“ 'By Work Done For Me': Building Culture and Client Relationships in Eighteenth-Century Williamsburg”

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“ 'By Work Done For Me': Building Culture and Client Relationships in Eighteenth-Century Williamsburg”

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  Elizabeth CookJOUHS 2011 – Edits 9.30.11“ 'By o!k "o#e $o! %e'& Bildi#( Clt!e a#d Clie#t )elatio#shi*s i# Ei(htee#th+Ce#t!y illia,sb!(-# 1/99 the a*ital o the olo#y o i!(i#ia ,o4ed. 5he s6a,*s o Ja,esto6# sla#d 6ith thei! ,e,o!ies o sta!4atio# ,assa!e a#d !ebellio# 6e!e aba#do#ed i# a4o! o the  *asto!al setti#(s o %iddle 7la#tatio# a s,all settle,e#t hal+6ay bet6ee# the Ja,es a#d the 8o!k )i4e!s. t the ti,e %iddle 7la#tatio# 6as little ,o!e tha# a !oss !oads 6ith a ta4e!# a h!h a e6 s!!o#di#( a!,s a#d *la#tatio#s a#d the Colle(e o illia, a#d %a!y. )oads ,ea#de!ed th!o(h a#d a!o#d the #at!al la#dsa*e ski!ti#( !a4i#es a#d ollo6i#( hills. 5his  boli s*ot 6as hose# #ot o! the #at!al beaty o its e#4i!o#,e#t bt o! the bla#k a#4as it oe!ed o# 6hih to *la# the to6#. "!i4e# by ba!o:e se#sibilities ;iete#a#t <o4e!#o! $!a#is  =iholso# laid ot the #e6 ity ao!di#( to a #e6 aestheti. 5he #at!al to*o(!a*hy 6old be ta,ed& !a4i#es illed> !eeks di4e!ted i# o!de! to ao,,odate st!ai(ht !oads a#d *e!etly (!idded lots> a#d t!ees t do6# to i,*!o4e si(ht li#es. =a,ed i# ho#o! o ?i#( illia, illia,sb!( 6as to be the aade,i eo#o,i *olitial a#d lt!al e#te! o i!(i#ia #ot  @st a to6# “bt sh a 5o6# as ,ay e:al i #ot otdo Bosto# =e6 8o!k 7hiladel*hia Cha!lesto6# a#d ##a*olis.- 1 t least 1A2 a!*e#te!s abi#et,ake!s b!iklaye!s bilde!s a#d b!ik ,ake!s 6e!e !es*o#sible o! !eati#( a#d ,ai#tai#i#( this la#dsa*e o4e! the o!se o the ei(htee#th e#t!y. 5his #,be! !elets o#ly the ,e# 6ho let behi#d so,e ,a!k i# the histo!ial !eo!d o the ity. ;a!(ely abse#t !o, it a!e the @o!#ey,e# iti#e!a#t labo!e!s a#d sla4es 6ho *!atied these  bildi#( t!ades i# a#o#y,ity. hile thei! ha#di6o!k !e,ai#s 4isible i# the ei(htee#th+e#t!y 1 illia, alle! He#i#( The Statutes at Large: Being a Collection of all the Laws of Virginia, from the First Session of the Legislature, in the Year 1619, Cha!lottes4ille& U#i4e!sity 7!ess o i!(i#ia 19/9 D22. 1  Elizabeth CookJOUHS 2011 – Edits 9.30.11st!t!es that still sta#d o! k#o6led(e o the, ete#ds o#ly so a! as to !eo(#ize the  *ossibility o thei! eiste#e. E4e# o the 1A2 ,e# o! 6ho, do,e#tatio# eists ,h o it is sa#t *a!tila!ly so o! those 6ho 6o!ked i# the ea!ly deades o the e#t!y. %ost bildi#( !ats,e# e#te! the histo!ial !eo!d th!o(h a si#(le ad4e!tise,e#t i# the Virginia Gaette  a  *assi#( !ee!e#e i# a *!i4ate lette! o! a# e#t!y i# the s!4i4i#( o#ty !eo!ds. Ete#si4e do,e#tatio# eists o! o#ly i4e o the a!