AVIATION ENGLISH 1 INTERNA SKRIPTA IZ ENGLESKOG JEZIKA U ZRAKOPLOVSTVU PRIPREMIO: MARIJAN IVANKOVIĆ, prof. 1. History of aviation 2. Aviation Pioneers 3. The Wright Brothers 4. Basic Aircraft Structure

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AVIATION ENGLISH 1 INTERNA SKRIPTA IZ ENGLESKOG JEZIKA U ZRAKOPLOVSTVU PRIPREMIO: MARIJAN IVANKOVIĆ, prof. 1. History of aviation 2. Aviation Pioneers 3. The Wright Brothers 4. Basic Aircraft Structure (Ready for Take-Off 2-5) 5. Types of Aircraft 6. Flying with the Birds 7. Gliding 8. White elephants? (Take-off 16-17) 9. Aerodrome 10. Airport design 11. Ground movements (English for Aviation 21,22,23) 12. Air Traffic Control 13. ATC 14. ICAO 15. Introduction to air communications (English for Aviation 5-9) 16. Engineering materials 17. Materials and properties (Take-off 6-7) 18. Bright ideas (Take-off 2-3) 19. An amazing material (Take-off 8-9) 20. Aluminium (Take-off 34-35) 21. Working with Alclad (Take-off 36-37) 22. Production lines (Take-off 54-55) 23. Design specifications (Take-off 10-11) 24. Assembly (Take-off 52-53) 25. Review (Take-off 40-41) 26. Lasers 27. CNC machine tools (Take-off 26-27) 28. Hand tools vs power tools (Take-off 22-23) 29. Modern lathes (Take-off 32-33) 30. Sales pitch (Take-off ) 1 1. History of Aviation From Myths to the Powered Flight ZRAKOPLOVNA TEHNIČKA ŠKOLA RUDOLFA PEREŠINA Flying has been the dream of man throughout the ages. Who was the first man to fly? According to the Greek legend, it was Daedalus, the Athenian inventor, who shaped wings of wax into which he stuck bird feathers. As the story goes, Deadalus and his son Icarus had been imprisoned on the island of Crete by King Minos. They yearned to return to their native land, but their only hope of escape was to fly across the sea. When the wings were completed, they flew home and the father cautioned young Icarus to fly only the middle air. The impetuous Icarus flew too high and the sun melted the wax. He was drowned into the sea which is still called the Icarian Sea in honor of the first man to lose his life in flying. Since that first legendary flight of Icarus, man has tried and tested thousands of ways with which to conquer gravity - and failed. Centuries ago, Leonardo da Vinci's studies of birds became the basis for a scientific investigation of flight. He reasoned that birds flew because they flapped their wings and that it was possible for man to do the same. Da Vinci designed the ornithopter, a flapping wing-flying machine. In the 18th century, the Montgolfier brothers of France, the ornithoptists, introduced the world of flight in their hot air balloon. A step in the 'Wright' direction, yes, but What about powered flight. The answer to that question came a century later, in 1903 to be exact, when two bicycle mechanics proved to the world that powered flight was no longer a dream but reality. Thanks to Wilbur and Orville Wright's first flight, which lasted only 12 seconds, the way was clear for man to take to the air. Thanks must also go to other pioneers, such as Edward Rusjan, for the great contributions made to aviation history. If it had not been for these great men, would we be able to enjoy travelling faster than the speed of sound today or even able to walk on the moon? At last the age old dream of man has come true: no need to envy the birds their wings any longer for man can fly faster than any living bird. 1. Read the short historical survey of aviation. Arrange the following sentences in the correct sequence. The first one has been done for you. a. Who was the first man to fly? 1 b. The Wright brother's first flight. c. He designed a flapping wing machine. d. The sun melted the wax. e. Leonardo Da Vinci studied birds. f. He shaped wings out of wax g. Flight in a hot air balloon. 2. Answer the questions. 1. Why is Daedalus called the Athenian inventor? 2. Where does the name for the Icarian Sea come from? 3. What was Leonardo Da Vinci's theory of flight based on? 4. Who introduced the first man-made object flight? 5. How long did the first powered flight last? 2 2. Aviation Pioneers ZRAKOPLOVNA TEHNIČKA ŠKOLA RUDOLFA PEREŠINA Edvard Rusjan was born in Trieste in He attended school in Gorica where he was apprenticed to a boilermaker and was a successful bicycle racer. His aviation career began in 1908 when he started designing and building model aircraft. With his elder brother Josip's help, he designed a glider that later became a model for future aircraft. A year later they began work on a powered aircraft. It was a biplane with a 3-cylinder, 25-horsepower, Anzani-model engine. In this aircraft Edvard Rusjan made the first successful powered flight in Slovene aviation history. The flight lasted about 10 seconds and he travelled approximately 60 metres al a height of 2 metres. Four days later, he increased his distance to 500 metres at a maximum altitude of 12 metres. Observers estimated that the aircraft reached speeds of between 50 and 60 kilometres per hour. The brothers decided to continue developing their aircraft. In