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EDUCATION SERVICE CENTER REGION 2 Teaching Vocabulary An Effective Use of Instructional Time Corpus Christi, TX April 6, 2009 Time—measured in just minutes—spent on vocabulary instruction correlates with growth in reading comprehension – Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986 (a meta-analysis of vocabulary studies at varying grade levels) MAKING ACADEMIC ENGLISH MORE ACCESSIBLE Susan M. Ebbers susan@readingway.com www.readingway.com Ebbers, 2009 2 Big Ideas for Developing Vocabulary Get a Grip on Lear

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  1 MAKING ACADEMIC ENGLISHMORE ACCESSIBLEMAKING ACADEMIC ENGLISHMAKING ACADEMIC ENGLISHMORE ACCESSIBLEMORE ACCESSIBLE Susan M. Ebbers susan@readingway.comwww.readingway.com Corpus Christi, TX April 6, 2009 EDUCATION SERVICE CENTER REGION 2 Ebbers, 20092 Teaching Vocabulary An Effective Use of Instructional Time Time—measured in just minutes—spent onvocabulary instruction correlates with growth inreading comprehension  –Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986 (a meta-analysis of vocabularystudies at varying grade levels) Ebbers, 20093 Big Ideas for Developing Vocabulary ã Verbalize Words  –enunciate, discussã Relate Words  –build networksã Enjoy Words  –overcome apathy, intimidation Ebbers, 20094 Get a Grip on Learning Get a Grip on Academic Texts Academic WordsMorphologicallyComplex Words Ebbers, 20095 Academic Words ã Used primarily in school or other formal settings  –Students from disadvantaged backgrounds areless likely to hear this language at home ãlow SESãnon-English (or non-standard English)ãless exposure to those with post-secondary education Ebbers, 20096 Morphologically Complex Words Morpheme: The smallest unit of meaning in a word unlocking  has 3 morphemes: un-lock-ing biographers  has 4 morphemes: bio-graph-er-sCommon Morphemes:word root: inspector,phonics base word: unlikelylighthouse prefix:re-, un-, dis-suffix:-able, -ive, -ly } affixes  2 Ebbers, 20097 derivation ã A word formed from an existing word, root, oraffix, having a derivational suffixtract(Latin root, meaning to pull  ) ã tractor, traction, attractive, intractable, etc.morphology ã The study of the structure of words as itrelates tomeaning.It isstructural analysis. ã Morphology may also include the study ofword history:etymology.   Ebbers, 20098   UnveilingUnveilingAcademicAcademicEnglish viaEnglish viaMorphologyMorphology Ebbers, 20099 ãPoor comprehension in middle school isfrequently due to limited vocabulary, includingacademic words (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Buly& Valencia, 2003; Carlo,2005; Stahl & Nagy, 2006; Stanovich, 1986) Ebbers, 200910 “Nearly half of incoming freshmencannot read their textbooks fluently” (Carnegie Corporation, 2002) Ebbers, 200911 Butler et al. (2004) Describe Academic Wordsin 5 th Grade Math, Science, and Social Studies ã Low frequency words, rare words <11 exposures per million words (Zeno et al., 1995)ã Words with ≥ 3 syllables ã Derivations—a linguistics-morphology term ã Nominalizations Ebbers, 200912 Developmental Progression Inflection, Compound, Derivation derivationsinflectionscompound wordsboy, farm, coldbase wordsboys, farmed, farming, colder, coldestboyfriend, farmhouse, coldheartedboyish, boyishly, boyhood,farmer, Farmington (Anglin, 1993; Berko, 1958; Tyler & Nagy, 1989; Wysocki& Jenkins, 1987 )  3 Ebbers, 200913 Derivational Suffixes That Mean “one who” leader painter teacher  --er politiciandieticianlibrarian --ian pioneer senator cartoonistmountaineer mayor pianistengineer governor scientist --eer--or-ist Ebbers, 200914 Derivational Suffixes Academic, Abstract, and Challenging Derivational suffixes can change thepart of speech ãwords ending with –ion (-sion, -tion) are often nouns (station, distraction, consideration) ãwords ending with –iveare often adjectives (creative, aggressive, sensitive) ãwords ending with –ityare often nouns (simplicity, purity, inferiority) ãwords ending with –mentare often nouns (inducement, enrollment, impediment) Ebbers, 200915 Inflection or Derivation? actoractsactedactionactivateactingdeactivationactivityactress (The base word is act.) Ebbers, 200916 Morphological Development Morphology studies demonstrate that English-speaking childrengenerally understand inflections and compounds before theyunderstand derivations. For diverse learners, derivationalmorphology continues to be an obstacle through high school. (Anglin, 1993; Berko, 1958; Carlisle, 1995; Carlisle & Fleming, 2003;Derwing, 1976; Derwing& Baker, 1979, 1986; Freyd& Baron, 1982;Selby, 1972; Tyler & Nagy, 1989; Wysocki& Jenkins, 1987) Ebbers, 200917 Prior Studies: The “WugTest” Jean Berko-Gleason, 1958Boston12 adults, 86 childrenpreschool and 1 st grade This is a wug. Now there is another one.There are two of them.There are two ____. Ebbers, 200918 Prior Studies: Anglin, 1993 What does the word treelet  mean? OK. Maybe it means like a tree and maybe like for Christmas you can put lights on it… Can you tell me anything more about treelet? Is it [spelled] –let or –lit?  Actually, it’s l-e-t. I’m not sure about this, but it might mean a baby tree… Fifth-Grader (p. 100)  4 Ebbers, 200919 Research with Compounds and Related Words At-risk second-grade readers failedto understand the meanings ofcompound words and did notrecognize related word (e.g., quick,quickly, quicksand, quicken  ) (Nagy,Berninger, Abbott, Vaughan, &Vermeulen, 2003) What would you call grasswhere bees like to hide? beegrass  or grassbee?  Ebbers, 200920 Build Compound Words Build, Invent, Describe Word cards coathousefirerainflashdoghorseflynightlightdropgreenhorsedogdoghouse Invented wordReal word Ebbers, 200921 White, Sowell, and Yanagihara (1989) found thatthird-graders who were given training onthe ninemost common prefixesand a strategy fordecomposing words into roots and suffixesoutperformed a control group on several measuresof word meaning.They concluded that teaching at least the top nineprefixes(if not all twenty)to middle schoolstudents would pay dividends in increasedvocabulary learning. Ebbers, 200922 20 Most Frequent Prefixes in School Texts 1.unable2.review3.inedible (immobile,illegal, irresponsible) 4.distrust5.enlighten (empower) 6.nonsense7.inside (implant) 8.overload9.misguide10.submarine11.preheat12.interview13.forewarn14.derail15.transfer16.supersonic17.semicircle18.antifreeze19.midterm20.underfed American Heritage Dictionary   Ebbers, 200923 not prefix re-prefix re- reheatredreturnreadrebuildrewindrestrescue Will the Real Prefix Please Stand Up? reheatred Ebbers, 200924 Peel Away the Affixes multifaceted The diamond was multifaceted;it had many faces or sides.   many
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