World Data on Education Données mondiales de l éducation Datos Mundiales de Educación. VII Ed. 2010/11 IBE/2012/CP/WDE/TU - PDF

World Data on Education Données mondiales de l éducation Datos Mundiales de Educación VII Ed. 2010/11 IBE/2012/CP/WDE/TU Turkey Updated version, April Principles and general objectives of education

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World Data on Education Données mondiales de l éducation Datos Mundiales de Educación VII Ed. 2010/11 IBE/2012/CP/WDE/TU Turkey Updated version, April Principles and general objectives of education In accordance with the Basic Law of National Education of 1973, the general aim of the national education system is to raise all Turkish citizens: as individuals who are committed to Atatürk s principles, the revolution and the Atatürk nationalism defined in the Constitution; who assimilate, protect, develop the national, human, moral and cultural values of the Turkish nation; who love and continuously try to raise their family, country and nation; and who are aware of their duties and responsibilities towards the Turkish Republic, a democratic, secular and social state of law based on human rights and the basic principles defined in the Constitution; as individuals who have a balanced and healthy personality and character, who are developed in terms of body, mind, moral, spirit and emotions, free and with scientific thinking abilities and a broad world view; who respect human rights, value personality and enterprise, are responsible towards society, and are constructive, creative and productive; in line with their own interests and abilities, to prepare them for life by helping them to acquire the required knowledge, skills, behavior and cooperative working habits, and to ensure they have a profession which will make them happy and contribute to the happiness of society. In other words, the main purpose of the education system is to raise highly skilful, productive and creative individuals of the Information Age who are committed to Atatürk s principles and revolution, have advanced thinking, perception and problem-solving skills, are committed to democratic values and open to new ideas, have feelings of personal responsibility, have assimilated the national culture, can interpret different cultures and contribute to modern civilization, and lean towards productive science and technology. The Ninth Development Plan covering the period has been prepared with a vision of Turkey which grows in stability, shares its income fairly, which has competitive power at global scale, which transforms itself into an information society, which has completed alignment process for European Union membership. With regard to education and in order to ensure social development, the Plan foresees to enhance and strengthen the education system based on the principles of efficiency, accessibility and equal opportunities with the purpose of raising productive and creative individuals who are of the information age with advanced thinking, perception and problem solving abilities, who are loyal to Atatürk s principles, believe in democracy and freedom and have absorbed national and spiritual values, open to new ideas, with sense of responsibility, able to contribute to civilization, familiar with scientific and technological usage and production, appreciation for the arts, and have high level of skills. With the aim of increasing quality in education, the Plan stipulates that curricula based on innovativeness and research will be extended throughout the country, and students will be encouraged to pursue scientific research as well as entrepreneurship. Laws and other basic regulations concerning education The basic responsibilities of the State concerning education and training are outlined Articles 10, 24, 42, 62, 130, 131 and 132 of the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey of The Primary Education and Training Law No. 222 regulated primary education as a complete system. The Basic Law of National Education No entered into force on 24 June 1973 and as amended by Law No and by Law No of 18 August 1997, covers the following aspects of the education system: general and specific objectives; basic principles; general structure; institutions and establishments of all types and levels; teaching staff; school buildings and facilities; educational materials and equipment; and duties and responsibilities in the field of education and training. The Apprenticeship and Vocational Training Law No of 5 June 1986 was adopted in order to improve the vocational and technical training system. It was amended as Vocational Education Law by the Law No (see below). The Law No on the Vocational Qualifications Authority adopted in September 2006 provides for the establishment of the Authority for the purpose of determining the principles for national qualifications in the technical and vocational fields based on national and international occupational standards, establishing and operating the national qualifications system required for conducting activities related to auditing, assessment and evaluation, certification, and regulating issues related to the national qualifications framework. The Non-formal Educational Institutions Decree of the Ministry of National Education (2006) regulates the activities of the non-formal educational institutions. The Private Education Law No. 625 of 6 August 1995 regulated the establishment and operation of private educational institutions. The Framework Regulation on Private Schools of July 2005 and the Law on Private Educational Institutions of February 2007 define the basic criteria for the administration, supervision, monitoring and conditions of employment of pedagogical staff in private schools. The Regulation for Private Higher Education Institutions of December 2005 spcifies the criteria for the establishment, operation and evaluation of private higher education institutions. The Law No on Children with Special Educational Needs of October 1983 regulates educational services in this field and repealed the former Decree Law No. 573 on Special Education of The teaching profession is regulated by the Civil Servants Law No. 657 of 1965 and subsequent amendments, the Basic Law of National Education of 1973, the Higher Education Law of 1981, the Law on Higher Education Personnel No of October 1983, as well as some specific regulations such as the Regulation on the Recruitment and Transfer of Teachers of the Ministry of National Education of March 2006 and the Regulation on the Appointment and Promotion of Faculty Members of The Higher Education Law No enacted on 4 November 1981 defines the goals and principles pertaining to higher education and establishes the principles related to the functioning, duties, authority, and