T67.1 Noise Reduction in Ústí nad Labem. March 12 - PDF

T67.1 Noise Reduction in Ústí nad Labem March 12 Project no. Project Name TREN/FP7TR/ ARCHIMEDES ARCHIMEDES (Achieving Real Change with Innovative Transport Measure Demonstrating Energy Savings)

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T67.1 Noise Reduction in Ústí nad Labem March 12 Project no. Project Name TREN/FP7TR/ ARCHIMEDES ARCHIMEDES (Achieving Real Change with Innovative Transport Measure Demonstrating Energy Savings) Start date of the Project 15/09/2008 Duration: Measure: Task: Deliverable: 48 months 67 Efficient Goods Distribution in Ústí nad Labem 7.6 Noise Reduction T67.1 Noise Reduction in Ústí nad Labem Due date of Deliverable: 14 th October 2011 Actual submission date: 23 March 2012 Dissemination Level Organisation Responsible Author Quality Control Public Ústí nad Labem David Grajovský Dalibor Dařílek Version 1.0 Date last updated 23 March / 30 Table of contents 1 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND CIVITAS BACKGROUND ARCHIMEDES PARTICIPANT CITIES Leading City Innovation Areas ÚSTÍ NAD LABEM BACKGROUND TO THE DELIVERABLE SUMMARY DESCRIPTION OF THE TASK NOISE REDUCTION IN ÚSTÍ NAD LABEM TRANSPORT PLANNING Road line and transverse profile Intersections CONSTRUCTION TECHNICAL MEASURES FOR ROADS AND BUILDINGS Roads Buildings TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT MEASURES Speed reduction Increasing fluency of traffic, harmonisation of traffic flow Restrictive measures Limiting/changing transport demand VEHICLE FLEET EFFICIENT GOODS DISTRIBUTION IN ÚSTÍ NAD LABEM NEED FOR URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT GOODS FLOWS AND FREIGHT TRANSPORT Single step system Multiple steps system Combined system Transport process FREIGHT TRANSPORT IN URBAN AREAS Receivers without specific delivery logistics Receivers with delivery logistics coordinated by a distribution company Receivers with self-coordinated delivery logistics POSSIBILITIES FOR OPTIMISATION Goods distribution centres Freight villages (freight transport centres) POTENTIAL NEGATIVE EFFECTS RELATIONSHIP TO CIVITAS ARCHIMEDES TASK Scenario F - Speed reduction by 10% Scenario G Total exclusion of goods vehicles over 3.5t IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CITY OF ÚSTÍ NAD LABEM CONCLUSION LITERATURE / 30 4 / 30 1 Introduction 1.1 Background CIVITAS CIVITAS - cleaner and better transport in cities - stands for CIty-VITAlity-Sustainability. With the CIVITAS Initiative, the EC aims to generate a decisive breakthrough by supporting and evaluating the implementation of ambitious integrated sustainable urban transport strategies that should make a real difference for the welfare of the European citizen. CIVITAS I started in early 2002 (within the 5th Framework Research Programme); CIVITAS II started in early 2005 (within the 6th Framework Research Programme) and CIVITAS PLUS started in late 2008 (within the 7th Framework Research Programme). The objective of CIVITAS-Plus is to test and increase the understanding of the frameworks, processes and packaging required to successfully introduce bold, integrated and innovative strategies for clean and sustainable urban transport that address concerns related to energyefficiency, transport policy and road safety, alternative fuels and the environment. Within CIVITAS I ( ) there were 19 cities clustered in 4 demonstration projects, within CIVITAS II ( ) 17 cities in 4 demonstration projects, whilst within CIVITAS PLUS ( ) 25 cities in 5 demonstration projects are taking part. These demonstration cities all over Europe are funded by the European Commission. Objectives: to promote and implement sustainable, clean and (energy) efficient urban transport measures to implement integrated packages of technology and policy measures in the field of energy and transport in 8 categories of measures to build up critical mass and markets for innovation Horizontal projects support the CIVITAS demonstration projects & cities by: Cross-site evaluation and Europe wide dissemination in co-operation with the demonstration projects The organisation of the annual meeting of CIVITAS Forum members Providing the Secretariat for the Political Advisory Committee (PAC) Development of policy recommendations for a long-term multiplier effect of CIVITAS Key elements of CIVITAS: CIVITAS is coordinated by cities: it is a programme of cities for cities Cities are in the heart of local public private partnerships Political commitment is a basic requirement Cities are living Laboratories' for learning and evaluating 5 / 30 1.2 Background ARCHIMEDES ARCHIMEDES is an integrating project, bringing together 6 European cities to address problems and opportunities for creating environmentally sustainable, safe and energy efficient transport systems in medium sized urban areas. The objective of ARCHIMEDES is to introduce innovative, integrated and ambitious strategies for clean, energy-efficient, sustainable urban transport to achieve significant impacts in the policy fields of energy, transport, and environmental sustainability. An ambitious blend of policy tools and measures will increase energy-efficiency in transport, provide safer and more convenient travel for all, using a higher share of clean engine technology and fuels, resulting in an enhanced urban environment (including reduced noise and air pollution). Visible and measurable impacts will result from significantly sized measures in specific innovation areas. Demonstrations of innovative transport technologies, policy measures and partnership working, combined with targeted research, will verify the best frameworks, processes and packaging required to successfully transfer the strategies to other cities. 