one of them, Edvard made his first public flight for the citizens of Gorica. The brothers gained aeronautical knowledge rapidly and learned that the Anzani engine was not powerful enough for a biplane, so they decided that in the future, they would make only monoplanes. A new important phase of Rusjan's work began when he met Mihailo Mercep, an aviation enthusiast from Zagreb. They constructed a new aircraft and had it equipped with the best Gnome rotary engine. In this aircraft Edvard made several successful flights that thrilled the Zagrebians. After this successful demonstration Edvard and Mercep organized a tour of European cities. The first stop was Belgrade in January Despite strong gusty winds, 24-year-old Edvard went ahead with a demonstration flight. His take-off and flight over the town were uneventful. However, while the aircraft was returning for a landing, at an approximate height of 20 metres, a strong gust ripped off a wing and the aircraft crashed against a tower wall killing the pilot outright. However, Rusjan's death was not in vain as aviation development in Slovenia continued, spurred on by the great achievement of a true aviation hero. 1. After reading the text give short answers to the following questions. Where was Edvard Rusjan born? Where did he attend school? When did his aviation career begin? Which of his model aircraft later became a model for future aircraft? In which aircraft did he make his first successful powered flight? What speeds did he reach on his first flight? Why did Edvard and his brother later decide to make only monoplanes? When did a new important phase of Rusjan's work begin? What engine was the newly constructed aircraft equipped with? Where did Edvard and Mercep make the first stop on their European tour? What was the weather like when Edvard set off on his demonstration flight? Why did the aircraft crash against a tower wall? 3 2. Now write questions to which these phrases might be possible answers. In Trieste. - is the answer to the question Where was Edvard Rusjan born? With elder brother Josip's help. A glider. The first powered flight. About ten seconds. At a height of 12 metres. For the citizens of Gorica. The Anzani engine. Only monoplanes. The Gnome rotary engine. In January Uneventful. Because a strong gust ripped of a wing. 3. Match the words in the middle box with the descriptions from A to H a. immediately b. a light aircraft that flies without an engine c. the science and art of operating aircraft d. a sudden strong increase in speed of wind 1. aeronautics 2. gust 3. glider 4. rip 5. estimate 6. spur 7. racer 8. outright e. to tear violently or suddenly f. calculate roughly g. encourage to try harder h. a person who competes in racing 4. Put the following adjectives in the appropriate sentences. Use each adjective only once. vertical, suitable, simple, successful, visual, public, aeronautical, gusty, historical, human 1. An almanac which is published yearly is a book dealing with events in aviation. 2. Thundershowers often produce conditions. 3. Edvard Rusjan made his first flight for the citizens of Gorica. 4. Hovering is an element of flight 5. George Cayley built a device that somewhat resembled a helicopter. 6. The Wright brothers were in search of a engine to launch their latest design on its first powered flight. 4 7. The idea of flight has engaged men from the time when they developed imagination. 8. Henri Giffard, a French engineer, built the first dirigible. 5 3. The Wright Brothers ZRAKOPLOVNA TEHNIČKA ŠKOLA RUDOLFA PEREŠINA On April 16, 1867, Milton and Susan Wright welcomed their third child into their household near Millville, Indiana. Little did Susan Wright know that she had given birth to the first half of one of the world's most famous partnerships. The other half of the duo, Orville, was born four years later, on August 19, 1871, in the family's newly-built home at 7 Hawthorn Street in Dayton, Ohio. As youngsters, Wilbur and Orville looked to their mother for expertise and their father for intellectual challenge. Milton brought the boys various souvenirs and trinkets he found during his travels for the church. One such trinket, a toy helicopter-like top, sparked the boys' interest in flying. In school, Wilbur excelled, and would have graduated from high school if his family had not moved during his senior year. A skating accident and his mother's illness and subsequent death kept him from attending college. Orville was an average student, known for his mischievous behavior. He quit school before his senior year to start a printing business. The first time Wilbur and Orville referred to themselves as The Wright Brothers was when they started their own printing firm at the ages of 22 and 18. Using a damaged tombstone and buggy parts, they built a press and printed odd jobs as well as their own newspaper. In 1892, the brothers bought bicycles. They began repairing bicycles for friends, then started their own repair business. They opened up a bicycle shop in 1893, and three years later, made their own