*e#te!s ati4e i# illia,sb!('s bildi#( lt!e  *!io! to 1FA0. $o! ea,*le He#!y Ca!y !e:e#tly se!4ed as a# o4e!see! o# state bildi#(  *!o@ets a#d so o*ies a so,e6hat *!o,i#e#t *lae i# the !eo!ds o the Hose o B!(esses a#d the Eeti4e Co#il. 5he !eo!d base o! the othe! o! !ats,e# is less ab#da#t. Estate i#4e#to!ies eist o! )iha!d ?i#( 5ho,as hitby a#d 5ho,as Cobb a#d a# estate i#4e#to!y a#d so,e ,isella#eos ao#ts s!4i4e !o, Ja,es !ay. 2  5his abse#e i# the do,e#ta!y !eo!d ,ay s*eak to the bi:ity o the bildi#( t!ades i# daily lie. E4e!yo#e #eeded a bildi#( a#d the!eo!e e4e!yo#e #eeded aess to so,eo#e 6ith the skills to bild o#e. ith the *assa(e o ti,e the skills o these !ats,e# a#d thei! o#t!ibtio#s to the !eatio# o o,,#ities ha4e bee# lost. Bildi#(s o*y s*aes o# lt!al soial ,e#tal a#d *hysial la#dsa*es bt the ,e# 6ho !eated those bildi#(s seldo, 2?i#( 6as ati4e bet6ee# 1F1D a#d 1F2F> hitby bet6ee# 1F03 a#d 1F11> Cobb bet6ee# 1FDA a#d 1FFD> a#d !ay bet6ee# 1F31 a#d 1FA0. "ata !o, the illia,sb!( !ea )eside#ts $iles Colo#ial illia,sb!( $o#datio#> Ca!y a**ea!s i# H. ). %l6ai#e ed.  !ournals of the "ouse of Burgesses of Virginia  13 4ols. )ih,o#d& 5he Colo#ial 7!ess E. addey Co 1913 a#d H. ). %l6ai#e et al. eds.  #$ecuti%e !ournals of the Council of Colonial Virginia  / 4ols. )ih,o#d& i!(i#ia State ;ib!a!y 192F+19//> #4e#to!y o the Estate o )iha!d ?i#( 8o!k Co#ty )eo!ds O!de!s a#d ills 1/ AGG ;ib!a!y o i!(i#ia> #4e#to!y o Estate o Ja,es !ay 1FA0 %a!h 1G Colo#ial illia,sb!( "i(ital ;ib!a!y htt*&!esea!h.histo!y.o!("i(ital;ib!a!yie6i#de.,Ido7!obatesK7B003D0.,l> 5ho,as Cobb #4e#to!y a#d **!aisal 8o!k Co#ty )eo!ds ills a#d #4e#to!ies 22 2DA+2D/ ;ib!a!y o i!(i#ia> # #4e#to!y o %!. 5ho,as hitby deed. 8o!k Co#ty )eo!ds O!de!s a#d ills 1D 1/3+D ;ib!a!y o i!(i#ia> a#d o#t o Colo#el 5ho,as Jo#es 6ith Ja,es !ay Jo#es $a,ily 7a*e!s L. 1F31+1F3AM 7hotoo*y %a#s!i*ts Colletio# Colo#ial illia,sb!( $o#datio# illia,sb!(. 2  Elizabeth CookJOUHS 2011 – Edits 9.30.11!eei4e the !edit de the,. )athe! tha# stdyi#( a!hitet!al styles a#d o!,s stdyi#( the skills #eessa!y to *!ode those o!,s allo6s shola!s to ak#o6led(e the h,a# o#t!ibtio# to the !eatio# o a la#dsa*e. By ak#o6led(i#( the *!ese#e a#d the skills o olo#ial !ats,e# 6e alte! the *!e4iosly established *it!e o bildi#( lt!e. =o lo#(e! based solely o# the i#ished *!odt shola!ly 6o!k o# bildi#( lt!e a# #o6 i#o!