Udvardi Beatrix Lithosphere Fluid Research Lab, Department of Petrology and Geochemistry Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest - PDF

COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY OF CLAY MINERAL BEARING SEDIMENTS IN THE AREA OF KULCS, HUNGARY Applied and methological study to reveal the sedimentological features of Kulcs landslides and to investigate

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COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY OF CLAY MINERAL BEARING SEDIMENTS IN THE AREA OF KULCS, HUNGARY Applied and methological study to reveal the sedimentological features of Kulcs landslides and to investigate the applicability of ATR FTIR in earth science studies by Udvardi Beatrix Lithosphere Fluid Research Lab, Department of Petrology and Geochemistry Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest Summary of the Ph.D. dissertation Ph.D. program for Environmental Earth Sciences (Csaba Szabó, Ph.D.) Ph.D. School of Environmental Sciences (Imre Jánosi, Prof.), Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest Advisors: István Kovács, Ph.D. research fellow Hungarian Geological and Geophysical Institute Csaba Szabó, Ph.D. associate professor Lithosphere Fluid Research Lab, Department of Petrology and Geochemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest Budapest 2015 1. Introduction and objectives Because of increasing human land use and urban expansion, several settlements have been built on loess bluff endangered by landslides in many parts of the world. In these areas, landslides and related surface movements develope by a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors. These factors especially depend on the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation and on water-rock interactions (WEN & CHEN 2007, ÚJVÁRI ET AL. 2009, LI ET AL. 2011). For engineering slope stabilization works and monitoring systems of landslides, therefore, it is necessary to observe the environmental processes originated from water-rock interaction and mechanical-chemical alterations, as well as mineralogical and geochemical markers in sliding material (SUMMA et al. 2010). There are several laboratory experiment on time dependent alteration of minerals under different environmental conditions. Landslide, is a kind of natural laboratory in which those processes are intensified, however, is rarely studied (SHOAEI 2013). It is particularly important for the high banks of the river Danube where landslides have reactivated and developed new ones in stable and even remediated areas of populated regions in recent years. The main objective of this research was to study the sedimentological features of landslide on Kulcs that is geomorphologically one of the most active area of the Danube bluff, Hungary. Furthermore, the mineralogical and geochemical factors was observed in terms of landslide formation. There have been very few studies that have investigated these factors in slip zone of loess bluffs (BORSY & SZÖŐR 1981, BIDLÓ 1983, WEN ET AL. 2007), therefore, mineralogical and geochemical measurements are an important result of this research. To discriminate the secondary alteration due to the sliding process, slipped sediments were compared with sediments of similar age and facies. In addition, the usefulness of the attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (ATR FTIR) for the classification of sediments in landslide deposit, as well as for the identification of weakness zones in landslide has been illustrated. Infrared band areas and wavenumber 2 shifts have been compared against estimated mineral compositions by X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analysis. Some typical particularities of the grain size and shifts in wavenumbers on ATR FTIR spectrum of sediments were revealed. 2. Studied area A long term field observations and laboratory measurements were carried out on the southern part of Kulcs area, Hungary. It is one of the largest region in Hungary that is affected by slidings, and where landslides have been documented since Landslides are hazardous for buildings those are situated near the Danube riverbank (FTV, 1979). However, there has not yet been performed complete mitigation throught engineering works before the end of the observation period. Furthermore, the slip zone is close to the surface, therefore it is possible to sample the slip surface by shallow boreholes and excavations. 