1.3 Participant Cities The ARCHIMEDES project focuses on activities in specific innovation areas of each city, known as the ARCHIMEDES corridor or zone (depending on shape and geography). These innovation areas extend to the peri-urban fringe and the administrative boundaries of regional authorities and neighbouring administrations. The two Learning cities, to which experience and best-practice will be transferred, are Monza (Italy) and Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic). The strategy for the project is to ensure that the tools and measures developed have the widest application throughout Europe, tested via the Learning Cities activities and interaction with the Lead City partners Leading City Innovation Areas The four Leading cities in the ARCHIMEDES project are: Aalborg (Denmark); Brighton & Hove (UK); Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); and Iasi (Romania). Together the Lead Cities in ARCHIMEDES cover different geographic parts of Europe. They have the full support of the relevant political representatives for the project, and are well able to implement the innovative range of demonstration activities. The Lead Cities are joined in their local projects by a small number of key partners that show a high level of commitment to the project objectives of energy-efficient urban transportation. In all cases the public transport company features as a partner in the proposed project. 6 / 30 2 Ústí nad Labem Ústí nad Labem is situated in the north of the Czech Republic, about 20 km from the German border. Thanks to its location in the beautiful valley of the largest Czech river Labe (Elbe) and the surrounding Central Bohemian Massive, it is sometimes called 'the Gateway to Bohemia'. Ústí is an industrial, business and cultural centre of the Ústí region. Ústí nad Labem is an important industrial centre of north-west Bohemia. The city s population is living in an area of km 2. The city is also home to the Jan Evangelista Purkyně University with eight faculties and large student population. The city used to be a base for a large range of heavy industry, causing damage to the natural environment. This is now a major focus for improvement and care. The Transport Master Plan, initiated in 2007, will be the basic transport document for the development of a new urban plan in This document will characterise the development of transport in the city for the next 15 years. Therefore, the opportunity to integrate Sustainable Urban Transport Planning best practices into the Master Plan of Ústí nad Labem within the project represents an ideal match between city policy framework and the ARCHIMEDES project. The project s main objective is to propose transport organisation of the city, depending on the urban form, transport intensity, development of public transport, and access needs. 3 Background to the Deliverable In general, studies show that noise is currently one of the most important sources of harmful impacts on human lives, negatively influencing health of inhabitants living in cities. The amount of population of EU countries exposed to harmful noise load in the year 2000 was estimated to 100 million people. The predominant source of noise is undoubtedly motor transport, reaching approximately 60% of exposure (source: Environmental Legal Service). The negative effect on human health is evident from both medical and statistical analysis. Initially, hearing serves as a warning system. Organism reacts to noise by alarming variety of mechanisms, such as: Increasing blood pressure Accelerating pulse Contracting peripheral blood vessels Increasing level of adrenaline Losing magnesium Noise has a significant effect on the psyche of individuals and may cause fatigue, depression, resentment, aggression, reluctance, memory impairment, loss of attention and overall reduction in performance. Long-term exposure to excessive noise causes hypertension (high blood pressure), heart damage including increased risk of heart attacks, reduction of immunity of the organism, chronic fatigue and insomnia. It was shown that occurrence of civilization diseases directly increases with noisy environment. Furthermore, noise during sleep reduces its quality and depth. In the long term, it is reflected by the abovementioned permanent fatigue. 