responsibilities in connection with education, research, publication, teaching staff, students and other personnel of higher education institutions and their governing bodies. This Law reformed the higher education system and incorporated such higher education institutions as teacher training schools and institutes of education into the same system, along with universities. The Regulation for Academic Assessment and Quality Improvement in Higher Education Institutions adopted on 10 September 2005 defines the criteria for the evaluation of academic and research activities as well the administrative services of higher education institutions, and provides for the evaluation of the quality through an independent external evaluation process. The Law No adopted in 2001 amended some existing laws. It stipulates the creation of Vocational and Technical Education Zones comprising vocational and technical upper secondary education institutions. The law also entitles graduates of vocational and technical secondary schools to have access to two-year tertiary-level education institutions to pursue further education in their fields of study. Article 42 of the Constitution stipulates that no one shall be deprived of the right of learning and education, and that primary education is compulsory for all citizens and provided free of charge in state schools. According to the Law No of 1997, the duration of compulsory education is eight years for children in the age group Administration and management of the education system The Ministry of National Education (MONE) is responsible for all educational services in the country, in conformity with the provisions of the Basic Law of National Education. The MONE consists of central, provincial, overseas organizations and affiliated institutions. The central level includes: the Minister s Office; the Board of Education (with responsibility over the curriculum); the Board of Inspection and the Strategy Development Presidency (formerly the Research, Planning and Coordination Board) among other consultation and inspection units; main service units (comprising 16 General Directorates as of 2011); auxiliary units (including the Department of Educational Research and Development which coordinates the participation of the country in international student assessment studies); and four permanent Boards (mainly of discipline). The external supervision and evaluation of preschools and primary schools is carried out by primary education inspectors, and by ministerial inspectors in the case of secondary schools. In each of the 81 provinces and 892 districts (as of 2009) there are Provincial and District National Education Directorates. Different powers can be vested with these Directorates, depending on the social and economic developments of the province, its population and the number of students. Overseas organizations comprise Education Consultancies, Education Attachés and Turkish Cultural Centres. The National Education Academy is affiliated to the MONE. The National Council of Education and the Board of Education are the two main advisory bodies to the MONE. The National Council of Education is the highest consultative and decision-making body of the MONE. It was established in order to develop the national education system and improve its quality. The National Council of Education convenes once every four years. Decisions taken by the representatives of different society sections are implemented after the approval of the authorities. The Board of Education provides advice to the Minister in almost every education-related matter and develops visions, undertakes research, and prepares educational plans and curricula as well as educational materials. Decisions on the planning, development and evaluation of technical and vocational education including apprenticeship training and training at workplaces are taken by the Vocational Education Council. It consists of representatives from relevant ministries, trade and employers unions, non-governmental organizations, higher education institutions, and trade chambers. Similarly, Provincial Employment and Vocational Education Councils take decisions and make recommendations on the planning, development and evaluation of vocational training programmes within their jurisdiction. The Vocational Qualifications Authority, established on the basis of Law No of 2006, is responsible for defining the national professional qualifications in technical and vocational areas on the basis of professional standards and carrying out activities related to supervision, assessment and evaluation, and certification. According to a Directive of the MONE issued in November 1999, provinces and districts with a population (within the borders of the municipality) of less than 30,000 individuals are considered as an Education Zone. It is possible to form more than one education zone in any district. School Regions can also be formed in the education zones. Vocational and Technical Education Regions were established as of 2002 to implement the provisions of Law No In accordance with the Law No of 1981, the Council of Higher Education (YÖK) is the main planning, coordinating and policy-making body for higher education in the country. The President of the Council is appointed by the President of the Republic for a term of four years. Within the Council operate some specific committees such as the Higher Education Academic Evaluation and Quality Improvement Committee and the Teacher Training Committee (ÖYTMK), the latter comprising representatives of the MONE, the YÖK, and faculties of education and intended to enhance cooperation and collaboration regarding teacher training programmes. On behalf of the YÖK, the Higher Education Board supervises and controls the universities, the units attached to them, as well as the academic staff and their activities. The Student Selection and Placement Centre (ÖSYM), established in 1974 and affiliated to the Council of Higher Education in 1981, is primarily concerned with the selection and placement of students in higher education institutions. The ÖSYM also offers services to higher education institutions for the administering of examinations, which are either inter-university in nature or are being held on a large scale. The Inter-University Council (ÜAK), which is comprised of the rectors of all universities and one member elected by the senate of each university, mainly deals with academic issues, including the coordination of educational, scientific research and publication activities. It provides advice and recommendations to the YÖK and universities. The University Rectors Committee is made up of all university rectors and five ex-rectors. The highest authority of a university is the rector, appointed