3. Methods Sediment samples were taken from the surface of the landslide and from the excavation of the slope of the landslide, as well as from boreholes. In addition, samples were also collected from a borehole that was drilled out of the slipped area. Geotechnical/sedimentological features: grain size distribution (laser particle analysis), density (He-pycnometry), porosity (mercury intrusion porosimetry), pore surface and pore size distribution (mercury intrusion porosimetry, N 2 and CO 2 physisorption) Mineralogical composition: bulk mineral composition (X-ray powder diffraction, thermal analysis, infrared spectrometry), clay mineral composition (X-ray powder diffraction) Geochemical characterization: main and minor element composition (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), moisture content and loss of ignition 3 (gravimetric determination), CO 2 content (CO 2 -volumetry), morphological and chemical study of carbonate concretions (scanning electron microscopy) Data processing: chemical index of alteration calculation, test of relationshis between mineral composition and infrared parameters of sediments by linear regression 4. Thesis 1. Based on the mineralogical and chemical analysis, similar sediments occur in the slipped area and in the non-slipped area at Kulcs. The two boreholes, drilled 15 m in distance from each other at the southern boundary of the landslide, show a gravelly layer that is two meters deeper in the stable area than in the landslide. Therefore, large scale vertical movements took place, outward and upward displacements from the bluff to the riverbank. 2. Field survey and geotechnical observations, mineralogical as well as geochemical studies highlight the importance of paleosol layers and red clay in the development of Kulcs landslides as these can act as potential sliding planes. It is concluded that fine grain size and large amount of sheet silicates in these sediments can facilitate the development of slides. It can be stated that elevated content of smecite and decreased amount of carbonate occur in the sliding surface of red clay. A few centimeters from the sliding surface, however, smectite content decrease and carbonate content inrease in the sediment. 3. My study confirmed by geochemical feature that the Kulcs landslide deposit is part of the Hungarian old loess-paleosol sequence. It is pointed out that the loess from Kulcs contains generally a higher potassium and a lower sodium content than Hungarian old loess. The reason for this is that the source area of Kulcs landslide deposit contain small amount of plagioclase and/or plagioclase have already weathered in the sediment. It 4 can be stated that red clay from Kulcs is similar to the Tengelic Member of the Tengelic Red Clay Formation. 4. Methodological observations by ATR FTIR show that ATR FTIR band areas characterize the different types of sediments. The infrared band areas and their ratios appear to be sensitive parameters to identify the sediments with high content of sheet silicates, especially smectitic type. Based on linear regression, the defined ATR FTIR band areas of minerals correlate with mineral composition measured by X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. With the developed sample preparation and evalutaion for ATR FTIR spectra it is observed that the magnitude of the infrared band area largely related to the smectite content that was measured by X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. 5. The amounts of minerals with small grain size, especially smectite, is underpredicted because their grain size is comparable or smaller than the penetration depth of the infrared light. As the grain size effect causes significant changes in the ATR absorbance, therefore, it can be taken into account during sample preparation and evaluation of ATR FTIR spectra. 6. It can be stated that infrared band shift in the ATR FTIR spectra depends on the quantity of minerals. The characteristic infrared bands of carbonates (~1400 cm -1 ) and smectite (~1000 cm -1 ) are shifted towards the lower wavenumbers with increasing amount of carbonate and smectite, of which was measured by X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. It was also demonstrated on mechanical mixtures of minerals. As a consequence, peak position shift is caused by changes in modal proportion of minerals beside overlapped adjacent bands and changing bond strength in the mineral structure. 