*o!ate the e#ti!e  *!oess o ,a#at!e a#d o#s,*tio# !o, the !a6 (oods to the i#ished *!odt !o, 6o!ksho* to ho,e. he# o#side!i#( bildi#( lt!e i# this all+i#lsi4e 6ay 6e look beyo#d style a#d !ei#e,e#t as the *!i,a!y ,eas!e o a bildi#( to see the skill a#d i#(e#ity o the !ats,a# 6ho !eated it.hile se4e!al i##o4ati4e a#d i#le#tial stdies ha4e ea,i#ed the de4elo*,e#t o a sha!ed se#se o o,,#ity th!o(h a!hitet!e e6 (o so a! as to ak#o6led(e the !ats,e# !es*o#sible o! that a!hitet!e. # Town "ouse, Be!#a!d He!,a# e*lo!ed the e#ti!e s*et!, o !ba# bildi#(s !o, i##s a#d ta4e!#s to 6ido6's !oo,s a#d a!tisa#'s sho*s. # the, he o#d #ot o#ly !e(io#al a!hitet!al styles bt also the sbtle ha#(es i# ,e#tality a#d  beha4io!. 5hese shits allo6ed i#di4idals to de4elo* ide#tities that it 6ithi# the established o,,#ity e*etatio#s a#d to ,ate!ially li4e 6ithi# those e*etatio#s 6hile still ehibiti#( a se#se o sel. )obe!t Blai! St. <eo!(e obse!4ed that “the *o6e! o *lae i# e4e!yday lie s((ests that loal (eo(!a*hy o#ei4ed as a ,at!i o ,e,o!y sites si#( o#lit a#d ao!d loss a#d !e#e6al ,ay be a ,o!e *o6e!l *!i#i*le i# the li4es o o!di#a!y *eo*le tha# ,e!e h!o#olo(y- as he stdied olo#ial =e6 E#(la#d. ,o#( ,a#y o the othe! ha#(es that !eleted a (!o6i#( se#se o *e!so#al a#d lt!al !ei#e,e#t )iha!d Bsh,a# o#d that 3  Elizabeth CookJOUHS 2011 – Edits 9.30.11e#o(h *eo*le had soial a#d i#a#ial aess to ha#(es i# hosi#( i#ldi#( deo!ati4e eat!es sh as sash 6i#do6s a#d #e6 s*eial+*!*ose !oo,s like the *a!lo! a#d the stai!  *assa(e that these ha#(es hel*ed to !eo!de! the !elatio#shi* o hoses a#d soial lass. =e6 hosi#( o!,s ,ade it diilt o! a#yo#e 6ho as*i!ed to soial leade!shi* to li4e i# o#e o the ,odest hoses that o#stitted a ,a@o!ity o the o#t!y's hosi#( stok. 3 %issi#( !o, the shola!shi* o# the soial lt!e s!!o#di#( these bildi#(s is the stdy o the bildi#( lt!e that *!oded the, the oo!di#ated syste, o k#o6led(e !les  *!oed!es a#d habits that s!!o#d the bildi#( *!oess i# a (i4e# *lae a#d ti,e. Sh i#o!,atio# has a**ea!ed i# othe! 6o!ks. Ca!y Ca!so#'s et al “,*e!,a#e#t !hitet!e- illie <!aha,'s et al. “da*tatio# a#d ##o4atio#- a#d illie <!aha,'s N7!ei#dst!ial $!a,i#( i# the Chesa*eake- t!aes the st!t!e ha#(es i# 6ood+!a,ed bildi#( o#st!tio#. Cathe!i#e Bishi! *!o4ided a# i#+de*th a#alysis o the o#t!atal la#(a(e e,*loyed  bet6ee# lie#ts a#d a!*e#te!s i# a# atte,*t to #de!sta#d the tho(ht *!oesses that (a4e !ise to bildi#(s. Be##ie B!o6# ea,i#ed the *!e4ale#e o a!hitet!al 3  Bernar& L' "erman, Town "ouse: (rchitecture an& )aterial Life in the #arl* (merican Cit*, 1+-.1/-  Cha*el Hill& 7blished o! the O,oh#d!o #stitte o Ea!ly ,e!ia# Histo!y a#d Clt!e by the U#i4e!sity o  =o!th Ca!oli#a 7!ess 200A   2/1+2//> )obe!t Blai! St. <eo!