by the President of the Republic. Other university bodies include the senate and the executive council. Faculties are headed by deans and higher schools by directors. School principals are responsible for the administration, evaluation and development of schools. School administrators are appointed by the governor through district administrator s offer and upon province administrator s approval. Each school has a Teachers Council. Students Councils have also been established so that students can participate in school management. These councils shall help students to adapt to the school environment; support efforts to increase the quality of education and training; help students solve their problems; and organize social activities. School-Parent Associations normally comprise principals, teachers and parents representatives. They support the school administration and financially contribute to the school. Structure and organization of the education system Turkey: structure of the education system Source: Ministry of National Education, 2011. Pre-school education Pre-primary education is not compulsory. Preschool programmes are for children between 3 and 6 years of age; they are offered in independent kindergartens, preprimary/reception classes in primary schools and practice classes. There are also crèches and day care centres for children in the age group 0-6 years. Primary education Primary (basic) education lasts eight years, is compulsory, co-educational and provided free in public schools to children in the age group The last three years of primary education (grades 6 to 8) were not compulsory and considered as lower secondary education until 1997/98. The transition from five-year primary schools and three-year junior high schools into eight-year primary (basic) schools was implemented starting from the school year 1997/98. There are no final examinations at the end of grade 8. Upon successful completion of primary education, pupils receive the primary education diploma. Graduates can enter general high schools and vocational secondary education schools or sit a centrally-organized entrance examination to be admitted to more demanding institutions (i.e. Anatolian high schools and social sciences high schools). Secondary education Secondary education is not compulsory but free of charge in public schools. It is provided in general high schools of different types (i.e. general high schools, Anatolian high schools, science high schools, Anatolian teacher training high schools, Anatolian fine arts high schools, and social sciences high schools) and at least 19 different kinds of vocational and technical high schools which provide training in more than 130 occupations leading to the qualification of specialized worker and technician. Since 2005/06 secondary schools offer four- or five-year programmes (including one preparatory year in the case of institutions using a foreign language as a predominant medium of instruction) to primary education graduates; the duration of secondary education programmes was three to four years until 2004/05. Upon successful completion of secondary education, students receive the high school diploma (general, technical or vocational) which grants access to the higher education entrance examinations. Apprenticeship training (dual training system) is provided for those who have not been able to continue their education beyond primary education or who left the formal education system for various reasons. The period of training is between two to four years depending on the nature of the profession. Higher education Secondary education graduates are required to sit a two-stage central entrance examination for admission to a university. The higher education examination is for admission to two-year vocational programmes and for computing the composite scores of the undergraduate placement examination (where also the average of secondary education school grades is taken into account). The higher education system comprises universities, higher technology institutes, and police and military academies. Each university is normally comprised of higher professional schools offering two-year pre-bachelor s (associate degree) programmes of a strictly vocational nature, and faculties and higher schools (the latter with a vocational emphasis) offering four-year bachelor s degree programmes. Bachelor s degree holders can also obtain a certificate of specialization after one additional year of study (not recognized as a degree). Master s degree programmes last one and a half to two years (in the latter case including the preparation of a final paper/thesis). A specialist diploma in natural sciences is awarded upon successful completion of a two-year postgraduate programme. Doctoral and equivalent programmes take between two and five years to complete (usually three years). Long first-cycle programmes in the faculties of medicine are six years long, and those in the faculties of veterinary sciences, pharmacy and dentistry last five years; faculties of education train secondary education teachers normally through five-year programmes. Medical specialization programmes equivalent to doctoral-level programmes are offered by faculties of medicine and training hospitals under the Ministry of Health. The school year at the primary and secondary levels consists of 180 teaching days divided into two semesters; classes are held five days a week, Monday to Friday. The academic year normally begins on the second week of September and ends by the second week of June. The T educational process Curriculum development is a continuous process which is based on institutional cooperation and the participation of many different stakeholders. The process consists of making decisions on learning objectives, selecting the learning contents and teaching methods, developing or improving the teaching materials and evaluating the curriculum. The programmes aim to meet the needs of the individual and of society, to integrate theory and practice, to provide learner-centred education, to emphasize interdisciplinary subjects, and to provide settings rich in learning opportunities. In order to prepare and develop educational programmes, the specialized commissions consisting of experts, programme development professionals, and other educators consider educational and scientific research results, the opinions of students, teachers, parents, trainers, as well as the educational standards of the European Union. The draft programmes are finalized and approved by the Turkish Board of Education, and then they are submitted to the Minister of Education for approval. After the Ministry s approval, the programmes are piloted and implemented. During the period ,
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