Üç Fincan Çay Adlı Eserde Bireycilik, Azim Ve Kahramanlık - PDF

ÜÇ FINCAN ÇAY ADLI ESERDE BIREYCILIK, AZIM VE KAHRAMANLIK The British policy was divide and conquer. But I say unite and conquer. Greg Mortenson, Three Cups of Tea Öz Bu makalede, Greg Mortenson un Üç

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ÜÇ FINCAN ÇAY ADLI ESERDE BIREYCILIK, AZIM VE KAHRAMANLIK The British policy was divide and conquer. But I say unite and conquer. Greg Mortenson, Three Cups of Tea Öz Bu makalede, Greg Mortenson un Üç Fincan Çay adlı eserinde Amerikan değerlerinden belki de ilk üç sırayı alan bireycilik, azim ve kahramanlık konuları incelenmiştir. Misyoner bir aile geçmişi olan Mortenson un hayatını anlatan kurgusal olmayan bu eseri, K2 ye yapmış olduğu bir tırmanış sonucu ortaya çıkmıştır. Kitabın asıl yazarı David Oliver Relin dir, ancak olayları yaşayan kişi Mortenson un kendisidir, bundan dolayı kitapta olan olayları Mortenson un ağzından tekrar anlatmıştır. Bu çalışma ile bir dağcının nasıl kahramana dönüştüğünü araştırırken, Amerikan değerlerinin, gittiği yere barışı götürmek için okullar inşa etme girişiminin temelini oluşturduğunu göstermektir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Amerikan Değerleri, Greg Mortenson, Bireycilik, Azim, 253 INDIVIDUALISM, PERSEVERANCE AND HEROISM IN THREE CUPS OF TEA Abstract This article examines the work of Greg Mortenson titled Three cups of Tea in terms of American values, maybe the first three of them such as; individualism, perseverance and heroism. Having a missionary background the book, which is a non-fiction work that tells about İngilizce Okutmanı, Nevşehir Üniversitesi, Yabancı Diller Bölümü Başkan Yardımcısı., Mortenson s life, came out as a result of climbing K2. The writer of the book is David Oliver Relin, but the person who has lived all the events has been Mortenson himself, therefore Relin has told everything again as if Mortenson was writing the book. This study aims to investigate how a mountaineer turns into a hero and show that American values form the basis for Mortenson s attempt to build schools to promote peace for the area. Keywords: American Values, Greg Mortenson, Individualism, Perseverance, Heroism Introduction Thomas Jefferson, in the Declaration of Independence once said, God, who gave us life gave us liberty. And can the liberties of a nation be thought secure when we have removed their firm basis? 1 However, this never leads people to act as they wish. Freedom, truly, means to Dick DeVos thus: We can do what we want as long as we do what is right. 2 DeVos believes that: all people have an intuitive sense, a consciousness, of right and wrong. It [is] an integral part of human nature. 3 But one thing needs much attention [c]itizens of the United States esteem individual liberty.... Besides individual liberty, [the] people esteem the authority of law law that is made in their name by their elected representatives In terms of individuality, perseverance and heroism Greg Mortenson s non-fiction travel book Three Cups of Tea (2007) is a good example. While using his determination Mortenson became a monomythic 5 superhero 6 a term 254 1Thomas Jefferson quoted in Dick DeVos, Rediscovering American Values: The Foundations of our Freedom for the 21st Century. (New York: Plume, 1997), p Dick DeVos, Rediscovering American Values: The Foundations of our Freedom for the 21st Century. (New York: Plume, 1997), p Dick DeVos, Ibid., p Ralph H Gabriel, American Values: Continuity and Change. (Westport: Greenwood, 1974), p The term monomyth was coined by James Joyce. 6 For further information see, for example, Lawrence and Jewett (2002). Joseph Campbell used in his book The Hero with a Thousand Faces. And from our point of view Mortenson s attempt is just what Emerson called self-reliance. As long as mobility is concerned the United States has always been a nation on the go. The flow of people to America has been an ongoing migration within the Nation. Therefore, Americans are a nation of immigrants and of people descended from immigrants. Not only within the nation but international mobilities are also very much alike. These mobilities especially after World War II included different organizations and programs to help rebuild the damage caused by the war. These programs have always been for the sake of the nation taking its values into account. Under these organizations, the aid campaign for the needy was the primary concern. Many of these nations could not produce enough food to feed their people. For example to help the needy, President Lyndon B. Johnson started the Food for Peace program. The United States has supposed that it had a message for the 255 world. The message, in other words the mission, was democracy. 