 5) population e) место обитания 6) community f) живое существо (человек, животное, растение) 7) ecotone g) переходная зона между водой и землей 5. Complete these sentences using the words in the box Community, adopted, aquatic, species, ecosystem, biomes, ecotones, different, conditions, fragile, determined 7 1. A system approach to studies of the living environment was by biologists and environmentalists. 2. An is created when we consider a community of species interacting with each other and the environment. 3. Groups of similar organisms are known as a. 4. All the different species sharing a population s habitat are known as a. 5. The size of an ecosystem is by the requirements of the researcher s studying it. 6. There are few clear cut boundaries between ecosystems. 7. are richly populated habitats, supporting communities from both adjacent ecosystems. 8. Many ecosystems are extremely. 9. Certain animal species have been able to adapt well to varying climatic. 10. The biosphere is divided into large regions typified by distinctive climate and plant-life forms; they are called. 11. The hydrosphere is subdivided into life zones. 6. Say if it is true or false 1. Ecology is the study of organisms. 2. Groups of different organisms are known as a species. 3. All the earth's ecosystems up the biosphere. 4. All ecosystems are natural. 5. An ecosystem may comprise a single tree. 6. There are transition zones between land and sea. 7. There are many clear cut boundaries between different ecosystems. 8. All species are able to adapt well to varying climatic conditions. 9. The earth's land surface is divided into large regions typified by distinctive climate and plant-life forms. 10. Within every biome there may be a range of ecosystems. 11. The hydrosphere is sub-divided into biomes. 7. Explain the following terms: - ecology - species - population - habitat - community - ecosystem - biome - hydrosphere - aquatic life zone 8 8. Read this part of the text. Use the words given in capitals to form a word that fits the space DETERMINE, ADAPTATION, CLIMATE, SLOW, ENVIRONMENT, BIOLOGY Climate patterns are the most important factor in which organisms can survive in a particular type of habitat. Certain animal species have been able to well to varying conditions. Other species have adapted this tendency for plant species to be sensitive has led to divide the earth's land surface into large regions ( biomes). 9. Divide the text into logical parts 10. Make a short summary of the text UNIT 3 1. Read the international words and guess what they mean Specialize, incorporation, transnational, photosynthesis, chlorophyll, carbon, dioxide, glucose, oxygen, phytoplankton, dominant, producers, consumers, heterotrophs, primary, bacteria, statistics, stimulate, collection 2. Before you read Name parts of speech of the following words Active, interaction, publication, interval, capital, moratorium 3. Read the text and translate it Forms of Cooperation (II) Industrial development. In order for any terrestrial or marine ecosystem to be sustainable over time it must possess both the energy and the nutrients necessary to support its resident organisms, as well as the resources to dispose of and recycle their waste products. The living part of an ecosystem is known as its biotic component and the individual organisms residing there are often referred to as biota. The non-living parts of the ecosystem (e.g. solar energy, water, air and nutrients) are collectively called the abiotic environment. All ecosystems must comprise both biotic and abiotic components. The biotic organisms within ecosystems are categorized according to the way they obtain their food. Autotrophs (self-feeders) are green plants with the ability to produce sugars and other food compounds directly from abiotic nutrients via photosynthesis. During this process, chlorophyll converts solar energy, carbon dioxide and water into chemical energy such as glucose and oxygen. The oxygen by-product of photosynthe- 9 sis is essential for maintaining most animal life on earth. In the hydrosphere, plants and algae are the main autotrophs in both freshwater and coastal environments. However, in deep oceans, phytoplankton are the dominant autotrophs. Autotrophs are often referred to as primary producers; all other organisms are known as consumers because they must consume other organisms in order to gain energy. Consumers (known more correctly as heterotrophs) may be subdivided into: Herbivores (also known as primary consumers): these eat only primary producers, i.e. plants. Carnivores (meat eaters): these may be secondary or tertiary consumers. Secondary consumers eat herbivores while tertiary consumers eat other carnivores. Omnivores: these are meat and plant eaters; most omnivores are hunters. There are also several other groups of consumers that, while fitting into the above categories, are recognized separately because they fulfill quite different roles within the recycling process: Scavengers feed on organisms killed by others or which have died from natural causes. Detritivores live off the waste products of other organisms. Decomposers (mainly consumers such as bacteria and fungi) complete the recycling of organic materials by breaking them down and releasing the resultant inorganic compounds back into the soil and water - where they become available once again as nutrients for the primary producers. Such an agreement provides a framework for promoting balance between conservation and development. 4. Match the words to make phrases individual component primary organism organic environment freshwater oceans deep plants green products waste energy chemical ecosystem terrestrial producers 5. Find English equivalents in the text Питательные вещества, отходы, внутри экосистем, побочный продукт, водоросли, первичные продукты, консументы, травоядные, плотоядные, всеядные, детритоядные, деструкторы, подразделять, через (посредством) 10 6. Complete these sentences using the words in the box Autotrophs, abiotic, living, eat, complete, essential, food, carnivores, dominant, feed, consumers 1. The part of an ecosystem is known as it's biotic component. 2. Solar energy, water, air and nutrients are collectively called the environment. 3. The biotic organisms within ecosystems are categorized according to the way they obtain their. 4. are green plants with the ability to produce sugars and other food compounds via photosynthesis. 5. The oxygen by-product of photosynthesis is for maintaining most animal life on earth. 6. Phytoplankton are the autotrophs in deep oceans. 7. must consume other organisms in order to gain energy. 8. Herbivores only plants. 9. may be secondary or tertiary consumers. 10. Scavengers on organisms killed by others. 11. Decomposers the recycling of organic materials by breaking them down and releasing the resultant in organic back into the soil and water. 7. Say if it is true or false 1. All ecosystems must comprise both biotic and abiotic components. 2. Chlorophyll produced solar energy, carbon dioxide and water. 3. In the hydrosphere, plants and algal are the main autotrophs. 4. Consumers are refereed to as primary producers. 5. Consumers are known as heterotrophs. 6. Herbivores eat only plants. 7. Omnivores are meat eaters. 8. Detritivores live off the waste products of other organisms. 9. In order for any ecosystem to be sustainable it must possess only the nutrients. 8. Match the words with their definitions 1) carnivores a) eat only plants 2) herbivores b) are meat and
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