Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sayı 7 Ocak 2013 Sosyal Bilimler Elektronik Dergisi A FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE MEASURING METHOD FOR THE BANK CALL CENTER EMPLOYEES 1 ABSTRACT The working system of the bank call centers

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Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sayı 7 Ocak 2013 Sosyal Bilimler Elektronik Dergisi A FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE MEASURING METHOD FOR THE BANK CALL CENTER EMPLOYEES 1 ABSTRACT The working system of the bank call centers are mostly focused on reporting the actions of the staff. These reports are deterrent for the agents who wants to avoid working. The disguised unemployment is rarely seen at the call centers. By using a perfect system and inspection any call center company can completely get rid of disguised unemployment. This case study is prepared to develope a new model to increase the staff efficiency of the bank call centers. The model is expected to increase the employee loyalty. Keywords: Bank Call Centers, Staff, Disguised Unemployment, Efficiency. JEL Classifications: J21 ; J24 ; J33 BANKA ÇAĞRI MERKEZİ ÇALIŞANLARI İÇİN BİR FİNANSAL PERFORMANS ÖLÇÜM YÖNTEMİ ÖZET Banka çağrı merkezlerinin çalışma sistemi çoğunlukla çalışanların eylemlerini raporlamaya odaklanmıştır. Bu raporlar çalışmaktan kaçınan çağrı merkezi müşteri etmsilcileri için caydırıcıdır. Gizli işsizlik çağrı merkezlerinde nadiren görülür. Kusursuz bir system kullanmak ve denetleme vasıtasıyla çağrı merkezleri gizli işsizlikten tamamen kurtulabilirler. Bu vaka çalışması çağrı merkezi çalışan verimliliğini arttırmak için yeni bir model hazırlandı.bu araştırma, banka çağrı merkezlerinin çalışanları ve verimliliği nasıl etkilediğini göstermek için düzenlenmiş ve gözden geçirilmiştir. Anahtar kelimeler: Müşteri ilişkileri yönetimi, çağrı merkezi müşteri temsilcileri, çağrı merkezi yapısı, müşteri memnuniyeti. JEL Kodları: J21 ; J24 ; J33 1 Öğr.Gör., Okan Üniversitesi İİBF Uluslarası Ticaret Bölümü, I. INTRODUCTION The companies are represented to the customers directly by the call centers. The human resource department is one of the most important departments of the call centers due to the need of qualified staff and high turnover rates. The call centers can be thought as a step for better positions. Many companies prefer promoting their agents and locating them at different departments. Because the working discipline of the agents can be efficiently observed. The performance measurement methods are mostly focused on financial metrics amd non-financial metrics. Our aim is increasing the reliability of the performance measurements and avoiding non-financial metrics. In order to reach this aim, the features of a call center is elaborated. II. BANK CELL CENTERS The bank call centers are employing well-educated to improve and use in different departments. The number of the staff working in the bank call centers was 6229 on june This number includes 5266 customer representatives, 333 support and service staff and 630 managers. The average age of the customer representatives is 24, the service staff is 23 and the managers is 31. About 18 percent of the staff graduated high school, 34 percent university, 47 percent bachelor s and 1 percent of the staff graduated a master or doctorate programme. The number of the staff owning a high school diploma is 1.120, a university diploma is 2.126, a bachelor s degree is and a master or a doctorate degree is 91. The customer representatives have 984 high school, university, bachelor s and 55 master or doctorate diplomas. The support and service personnel has 63 high school, 108 university, 154 bachelor s and 8 master or doctorate diplomas. The other has 73 high school, 133 university, 396 bachelor s and 28 master or doctorate diplomas belong to the administratives (TBB,2010). 25 Table 1. Education levels of the bank call center employees (2010) Sup.Serv. Agents Pers. Managers Total Mar- high 10 school university bachelor's master total Jun- high 10 school university bachelor's master total Source: TBB, 2010 The quality of a call center is strictly related with the staff and the service given. Thus it is related with the education level. The education level of the bank call center seems adequate for the tasks. The education level is important for the new regulations and renovations of the call centers. The staff with low education level resist the renovations. The people with high education level can more easily adapt themselves to the renovations. The high education level of the agents give the banks also the option to take temporary support from the call centers when it is necessary. The adaptation of the agents will be easier for the educated people to the bank. In a call center, the experiences of the agents are also enough to manage the transactions of the banks. 26 Figure 1. Education Levels of the Bank Employees (2010) Source: BDDK, 2010 The rate of bachelor s degree holder of the bank staff is 61,46 percent and the master degree holders is %5,11 (BDDK, 2010). The education level of the bank employees are better than the call centers. The banks prefer qualified employees with high education levels. Therefore the appropriate qualified agents of the call centers will be hired by the banks. The human resource departments of the banks can eliminate the agents by checking the reports of performance. The performance system of the call centers are reliable. Every action of an agent can evaluated by using the reports. The talent of the customer representatives can be determined. For example, the sale of each customer representative can be elaborated and the customer representatives holding a satisfying success of sales can be located at the sales departments. III. THE PROPOSAL MODEL Operational or task control is important for the labor-intensive working companies (Anthony, 1965). But it separates from the existing system with the vital points like investigation and performance measures. The required departments for this system are inbound and outbound departments, finance department, data entry department, service quality and monitoring department, just like every improved call centers. Education department also exists, but it will not be added to the model. It will be elaborated separately as a department which supports the model. 