7 The Truman Doctrine and The Marshall Plan were other aid programs of the USA. The Truman Doctrine is the name for the Cold War policy of containment moves versus the Soviet Union and the growth of communism. The Marshall Plan of the United States was for rebuilding and forming a stronger economic foundation for the countries of Western Europe. There were 16 countries in the program to bring aid to including Turkey. Whatever the weather we must move together was the motto of the program. Turkey was in the program as a result of the competition between the USA and the USSR for world domination at a time when the USA was preoccupied with communism. The USA considered Turkey imperative because of her strategic 7 For further information see, for example, Wood, Gabriel, and Biller (1975); Potter (1954); Luedtke (1987). significance, while Turkey sought US assist not only because of the close proximity of the USSR but also through the yearning for economic assistance. This alliance was further strengthened with Turkey's entrance into NATO. Both these aid campaigns included Europe and Japan, and the new independent Asian and African nations, which came into existence as a result of World War II. 8 The editor of Making America Luther S. Luedtke explains the continuation of mobilities thus: After two hundred years the sources and composition of the new race of men have expanded far beyond Europe, but the process of constant uprooting, transplantation, adaptation, and renewal continues 9 to a great extent. Wood, Gabriel and Biller, on the other hand, think that it is a task rather than a continuation: Helping West Germany and Japan to set up new governments was only a part of the important tasks Americans undertook after World War II. No new government can succeed whose people cannot earn their living, nor look forward to better ways of life for their children and their children s children. In Japan, as you have read, Americans did not stop at helping the Japanese people to create a new government. They also helped the Japanese to improve their farms and to re-build their 256 businesses, factories, and cities. 10 When it comes to the formation of personality or of character, more specifically American character, David M. Potter questions: What pertinence can such topics as mobility, equality, democracy,... 8 See, for example, Wood, Gabriel, and Biller (1975). 9 Luther S Luedtke, The Search for American Character. Introduction. Making America. Ed. Luedtke. (Washington: US Inf. Agency, Forum 2), p Leonard C Wood, Ralph H. Gabriel, and Edward L. Biller. America: Its People and Values. 2nd ed. (New York: HBJ, 1975), p. 743. have in the kind of investigation that [the character] conducts?. 11 When the national character is concerned Potter considers that historians wary in their notion as to what constitutes national character: to some writers it implies an absolute quality, persisting without change from one generation to another and manifesting itself universally in all the individuals who compose the national group. To others it is little more than a statistical tendency for the individuals in one country at a particular time to evince a given trait in higher proportion than the individuals of some other country. 12 To frame a good national character the first concept of democracy or democratic faith according to Ralph H. Gabriel is thus: the individual capable by virtue of his reason of making wise and right decisions; the individual free to make for better or worse his choices; free to think his own thoughts and to express publicly his matured convictions; free to worship with Ralph Waldo Emerson the Over-Soul that pervaded all nature, or with Herman Melville the unfathomable Mystery, or with Sarah Eleanor Royce the 257 ancient God of Horeb. 13 On behalf of the quest for national character Michael Kammen presents us a vast catalog some of which are: the interplay of inheritance and environment; economic abundance; immigration and abundance in tandem; migration and mobility;... the American dream : the desire for liberty, opportunity, and land;... freedom of 11 David M Potter, People of Plenty. Economic Abundance and the American Character. (Chicago: T U of Chicago P, 1954), p Ibid., p Ralph H Gabriel, American Values: Continuity and Change. (Westport: Greenwood, 1974), p. 28. enterprise; the democratic faith or dogma; the American conscience Therefore, the national character has lots of qualities and mostly it is expected that the national character does always good for the sake of himself as well as of his country. This national (American) character will make decisions. How can people know what is right and what is wrong? And how can these people make wise decisions? Dick DeVos believes that [r]easoning lends greatly to [the] ability to do what is right, because to do what is right, we have to know [what right is]. 