bicycles called Van Cleves and St. Clairs. While nursing Orville, who was sick with typhoid in 1896, Wilbur read about the death of a famous German pilot. The news led him to take an interest in flying. On May 30, 1899, he wrote to the Smithsonian Institution for information on research. Within a few months after writing to the Smithsonian, Wilbur had read all that was written about flying. He then defined the of a flying machine: wings to provide lift, a power source for propulsion, and a system of control. Of all the early, Wilbur alone recognized the need to control a flying machine in its three axes of : pitch, roll, and yaw. His solution to the problem of control was 'wing warping.' He came up with the revolutionary system by twisting an empty bicycle tube box with the ends removed. Twisting the surface of each 'wing' changed its position in relation to oncoming wind. Such changes in position would result in changes in the direction of flight. Wilbur tested his theory using a small, and it worked. 6 In August of 1900, Wilbur built his first glider. He then contacted the U.S. Weather Bureau for information on windy regions of the country. Reviewing the list, he chose a remote sandy area off the coast of North Carolina named Kitty Hawk, where winds averaged 13 m.p.h. He and Orville then journeyed to Kitty Hawk where they tested the 1900 glider. The following year, they tested a new and improved glider with a 22-foot. A disappointing performance by the 1901 glider prompted the Wright brothers to construct a wind tunnel to test the effectiveness of a variety of wing shapes. Using the results of the wind tunnel experiments, they constructed their 1902 glider. Testing it at Kitty Hawk in October, they met with success, gliding a record 620 feet. Once again they returned to Dayton and began work on developing a propeller and an engine for their next effort, a flying machine. Having designed a propeller with the same principles thy used to design their wings, Wilbur and Orville then built their own 4-cylinder, 12-horsepower engine. They built the 1903 Flyer in sections in the back room of their cycle shop in Dayton. When completed, it was shipped down to Kitty Hawk and assembled. On December 14, 1903, Wilbur won a coin toss and made the first attempt to fly the machine. He stalled it on, causing some minor damage. The plane was repaired, and Orville made the next attempt on December 17. At 10:35 a.m., he made the first heavier-than-air, machine powered flight in the world. In a flight lasting only 12 seconds and covering just 120 feet, Orville did what men and women had only dreamed of doing for centuries he flew. TASKS: 1) While reading the text, put in the missing words: aeronautical, aviators, elements, glider, inventive, kite, mechanical, motion, takeoff, wingspan 2) Homework Choose ten unknown words from the text, write them down and find explanation and translation. 7 1867 Wilbur is born on April 16 in Millville, Indiana 1870 The family moves to Dayton, 1867 Wilbur is born on April 16 in Millville, Indiana 1871 Orville is born on August 19 in Dayton 1878 Milton brings the boys a toy helicopter Wilbur is injured in a skating accident, keeping him away from college plans 1889 The boys start a printing business. Their mother, Susan, dies on July 4. Orville decides to quit school The Wright Cycle Company is formed 1896 Orville survives six weeks with typhoid. Wilbur reads about the death of a famous glider pilot and becomes interested in flying 1899 Wilbur writes to the Smithsonian for information about aeronautics on May The brothers test their first glider at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, in September and October 1901 They test the 1901 glider in July and August. The brothers build a wind tunnel to test the drag and lift of various wing shapes 1902 They test their third glider in September and October 1903 Orville makes the historic first flight on December 17 at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina 1905 They perfect their airplane and begin looking for buyers of their invention 1908 Wilbur does demonstration flights in Europe. Orville flies for the U.S. Army in Fort Myer, Virginia, and is severely injured in a crash Wilbur and Orville are welcomed home to Dayton in a two-day gala celebration at which they receive a Congressional gold medal 1912 Wilbur dies of typhoid May 30, aged A national monument to the Wright Brothers is dedicated at Kitty Hawk on March Orville dies on January 30, aged 77 8 4. Basic Aircraft Structure ZRAKOPLOVNA TEHNIČKA ŠKOLA RUDOLFA PEREŠINA 9 10 11 12 5. Types of Aircraft aerodyne hang. glider rocket aerostat spacecraft parachute missile glider balloon aeroplane airship Rules of the Air aircraft rotorcraft air traffic participant 2. Read the text, then answer the following questions: 1. What terms are used in the text to denote the aerodyne and aerostat? 2. What aircraft does the first group include? 3. What kind of aircraft are airships and balloons? 