(e Con%ersing 0* Signs: oetics of 2m3lication in Colonial 4ew #nglan& Culture  Cha*el Hill& U#i4e!sity o =o!th Ca!oli#a 7!ess 199G F> )iha!d ; Bsh,a# The 5efinement of (merica: ersons, "ouses, Cities  =e6 8o!k& ?#o* 1992 11D 11/. Othe! ea,*les o shola!shi* i#lde& Ed6a!d Cha**ell “lt!atio# i# the She#a#doah alley& )he#ish Hoses o the %assa#tte# Settle,e#t-  rocee&ings, (merican hiloso3hical Societ*  12D 19G0. )e*!i#t i# "ell U*to# a#d Joh# lah eds. Common laces  the#s& U#i4e!sity o <eo!(ia 7!ess 19G/ 2F+AF> <!e(( ". ?i,ball “!ia#+i!(i#ia#s a#d the e!#ala! Bildi#( 5!aditio# i# )ih,o#d City 1F90+1G/0- i#  ers3ecti%es in Vernacular (rchitecture 2V'  ed. by 5ho,as Ca!te! a#d Be!#a!d ;. He!,a# Col,bia& U#i4e!sity o %isso!i 7!ess 1991 121+129> "ell U*to# “e!#ala! "o,esti !hitet!e i# Ei(htee#th+Ce#t!y i!(i#ia- interthur ortfolio  1F 19G2& 9A+119. )e*!i#t i# "ell U*to# a#d Joh# lah eds. Common laces  the#s& U#i4e!sity o <eo!(ia 7!ess 19G/ 31A+33A> )hys saa The Transformation of Virginia, 1+7-.1+9-  Cha*el Hill& 7blished o! the #stitte o Ea!ly ,e!ia# Histo!y a#d Clt!e illia,sb!( . by U#i4e!sity o  =o!th Ca!oli#a 7!ess 19G2> ;o!e#a alsh a#d ;ois <!ee# Ca!! “Cha#(i#( ;iestyles a#d Co#s,e! Beha4io! i# the Colo#ial Chesa*eake- i# Ca!y Ca!so# et al. 8f Consuming 2nterests: The St*le of Life in the #ighteenth Centur*  Cha!lottes4ille& 7blished o! the U#ited States Ca*itol Histo!ial Soiety by the U#i4e!sity 7!ess o i!(i#ia 199D A9+1//> Ed6a!d Cha**ell “Hosi#( a =atio#& 5he 5!a#so!,atio# o ;i4i#( Sta#da!ds i# Ea!ly ,e!ia- i# Ca!y Ca!so# et al. 8f Consuming 2nterests: The St*le of Life in the #ighteenth Centur*  Cha!lottes4ille& 7blished o! the U#ited States Ca*itol Histo!ial Soiety by the U#i4e!sity 7!ess o i!(i#ia 199D 1/F+232. D  Elizabeth CookJOUHS 2011 – Edits 9.30.11  books i# olo#ial i!(i#ia a#d o#d that as i!(i#ia soiety stabilized ,o!e a!hitet!e books a**ea!ed i# the lib!a!ies o both the (e#t!y a#d !ats,e# i#diati#( a# i#te!est i# both *a!ties i# #tio# a#d ashio#.D 5hese 6o!ks t!eat i#di4idal as*ets o the bildi#( lt!e bt e6 ha4e atte,*ted a#y o,*!ehe#si4e stdy o it. Cathe!i#e Bishi!'s et al  Buil&ers an& (rchitects in 4orth Carolina,  a#d J. )ithie <a!!iso#'s Two Car3enters  oe! i#+de*th t!eat,e#ts o the bildi#( lt!es i# ei(htee#th+e#t!y =o!th Ca!oli#a a#d late ei(htee#th+ a#d ea!ly #i#etee#th+e#t!y %assahsetts !es*eti4ely. Bishi! et al t!ae the e4oltio# o bildi#( lt!e i# =o!th Ca!oli#a !o, its settle,e#t to the ,ode!