27 The aim of the model is reducing the costs of employee. There two ways of arranging the employee costs: first is using them only on the necessary times, second is using them efficiently. The necessary times are the intense hours of inbound. But efficiency is a subject to evaulate on both inbound and outbound. We have to take every call of the customers in the inbound departments. Even though we must not use agents more than we need. Because it means we are paying for an unused capacity. There is a special department at every call center to plan the working hours of the employees. This department is called monitoring. This department monitors the crowded hours and arrange the shifts of the employees in the correct way to melt the calls. The aim of monitoring department is avoiding disguised unemployment. The replacement function of the call centers increase the efficiency. Replacement function means the ability of some departments to work instead of each other or to be able to support each other. At the inbound departments, on some certain period of times, the number of the employees may not be sufficient to meet the calls. During this period of time outbound departments can support the inbound departments to answer the calls. On the other hand, when the inbound departments are avail, they can make outbound calls. These necessity has to be determined by the monitoring department. Monitoring department has a great impact on the efficiency of the call centers. Some other departments like service quality and education, also affects the efficiency. The service quality department listens and evaluates the calls of the agents. The score of these calls are added into the account of the performance. A. The Efficiency Rate The efficiency rate of a call center is the average of the efficiency of each agent. The efficiency rate of each agent can be seen by each agent on the screen. The aim of the ability to see the efficiency rate is the motivation. The efficiency rate can be calculated bu using many variables. The efficiency rate of an agent is calculated daily by using the daily values of the agent. The average of the total time of the states will be taken. Each state has a different weight. Each state will affect the efficiency rate with a different ratio. These ratios change in each company. 28 Avail time has no rate. It is multiplied by zero. The usual rates of these weights can be seen on Table 2. Table 2. Weights of States on Efficiency States rate Avail time 0 Call time 1 Hold time 0,9 Acw 0,6 Meeting 1 Aux is not added to working time The states which are added to the working time will be multiplied by the rates and added to the efficient used time. The performance can be found after finding the efficient used time. The formula of the efficiency rate is seen on Formula 1. The efficiency rate = efficient used time / working time (1) For example, assume that Agent A worked 9 hours today. We can see how he spent time in 10 hours on table 3. Table 3. States of an Agent State minutes Avail time 40 Call time 260 Hold time 5 Acw 85 Meeting 60 Aux 90 Total Agent A will be paid for 7,5 hours, because the time of Aux is usually not paid. The efficient used time of Agent A is calculated on Formula 2 and the efficiency rate is found on Formula 3. Avail time 40 x 0 = 0 Call time 260 x 1 = 260 Hold time 5 x 0,9 = 4,5 Acw 85 x 0,6 = 51 Meeting 60 x 1 = 60 Total 375,5 minutes (2) The efficiency rate = 375,5 / 450 = % 83 (3) Today the efficiency of agent A is 83 percent. His efficiency will be compared to his teammates. This a success when the average of his team is below his efficiency. The more he passes the average, the more he is successful. The standart deviation is taken to calculate the success of the agent on efficiency. Every department has a different performance system and every corporation has another one. But the basis is all the same, the rates may change only. The efficiency rate can be written like Formula 4. Efficiency rate = acw+c. time+ h. time+m. time+avail time+man. wor. time Working time (4) The working time is simply the period of time the agent is on the system and seems to be working. The manuel working time is the time value of the manuel transactions the agent made. Each manuel transaction has a different time value. For example the time value of recording an into the system might be 3 minutes and the time value of a fax might be 5 minutes. The manuel working time can be found after multiplying the time value by the number of the transactions made. 30 B. The Performance System The performance of the month will be calculated after blending the daily performances with the service quality scores. The service quality score of each agent will be given by the service quality department. A premium will be given to each agent according to the performance of the month. A sales premium will be added onto this. Sometimes the agents can give wrong information to the customers. But they still have a chance to correct their mistakes. The monitoring department can change the skills of the employees depending on their demand. The agents are authorized to give order to monitoring department to change their skill into outbound. The monitoring department will check the necessity and then the permission will be given. On the other hand, the monitoring department may not give permission due to the high number of the coming calls. When there is something suspicous, the monitoring department can warn the team leader of that agent to follow the transactions of the agent. Every department can need to change skill. For example an agent in the data entry department can change skill to outbound to call the owner of a fax about the credit card informations which are sent by fax. An inbound agent can change his skill to outbound to correct a wrong information he has given to the customer. The