15 Because [o]ne of the things that make the modern world modern is the development of consciousness of the self 16 although,... the foundation of a people s character forms far earlier than their selfconsciousness about it. 17 Putting the consciousness of the self or self-consciousness aside, there are other compounds used by Ralph Waldo Emerson; self-trust, self-dependent, self-derived, self-existence, self-sufficing, self-relying, self-culture and self-reliance. Emerson among these compounds chose Self-Reliance, for the title of his famous essay. He wrote: A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds, adored by little statesmen and philosophers and divines. With consistency a great soul has simply nothing to do. He may as well concern himself with his shadow on the wall. 18 Emerson goes on to advise us not to worry about being inconsistent or being misunderstood. Speak what you think now in hard words and to-morrow speak what to-morrow thinks in hard words again, though it contradict everything you said to-day Ah, so you shall Michael Kammen, People of Paradox: An Inquiry Concerning the Origins of American Civilization. (New York: Oxford UP, 1972, p Dick DeVos, Ibid., p Warren I Susman, Culture as History, the Transformation of American Society in the Twentieth Century. (New York: Pantheon, 1984), p Luther S Luedtke, Ibid. P Ralph Waldo Emerson, Self-Reliance and Other Essays. (New York: Dover, Rpt. of Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson. 1841), p. 24. be sure to be misunderstood. Is it so bad then to be misunderstood? Pythagoras was misunderstood, and Socrates, and Jesus, and Luther, and Copernicus, and Galileo, and Newton, and every pure and wise spirit that ever took flesh. To be great is to be misunderstood. 19 We have so far explained the mobilities of the USA, the national character and the self-reliance. In fact the social values of the American people come first in all activities. Ralph H. Gabriel defines the value as:... an ideal, a paradigm setting forth a desired and esteemed possible social reality. In essence, values are beliefs beliefs that the idealized ways of living and acting are the best ways for the society. Because values are beliefs, they serve to inspire the members of the society to act in the approved ways. Because values are ideal pictures, they provide a means of judging the quality of actual behavior. In this role they become standards. 20 Gabriel writes some of the social values of the American people: 1. The dignity and importance of the individual person. 2. Freedom of thought and action of the individual person. 3. Freedom, and so far as possible equal opportunity, of the individual person to make of his life what he can in accordance with his abilities. 4. Regard for the group and for group activity as a means to the ends of developing individual personality Regard for the family as the basic social institution. 6. Regard for work leading to recognizable accomplishment professional preferment, the accumulation of property as a normal aspect of the good life. 7. Concern for the physical and mental health of the community Ibid., p Ralph H Gabriel, Ibid. p.149. 8. Regard for voluntary public service by private individuals. 9. Acceptance of change as a normal aspect of social life These are, of course, not all the values of America that people share. Dick DeVos increases the number these values and counts twenty four. However, in terms of core values [i]n the United States people share six core values to a very great extent at least in the abstract. These core values are individualism, property, contracts and law, freedom, equality, and democracy 22 Greg Mortenson s book Three Cups of Tea is also about mobility. And in terms of mobility the Mortensons all liked it very much, but mainly a kind of mobility that concerns mission. When his father came with the idea to move to Africa, his mother Jerene accepted the offer. In 1958 when Mortenson was only three months old, his parents went to teach in Tanzania to work as missionaries. Institutions such as the family and the school continually transmit values to oncoming generations. 23 Thus, he kept his American way of life, but in one respect, he remained out of sorts with American life. Greg has never been on time in his life, his mother says. Ever since he was a boy, Greg has always 260 operated on African time. 24 While they were in Tanzania, his sister Christa caught severe meningitis and never fully got well. After Christa s death, Mortenson felt very unhappy. He took a necklace from among his sister s belongings. At that time Dan Mazur, an accomplished climber was planning an expedition to K2 and he needed an expedition medic. Mortenson accepted his offer because he needed a change. He climbed Mount Kilimanjaro at age eleven. This was a way by which Mortenson could 21 Ibid., p Kenneth M Dolbeare and Linda J. Medcalf. American Ideologies Today: Shaping the New Politics of the 1990s. (2nd ed. New York: McGraw, 1993), p Ralph H Gabriel, Ibid. p Greg Mortenson and David Oliver Relin. Three Cups of Tea: One Man s Mission to Promote Peace... One School at a Time. (New York: Penguin, 2007), p. 39. get himself back and to honor his sister, therefore he'd climb to the summit and he'd dedicate his climb to Christa's memory. 