4. How do aerodynes and aerostats derive support in the atmosphere? Aircraft may be divided into two groups: heavier-than-air and lighter-than-air aircraft. The first croup includes aircraft deriving their lift chiefly from aero dynamical forces This category includes aeroplanes, rotorcraft, gliders, hang gliders, rockets, spacecraft and missiles. The second group includes airships and balloons, i.e. aircraft being supported chiefly by their own buoyancy in the air. These terms form a part of the Rules of the Air and refer to the possibilities of airspace exploitation on the port of air traffic participants. Apart from the aircraft included in the Rules of the Air, there are also aircraft which follow the classification according to their physical and aerodynamic properties. 3. Classification - Read the following classification of lighter-than air aircraft Lighter-than-air aircraft are classified into power driven and non-power driven balloons. Non-power driven balloons can be further sub classified into free balloons and captive balloons. Airships are power driven balloons which can be subdivided into rigid, semi-rigid and non-rigid airships. Free balloons are further subdivided into spherical free balloons whereas captive balloons are further subdivided into spherical and non-spherical captive balloons. 4. After reading the text, look at the following classification tree of heavier-than-air aircraft and make a classification in the same way: 13 5. Explain the difference: aerodyne - aerostat aeroplane - airplane hang glider - glider spacecraft - rocket rocket - missile parachute - balloon 14 6. Translate the words in exercise 5 and match them with their paraphrases. A power driven heavier-than-air aircraft deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces which remain fixed under the given conditions of flight - aeroplane Any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air - A vehicle for travelling in outer space - A heavier-than-air aircraft - An object or weapon suitable for throwing or projecting or directing at a target - A lighter-than-air aircraft - A device used to slow down free fall from an aircraft, consisting of a light piece of fabrics attached by cords to a harness and stored folded until used in descent - A class of ultra light glider type, the simplest have no control system - A missile whose motion is due to reaction propulsion and whose flight path cannot be controlled during flight - A power driven lighter than air aircraft - A heavier than air aircraft which derives lift from a rotor or rotors - A non power driven heavier than air aircraft, deriving its lift chiefly from aerodynamical reactions of surfaces which remain fixed under given conditions of flight - A non power driven lighter-than-air aircraft - 7. Paraphrase the words from the classification tree. Ornitopher- a heavier-than- air aircraft supported in flight chiefly by the reaction of the air on the wings, to which a flapping motion is imparted. Gyroplane- a heavier- than- air aircraft supported in flight chiefly by the reaction of the air on one or more rotors which rotate freely on substantially vertical axes Amphibian- an aircraft capable of taking of and alighting on either land or water 15 6. Flying with the birds ZRAKOPLOVNA TEHNIČKA ŠKOLA RUDOLFA PEREŠINA Gliding birds, hawks, eagles, gulls and vultures are doing the same thing glider pilots do - looking for lift. The main difference is that they are far better at that than the pilots. So if you see a group of long-winged birds circling in one spot, just fly in that direction. You will find a good thermal there almost every time and can join in their frolic. The birds usually watch you, as you watch them. When they decide you are not a threat, they usually go about demonstrating their innate flying superiority, by tapping the strongest lift right in the core of the thermal, climbing rapidly above us. What is a typical glider flight like? In most cases, the glider is hooked up to a powered airplane which tows it up to an altitude of 2,000-3,000 feet. When desired, the glider pilot releases the rope, although the powered airplanes can also release if safety demands it. After release, the tow airplane departs, taking its noisy engine with it. The pilot then searches for lift. Very strong wind might create dust devils or clouds of debris. If there are cumulus clouds about, these are very good indicators of thermal activity, either current or past. Another glider circling in one spot is often a good indicator of an active thermal. Sometimes the pilot will simply forge ahead and blunder into a thermal by chance - if thermal heights are substantial, then this is actually a viable way of soaring. 1. Put these in the correct sequence. The first one has been done for you. 1 Releasing the rope 2 The tow airplane departs 3 The birds looking for lift 4 The birds watching us 5 Searching for lift 1 6 A glider circling in one spot 7 Very strong lift creating dust devils or clouds of debris 8 Blundering into a thermal by chance 2. Read again and answer thes
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