7 / 30 Another obvious effect of noise is damage of hearing caused either by short-term exposure to noise exceeding 130dB (comparable to the noise of a departing plane) or by frequent exposure to noise beyond 85dB (e.g. very loud music). However, damage to hearing can be also caused by long-term exposure to noise around the 70dB level, which is the standard noise level at main city roads. Nowadays, the main cause of hearing loss is identified to be noise instead of ageing. Damage to hearing is in most cases irreversible. Noise intensity is measured in decibels (db). The decibel is a logarithmic unit so that an increase in noise level of 3dB of means a doubling the volume of noise, an increase by 10dB of noise means 10 times more noise and an increase by 20dB means 100 times more noise etc. Therefore, difference between 20dB and 40dB is much smaller than difference between 60dB and 80dB. To put this another way, if the noise level exceeds the legal limit by only a few decibels, numerically it may seem like only a small deviation but it in reality it is a large effect. 3.1 Summary Description of the Task Ústí nad Labem elaborated a study to identify noise burden in the city as part of CIVITAS ARCHIMEDES task , Noise Reduction, which is documented in Deliverable R28.1. Based on the results, the city identified tools suitable for reducing noise from traffic on local roads by means of traffic planning and traffic management, construction and technical solutions. In accordance with traffic reduction proposals, a plan for efficient distribution of goods in the city was designed. The results of the studies will be implemented into the SUTP for Ústí nad Labem. 8 / 30 4 Noise Reduction in Ústí nad Labem There are several tools, which can help to reduce noise levels caused by local traffic, such as: Greenery - If there is enough space available, implementation of greenery is an effective tool for noise reduction. A three metre wide green belt can reduce noise by a quarter and, at the same time, it increases the aesthetic level of the environment. Optimally, the greenery should consist of a complex of wildly growing trees and bushes with grass cover. It is recommended, in order to reach the full calming effect, to implement at least 20m of a continuous green belt. Smaller size has a psychological effect rather than actually reducing the noise level. Soundproofing walls Such walls can be implemented only on roads with sufficient available space. They must be designed not only to reflect noise, but also to absorb it, and they must fit into the surroundings. Soundproofing walls are in the first place considered as barriers and thus must be installed sensitively. Speed reduction Appropriateness of implementing speed reducing measures must be assessed by experts for each location individually. If drivers are forced to slow down and switch to a lower gear, speed reduction may actually lead to an increase in noise. In case of implementing this tool, it is essential to achieve speed reduction not only theoretically, but in practice. This objective can be reached by installing speed measuring radars, which would automatically record license plates of vehicles exceeding the speed limit. Modifications of traffic organisation Reducing a number of traffic lanes, narrowing roads, implementing speed retarders and other traffic calming measures in the city have positive effect on the noise level. Replacement of road surface Noise produced by road surface is determined by its structure and by tread pattern. Low-noise road surface can reduce noise originated at a road by between a half and three-quarters compared to the standard tarmac surface. Optimal noise reduction is achieved by using silent tyres on low-noise roads. Double-layered porous surface (which may be made from recycled tyres) can result in a reduction of 12 db compared to the regular surface. Some countries such as Denmark, Germany, Netherlands or Japan, have implemented quieter road surfaces, which satisfies demands on costs, safety and durability. However, such noise reduction is applicable only on roads, where vehicles move faster than 50 km/h. At lower speeds noise from engines is predominant. Lownoise road surface is more expensive than regular road surface, but offers savings by avoiding installation of soundproofing walls and insulations of buildings and lowering the costs for health care of inhabitants suffering from diseases triggered by noise. Implementation of low-noise road surface is appropriate for all major roads in vicinity of buildings. The following chapters present individual noise reducing measures divided into several categories which are under consideration for inclusion in ongoing policy developments for Usti. 9 / 30 4.1 Transport Planning Road line and transverse profile When designing the road line, protection from noise should be taken into account. It is necessary to situate roads in sufficient distance from residential buildings. By doubling the distance between a road and a building, noise is reduced by about 4dB. Additional noise reduction can be achieved by utilising the existing terrain, both natural obstacles and existing artificial barriers. When designing roads it is necessary to specify the noise burden of all variants