25 In 1993, Greg Mortenson attempted to climb K2, the world's second highest mountain, in the Karakoram Range of northern Pakistan, as a way of honoring the memory of his sister Christa. After getting lost during his descent, he became weak and exhausted, and instead of arriving in Askole, where his porters were waiting for, he came across Korphe, a small village built in a canyon. He was welcomed and taken care by the chief of the village Haji Ali. As a matter of fact this friendship started with a cup of tea. Haji Ali says The first time you share tea with a Balti, you are a stranger. The second time you take tea, you are an honored guest. The third time you share a cup of tea you become family, and for our family, we are prepared to do anything, even die... . 26 Mortenson was brought up in a family that valued hard tasks, like building a school and hospital in Tanzania. 27 When Haji Ali the leader in the village said that the village had no school and the Pakistani government didn't provide a teacher. Mortenson forgot his failure and placing the necklace flew away from his mind because there was a much more meaningful sign he could make in honor of his sister's memory. He put his hands on Haji Ali's shoulders: I'm going to build you a school, he said, I will build a 261 school, Mortenson said. I promise. 28 But America did not keep her promise Sadhar Khan says We fought with Americans, here in these mountains, against the Russians. And though we heard many promises, they never returned to help us when the dying was done. And faces Mortenson adds: Look here, look at these hills. ... We must turn these stones into schools . 29 With the 25 Ibid., p Ibid., p Ibid., p Ibid., p Ibid., p. 330. desire coming from the local people, and to repay the remote community for their hospitality Mortenson agreed to build a school for the people in the poorest region of one of the world's poorest countries. To achieve his goal Mortenson started a fund raising campaign. He wrote 580 letters to the rich people in America. There were encouraging and discouraging remarks but he just persevered. The first support came from his mother. Her students led a Pennies for Pakistan drive. Mortenson says. And they did it with something that's basically worthless in our society pennies. But overseas, pennies can move mountains . 30 When Jean Hoerni, the first and foremost donor and the founder of CAI, Central Asia Institute, told Mortenson [t]ell me, if I give you fund for your school, you're not going to piss off to some beach somewhere in Mexico, smoke dope, or screw your girlfriend,, are you? Mortenson said No sir, of course not. After such an enduring talk he got the money he needed for the school. The letter he got from him read Don t screw up. Regards, J.H. , which put more burden on his 262 shoulders. 31 When he was in despair there were hopeful remarks such as: Pull yourself together, Greg. Of course you've hit a few speed bumps, Lou Reichardt, one of Mortenson s heroes, said and added ... what you're trying to do is much more 'difficult than climbing K2 . 32 Those words were very meaningful for Mortenson. You represent the goodness and courage that America is all about. Get out, don't be afraid, and spread your message for peace. Make this your finest hour . 33 These kinds of messages and supports gave Mortenson more strength to keep his promise of building the school. There were also people against himself in the area. For example: I have heard that an infidel has come 30 Ibid., p Ibid. p Ibid. p Ibid. p. 280. to poison Muslim children, boys as well as girls, with his teachings, Haji Mehdi shouted. Allah forbids the education of girls. And I forbid the construction of this school. Actually Mehdi wanted a price for the school. I demand twelve of your largest rams . 34 Mortenson wants to let his readers notice that there is corruption in Pakistan and Afghanistan communities and America is always there to help with the ideal values in the past, even as he exhausted those values in the present. 35 He was against the British policy which was 'divide and conquer.' His policy was unite and conquer. This unification, from Motenson s point of view, was only possible through education. And with this education Mortenson was trying to fight against terrorism. Syed Abbas says Dr. Greg is an infidel, but a noble man nonetheless, who dedicates his life to the education of children (p. 191). 36 His mother's permanent devotion to education was an enormous inspiration for him. And in the book it is already told that education has changed the way of life for girls: At first, when I began to attend school, many people in my village told me a girl has no business doing such a thing, Shakeela says. They said you will end up working in the field, like all women, so why fill your head with the foolishness found in books? (p. 207). 37 However, she stopped thinking about all these rumors and talks and she just focused on her studies. Mortenson s main idea is to teach the girls of the community. Why girls? Because the Nobel Prize winner Amartya Sen's idea that you can change a culture by giving its girls the tools to grow up educated so they can help themselves (p. 234) 38 was the philosophy that Mortenson had a
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