A Unique Description of the Dead Sea Region and Crusader Warriors’ Faith, Negev, Dead Sea and Arava Studies (2014)

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A Unique Description of the Dead Sea Region and Crusader Warriors’ Faith, Negev, Dead Sea and Arava Studies (2014)

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    םינ לצ   םימחול   לש   םלרוג   לע   םייני ה   ימי   תורפס ידוחיי   רו יתחלמה   םי   ת י ס ןטול  ' ש ןלי ר תטיסר ינו , היגולו יכר ו   ל רשי   ץר ידומילל   הקלחמה  , םילשורי   רקחל   טרנר   זכרמ shlomimi@013.net.il   : תורשקתה   יטרפ  Negev, Dead Sea and Arava Studies 6 (1), 1–2   (2014) 2    –1 ,(1) 6   ה רעהו   חלמה   םי  ,  גנה   ירקחמ A Unique Description of the Dead Sea Region and Crusader Warriors’ Faith in Medieval Literature S. Lotan Rennert Center for Jerusalem Studies; Bar Ilan University, Ramat GanCorresponding author: shlomimi@013.net.il It seems that one of the periods of great interest in the history of the Holy Land was the period of Crusader rule in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem during the 12th-13th centuries. The remains of this glorious period are extensive in ancient cities such as Jerusalem, Acre, Jaffa and Caesarea, as well as in fortresses such as Athlit and Montfort. What, in fact, was the impact of the Crusaders within the Kingdom? Unfortunately, the Judean Desert and the Dead Sea region do not contain sufcient evidence to allow us to answer this question.One of the unique descriptions written by the German pilgrim Ludolph von Suchem in 1340, some 50 years after the fall of the Latin Kingdom to the Mamluks from Egypt, sheds new light on this area on the eastern border of the former Crusader Kingdom. The pilgrim’s strange story of his meeting with a few Christians, elderly Templar warriors who had been captured in battle, sold into slavery and forgotten in this distant area, presents us with a different description of the Dead Sea and its surroundings. These and other topics are described in this essay. It is important to note that, particularly today, 700 years after the destruction of the Templars in 1314, this historical event contributes to the description of an isolated area of the Holy Land. In addition to that, it demonstrates the emphasis on the rule of the Military Order which operated in the Latin Kingdom and was deployed in Europe by dispossessing its enemies at the beginning of the 14th century. ABSTRACT Negev, Dead Sea and Arava Studies  ה רעהו   חלמה   םי  ,  נה   ירקחמ   ץר לש   היתודלות ןיינעה - תו רו   תונווגמה   תופוקתה   תח יכ   המוד   ןוכיתה   םיה   ןג חרזמ םינ לצה   וטלש   ה ש   הפוקתה   התייה   ל רשי   םי ר   םידירש   תומד םתוח   הריתוה   וז   הפוקת  . 13 - הו   12 - ה   תו מ םית , תויסנכ   ינ מ  , םירצ מ  : היתונכש   לשו   ל רשי   ץר לש   ןמוחת םי ושיי וצמל   ןתינ   םי ר   םידירש  . םייגולו יכר םי צממ   ללשו   רוסר , ןדריה   כוכ   ומכ   םירצ מ ; הירסיק   ו וכע  , םילשורי   תמגודכ  . םילשורי   ריעה   תו י ס ו   לילג ץר יל ח ו  ; תילתע   ו ל רשי   ץר רפסה   ירוז םינ לצה   לש   םתעפשה   התייה   המ   םי   רוז כ   םייזכרמ   ושיי   תומוקממ   םיקחורמה   ץר יל ח   םתו  –   רקחמ ו   הפוקתה   תורפס הנעמ   ןתינ   ךכ   לע  ? ר דמה   רפסו   חלמה   םייחרזמה   היקלח תו שייתהה   תודלות   לע   ךרענש   ירוטסיהה   לשו   םינ לצה   ירצ מ   לש   רשקה רקיע , תינ לצה   הכלממה   לש   כרכ   תמגודכ   םירצ מ חלמה   םיל   חרזממ   תו שייתהה   תסורפת  . כ ושו ט מ   ת וקנ Perspective     2 טול  ' ש   םסחייתה חלמה   םי   רוז ת ור ית   םייני ה   ימי םידח לגר   ילוע   םיי רקמה   םיעורי ל   ף ו  , רוז ה   תייסולכו לו   יפונה   ודוחייל   ת ןייצל   ןתינ   םיניילצ   םתו ןי . חלמה   םי   ת י ס ושחרתהש   םלו .) 