5. Acknowledgments I am grateful to: my supervisors, to the collageagues of the Hungarian Geological and Geophysical Institute, Mária Földvári, Judith Mihály, Csaba Németh, Zoltán 5 Szalai, Katalin Fehér, József Kovács, Balázs Székely, Tibor Németh, Gábor Újvári, to the Geochem Ltd., Tamács Oszvald, Zsolt Bendő, to the fellows of the Lithosphere Fluid Research Lab, especially Angi. Last but not the least, I wish to thank my dear family for their support during the years of my study. 6. References Bidló G. (1983): Az ásványos összetétel befolyása néhány felszínközeli mozgásra. Földtani Kutatás 26, Borsy Z. & Szöőr G. (1981): A Tétel-halom és a dunaföldvári földcsuszamlások vörös talajainak (vörösagyagjainak) összehasonlító termoanalitikai és infravörös spektroszkópiás elemzése. Acta Georgafica Debrecina 18-19, FTV, Földmérő és Talajvizsgáló Vállalat (1979): Rácalmás község belterület és Kulcs község üdülőterület M=1:4000 méretarányú mérnökgeológiai térképezése. Budapest, Kutatási jelentés, Li C., Ma T., Zhu X. & Li W. (2011): The power law relationship between landslide occurrence and rainfall level. Geomorphology 130, Shoaei, Z. (2013): A New Approach to the Landslide Early Warning using the Chemical Composition Fluctuation in the Leakage from Susceptible Slopes. Ecopersia 1(3), Summa V., Tateo F., Gianossi M. L., Bonelli C. G. (2010): Influence of clay mineralogy on the stability of a landslide in Plio Pleistocene clay sediments near Grassano (Southern Italy). Catena 80, Újvári G., Mentes Gy., Bányai L., Kraft J., Gyimóthy A., Kovács J. (2009): Evolution of a bank failure along the River Danube at Dunaszekcső, Hungary. Geomorphology 109, Wen B. P., Aydin A., Duzgoren-Aydin N. S., Li Y. R., Chen H. Y., Xiao S. D. (2007): Residual strength of slip zones of large landslides in the Three Gorges area, China. Engineering Geology 93, Wen B. & Chen H. (2007): Mineral Compositions and Elements Concentrations as Indicators for the Role of Groundwater in the Development of Landslide Slip Zones: a Case Study of Large scale Landslides in the Three Gorges Area in China. Earth Science Frontiers 14, 6, Yalcin A. (2007) Applied Clay Science 38, 7. Published papers written in the framework of this Ph.D. Magyari E. K., Demény A., Buczkó K., Kern Z., Vennemann T., Fórizs I., Vincze I., Braun M., Kovács I. J., Udvardi B. & Veres D. (2013): A 13,600- year diatom oxygen isotope record from the South Carpathians (Romania): Reflection of winter conditions and possible links with North Atlantic circulation changes. Quaternary International 293, DOI: /j.quaint Udvardi B., Kovács I. J., Kónya P., Vatai J. Koloszár L., Fedor F., Ács P., Mihály J., Németh Cs., Deák Zs. V., Füsi B., Szalai Z., Szabó Cs., Falus Gy. & Fancsik T. (2014): A felszínmozgás zónájában előforduló üledékes kőzetek ásványos összetételének és fizikai tulajdonságainak vizsgálata Kulcs területén. Magyar Geofizika 55(3), ISSN Udvardi B., Kovács I. J., Kónya P., Földvári M., Füri J., Budai F., Falus Gy., Fancsik T., Szabó Cs., Szalai Z. & Mihály J. (2014): Application of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the mineralogical study of a landslide area, Hungary. Sedimentary Geology 313, DOI /j.sedgeo Kovács I., Udvardi. B., Falus Gy., Földvári M., Fancsik T., Kónya P., Bodor E., Mihály J., Németh Cs., Czirják G., Ősi A., Vargáné Barna Zs., Bhattoa H., Szekanecz Z. & Turza S. (2015): Az ATR FTIR spektrometria gyakorlati alkalmazása néhány - elsősorban földtani - esettanulmány bemutatásával. Földtani Közlöny 145(2), in press. 8. Further publications Szabó K.Zs., Udvardi B., Horváth Á., Bakacsi Zs., Pásztor L., Szabó J., Laczkó L. & Szabó Cs. (2012): Cesium-137 concentration of soils in Pest County, Hungary. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 110, DOI: /j.jenvrad Szabó K.Zs., Udvardi B., Horváth Á., Bakacsi Zs., Pásztor L., Szabó J., Laczkó L. & Szabó Cs., (2012) A talajok cézium-137 koncentrációja Pest megyében. Nukleon, 109, 1-6. Udvardi B., Raveloson A., Visnovitz F., Kovács I., Székely B. & Szabó Cs. (2012): Sedimentological features of lateritic and saprolitic horizons in a midslope lavaka, Central Highlands, Madagascar. Bécs, Ausztria, április 22-27, EGU (European Geosciences Union) General Assembly, Geophysical Research Abstracts 14, EGU Kovács I., Green H.D., Rosenthal A., Hermann J., O Neill H.St.C., Hibberson W.O. & Udvardi B. (2012): An experimental study of water in nominally anhydrous minerals in the upper mantle near the water-saturated solidus. Journal of Petrology, 53, DOI: /petrology/egs044. Tóth J., Udvardi B., Kovács I. J., Falus Gy., Szabó Cs., Troskot-Čorbić T. & Slavković R. (2012): Analytical development in FTIR analysis of clay minerals. MOL Scientific Magazine 1, ISSN X 8
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