# day !elyi#( o# a #a!!ati4e that e#(a(es o#st!tio# teh#olo(y> the !elatio#shi* bet6ee# bilde! a#d lie#t> the ha#dli#( o desi(# ,o#ey ,ate!ials a#d labo!> a#d the te#sio# o4e! o#t!ol a#d stats 6ithi# the bildi#( *!oess. By ea,i#i#( bilde!s a#d bildi#( lt!e as a 6hole they s**la#t theo!etial a#d teleolo(ial a**!oahes 6ith o#e that oses o# the “*e!so#al sa(as o h#d!ed o i#di4idals labo!i#( at thosa#ds o bildi#( sites.- <a!!iso# ses a si,ila! a**!oah tho(h he oses o# o#ly t6o i#di4idals. )elyi#( o# the ao#t books let by Cal4i# a#d <eo!(e Stea!#s athe! a#d so# a!*e#te!s <a!!iso# e*lo!es the *!oesses by 6hih the la#dsa*es a#d bildi#(s o =o!thield %assahsetts a,e i#to bei#( a#d !e4eals ,h abot the 6o!ki#( lie o these ,e# thei! a,ilies a#d thei! o,,#ity.   U#like ,h o the shola!shi* 6hih oses o# the bilt e#4i!o#,e#t these books also e#(a(e the !ats,e# a#d the *!odtio# *!oess. 5 By ea,i#i#( the e#ti!e *!oess o *!odtio# a#d o#s,*tio# o! *e!s*eti4e o ho6 the bildi#(s #tio#ed i# the soial la#dsa*e ha#(es. 5he skills sed to o#st!t the  bildi#(s a!e #o lo#(e! *!atied a#o#y,osly bt !athe! beo,e *e!o!,a#es o o,*ete#e DHo6a!d "a4is The Culture of Buil&ing Oo!d& Oo!d U#i4e!sity 7!ess 1999 A> Ca!so# Ca!y =o!,a# $. Ba!ka illia, %. ?elso <a!!y heele! Sto#e a#d "ell U*to# “,*e!,a#e#t !hitet!e i# the Sothe!# ,e!ia# Colo#ies- interthur ortfolio  1/ #o. 23 S,,e!+t,# 19G1& 13A+19/> illie <!aha, Ca!te! ;. Hd(i#s Ca!l ). ;o#sb!y $!ase! ". =ei,a# a#d Ja,es 7. hitte#b!( “da*tatio# a#d ##o4atio#& !haeolo(ial a#d !hitet!al 7e!s*eti4es o# the Se4e#tee#th+Ce#t!y Chesa*eake- )  3!d Se!. ol. ; =o. 3 Jly 200F& DA1+A22> illie <!aha, “7!ei#dst!ial $!a,i#( i# the Chesa*eake- i# Constructing  2mage, 2&entit*, an& lace: ers3ecti%es in Vernacular (rchitecture, 2, eds. liso# ?. Hoa(la#d a#d ?e##eth . B!eish ?#o4ille& U#i4e!sity o 5e##essee 7!ess 2003 1F9+19/> Cathe!i#e Bishi! “<ood a#d Siie#t ;a#(a(e o! Bildi#(- i#  ers3ecti%es in Vernacular (rchitecture, 2V   ed. by 5ho,as Ca!te! a#d Be!#a!d He!,a# ?#o4ille& U#i4e!sity o 5e##essee 7!ess 1991 DD+A2> Be##ie B!o6# “5he O6#e!shi* o !hitet!e Books i# Colo#ial i!(i#ia- i# ?e##eth Hae!te*e a#d Ja,es $. OP<o!,a#  (merican (rchitects an& Their Boo;s to 17  ,he!st U#i4e!sity o %assahsetts 7!ess 2001 29+30.ACathe!i#e  Bishi! et al.  (rchitects an& Buil&ers in 4orth Carolina: ( "istor* of the ractice of Buil&ing   Cha*el Hill& U#i4e!sity o =o!th Ca!oli#a 7!ess 1990 1 /> J. )ithie <a!!iso# Two Car3enters: (rchitecture an& Buil&ing in #arl* 4ew #nglan&, 1+99.1<9  ?#o4ille& U#i4e!sity o 5e##essee 7!ess 200/ 4ii. A
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