1283 ( ןויצ   רהמ   דרהכרו ו  ) 1217 ( ר מטית   לש   םהירו ית   ה מה   תיצחמ ינמרג   עסונ   ךרעש   תוניילצ   עסמ   לש   ידוחיי   רו ית   קווד   תנש תינ לצה   םילשורי   תכלממ   לש   התליפנ   רח ל   םינש   ל ויכ  , 14 - ה   חלמה   םי   רוז לע   רו ךפוש  , םיכולממה   םימחולה   לש   םהידיל   1291   םויס   רח לש   הפוקת ל רשי   ץר לש   יפרגו גה   חרמ ודודי לעו   תויהת   הלעמו  , תונרקס   ררועמ   הז   רו ית  . חרזמ ינ לצה   ןוטלשה   קרפ   םינש   תו מ   ע ש   טעמכ  – ונימי םג   תויל וטק ןהש   תול שו   תויטילופ  . תוניילצ   עסמ   ותו רח ל   ינמרגה   ןיילצה   ןוכיתה   םיה   ןג חרזמ   תוצר ל   עיגה   1340   תנש םירת ה   ת רקי ש  ,) Ludolph von Suchem ( םהכוס   ןופ   ףלודול   ינש   שגפ   חלמה   םי   רוז ועסמ   תע . ל רשי   ץר תורצנל   םישודקה   הל יכ   ול   רר תה  . םר ע   לע   ההתו   םת חחוש   וה  . םירצונ   םישישי   ו שנש  ,) המלש   לכיה   ירי רדסמ ( םירלפמטה   רדסמ   יר ח   םימחול   ינש   םימחולה  . 1291   י מ   שדוח ה וללוחתהש   תו רקה   תע וכע   ריע ןכמ   רח ל  . םהיחטש תוד על   ורכמנו   םיכולממה   תונחמ   ל ור עוה  , ל רשי   ץר לש   יחרזמה   החטש   ר ע   ל ךרד -  ל - ךרד ולגלגתה   הייסולכו ורעתה   םה  . םהינוד לש   םהיניעמ   ומלענ   םהיתו קעו   םירצונ   םישישי   םתו יכ   רר תה  . תוחפשמ   םהל   ומיקה   ף ו  , תימוקמה   תפרצ   ךלמ   הרוה   1307   תנש ש   ךכ   לעו   םרדסמ   לרוג   לע   ללכ   ועמש   ל   םרדסמ   יכ   ועדי   ל   םג   םה  . ןידל   םדימעהלו   רדסמה   יר ח   ת רוצעל   הלעוה  ) Jacques de Molay ( יילומ   ק ' ז   םגיהנמ   יכו  , 1312   תנש לסוח   von Suchem, ) 1314   תנש זירפ   ריעה   זכרמ תפרצ דקומה   לע  .(1851   דהל   הכז   םיחכשנה   םירלפמטל   ינמרגה   ןיילצה   ןי ידוחיי   שגפמ   ותו רוז , שדוקה   ץר ןיילצה   לש   ורוקי לש קר   תירצונה   תורפס ןי שגפמה   שחרתה   ו ש   רת ותו וה   ןכיה  . חלמה   םי   ת י ס , רפס   רוקמ   ותו ר   עדימ   ןי ךכ   לע  ? םירלפמטה   םימחולה   ןי ל   ןיילצה   םי   לש   ימורדה   וקלח םייקתה   שגפמהש   חינהל   רי ס  . םייני ה   ימימ   רופיס   ןויצ   לש ת ז  , ה ורקה   ות י ס ו רעוצ   ר דמה   הוונ , חלמה   היהש   ר דמ   הוונ   לע   עודי  . הז   רוז עסמה   רו ית י רקמה   טול   תש לע   טול   תש רופיס   שחרתה   ו ש   םוקמכו   םודסכ   רכזנה   רת ל   ךומס   זכרמ   לכמ   קוחר  , דדו מ   רתונ   הז   ר דמ   הוונ  . תי רקמה   תרוסמה   יפ   הלי טה   ירת תמגודכ   םירצונ   לגר   ילוע   תועסמ   לש   דקומ   לכמו   ושיי   תויהת   הז   ידוחיי   עורי ררועמ   לוכל   לעמ  . וחירי   ת י סו   ןדריה   רהנ ומלענ  , םדמ   םי וקע   תו רק   תע ו שנש   םימחול   לש   רמה   םלרוג   לע   קחרה   הרז   תוהז תויחל   םינש   תורשע   ךשמ וצל נו  , ם צ   תורושמ  . ה יטימה   םת י סמו   םצר מ ת ר ק von Suchem,  L., 1851. Liber de itinere Terrae Sanctae. In: Deycks F., )Ed.( De Itinere Terrae Sanctae Liber. Stuttgart: Litterarischer Vereins. ch. 41: 89 . הכירעו   ה יתכ   זכרמ   רו ל   ה צוה   ףיס Assif Publication House Writing & Editing Center
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