and their requirements for noise protection. It is desirable to locate new sources of noise to the already existing ones and to implement noise reducing measures in a complex way to all those multiple sources together. It is desirable to consider topography, height, distance from buildings, and other characteristics of the proposal in order to determine if the road line should be at ground level, below ground, or above it Intersections Sudden and repeated increases in noise levels, caused primarily by braking and accelerating of vehicles, are extremely distracting. A road without intersections allows more fluent and less intrusive traffic, whereas intersections present additional burden. In case of multilevel intersections, it is necessary to verify where to lead the busiest traffic flow to cause the lowest possible burden. Additionally, the intersection should be constructed in such way, that low intensity traffic flows facilitate a noise barrier for the busy traffic flow. Figure 1 For multilevel intersections, it is necessary to verify, where the busiest traffic flow causes the lowest impact to the surroundings, and create possible noise barriers 10 / 30 Furthermore, low intensity traffic flow should lead through the area requiring noise protection in a shortest possible distance, while allowing the longer route to have sufficient capacity to cover the high intensity traffic flows (please, see Figure 2). Figure 3 Traffic flows in the area requiring noise protection 4.2 Construction Technical Measures for Roads and Buildings Roads Road surface Road surface significantly contributes to the resulting noise burden. To minimise generation of noise during the contact of tyres with road surface, it is appropriate to: Decrease transverse lines and dilatations to limit sources of noise; Implement high quality, solid construction of the road to avoid variations, steps, waves or distortions; Locate utilities away from driving lanes or provide them with low-noise overpass where appropriate (e.g. on bridges). 11 / 30 Noise protection Measures for noise protection include: Soundproofing walls or embankments; Location in depressions or on elevations (e.g. to increase the distance from housing); Partial or total coverage (i.e. tunnels). These measures are relatively expensive, but they can be considered early on during the road design process Buildings Measures suitable for protection of buildings against noise include: Closed development; Arrangement of buildings in parallel with roads; Acoustic limiting construction forms and ground plans of buildings implement buildings with reduced reflectivity of noise; Noise protection on buildings soundproofing windows, insulation. New buildings are already implemented with regard to noise protection, the issue occurs primarily in the case of old buildings. 4.3 Traffic Management Measures Speed reduction Speed reduction is a simple low-cost measure, although it is feasible only for free-flowing traffic without frequent or permanent congestion, where driving speed exceeds 30 km/h for passenger vehicles or 50 km/h for freight vehicles. For speeds under 30 km/h for passenger vehicles and 50 km/h for freight vehicles, the noise of engines is predominant over the noise of tyres. Aerodynamic noise continuously increases with speed. The recommended measure is: Speed reduction on roads near buildings (in particular, where the speed limit is high) Increasing fluency of traffic, harmonisation of traffic flow This measure is feasible mainly if there are configurable hardware resources available; otherwise, it is rather costly. Suitability of its implementation should be examined individually for each locality. It includes implementation of: Telematic systems; Green wave (to limit braking and accelerating); Permanent red phase with immediate insertion of the green signal (for low traffic intensities); 12 / 30 Permanent green phase in the main direction, red phase on request from the other directions (for low traffic intensities in other directions) Restrictive measures This effective low-cost measure can be applied only with regard to preserving functions of the relevant locality. Restrictive measures are: Restricting or prohibiting entry (within the defined time, for specific vehicles or users) Establishing residential or ecological zones; Prohibiting entry for freight transport (significantly reduces noise, however, operation of public transport limits its effects) Limiting/changing transport demand This is a complex long-term measure, which should be part of the long-term transport policy of the city. Changing the modal split in favour of non-motorized transport: Promotion of public transport convenient price, comfort, speed, PT priority at intersections; Support for soft mobility - pedestrians, cyclists (construction of safe and attractive walking and cycling infrastructure). Charging entrance to the city centre results in a lower traffic intensity and lower noise emissions; Appropriately situating parking premises (to avoid manoeuvring of vehicles); 4.4 Vehic
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