performance of the agent can also affected by exceeding the limits of aux (break) or acw. The aux times are decided by monitoring team and sent to the agents. The agent can send mail and ask for a permission to have a break. The monitoring department will give the permission at once if there are avail agents. On the other hand, when the SL and ASA rates are decreasing with the coming calls, the monitoring department will be giving permission after a while. The point of asking permission for a break to monitoring lies in the number of the people working in a call center. The agent may be trying to have a break, when the half of the employees are on a break. A situation like this will spoil the SL and ASA rates. Not to confront a problem like this, the breaks can be made after a permission. Exceeding the limits of the times for the related states will diminish the efficiency and the performance. Every company and every department has different punishments. We can assume a call center by taking approximate values to understand the penalty system. Table 4 shows a probable limit schedule. The values seen on Table 4 is close to the limit and the 31 penalties of the most call centers. Table 4. Penalties of Exceeding the Limit of States Skill States Probable limits the penalties and the limits Inbound Acw 5 seconds 5-15 seconds - %5 efficiency seconds - %10 efficiency meeting no permission 1-10 minutes - %1 performance minutes - 3 performance Aux 10 minutes (per hour) %5 of the daily limit % 5 performance Hold 30 seconds 5-15 seconds - %5 efficiency seconds - %10 efficiency Outbound Acw 30 seconds 5-50 seconds - %5 efficiency seconds - %10 efficiency meeting no permission 1-10 minutes - %1 performance Aux 10 minutes (per hour) %5 of the daily limit % 5 performance Hold 30 seconds 5-15 seconds - %5 efficiency seconds - %10 efficiency Finance Acw 200 seconds 5-50 seconds - %5 efficiency (backline) seconds - %10 efficiency meeting 15 minutes 1-10 minutes - %1 efficiency minutes -%3 efficiency Aux 10 minutes (per hour) %5 of the daily limit % 5 performance Hold 30 seconds 5-15 seconds - %5 efficiency seconds - %10 efficiency Data entry meeting no permission 1-10 minutes - %1 performance minutes - 3 performance Aux 10 minutes (per hour) %5 of the daily limit % 5 performance 32 The penalties diminishes the performance and some certain amounts of exceedings will be a subject to a warning. A warning can seriously affect the performance of the agent or prevent any possible promotions or the existing premiums. C. Pursuit of Efficiency As it operates, a large call center generates vast amounts of data. From these records, a detailed history of each call that enters the system can, in theory, be reconstructed: when it arrived; who was the caller; what actions the caller took in the IVR and how long each action took; whether and how long the caller waited in queue; whether and for how long an agent served the call; who was the agent. If the call center uses CTI, then additional data from the company s information systems may be included in the record: what the call was about; the types of actions taken by an agent; related account information (Gans, Koole and Mandelbaum, 2003:79). The recorded informations will be elaborated by the responsible departments. During the pursuit of efficiency, some functions of the call centers plays a gerat role. These functions are like service quality assurance, planning, meeting and educations. 1. Service quality assurance In practice, call centers have not typically stored or analyzed records of individual calls, however. This may be due, in part, to the historically high cost of maintaining adequately large databases a large call center generates many gigabytes of call-by-call data each month but clearly these quantities of data are no longer prohibitively expensive to store. Every call is recorded and every necessary information is stored (Gans, Koole and Mandelbaum, 2003:79). The call records are listened by the service quality department to make routine controls. The service quality department and the team leaders are responsible for this action. The calls are listened and evaluated by the agents of service quality department and the team leaders. The behaviours and the knowledge of the agents are controlled. There are some special conditions of the quality controls like repeating the name of the customers. The priority of service quality is checking the behaviours of the agents to the customers. 33 The other controls will be coming after this. Any rude behaviour to the customer is unacceptable. The complaints of the customers may be sent to this department to check. These compaints are evaluated at first. The calls wich are subject to the complainment will be listened and a grade will be given to the conversation. At the end, it will be decided about who is right; the customer or the agent. The agents might have a penalty or a warning, when the source of the issue is the agent. Using the new technologies function makes more complicated service quality controls possible. For example Garanti Emeklilik is using microsoft CRM at the call center departments. The CRM structure is tried to be used efficiently. Sestek is also used to turn the voice into texts. The calls will be monitored faster by the way. The customer satisfaction is measured and the unwanted situations are easily determined (Moral, 2010). The service quality department listens to the calls of each agent. Every month about 20 calls are listened and evaluated by the service quality department. In march 2010 the average of the listened calls is 21 and in june 2010 it is 17 for each customer representative in the call centers of the banks (TBB, 2010). A score will be given to each call between 0 and 100. The average of these scores will affect the performance of the month. There is a special schedule for ranking used by the service quality team. There is a minus degree for each lack of the agent. For example, wrong information might be -10, being rude might be -20 or Every call center has a different schedule. The service quality score has a different weight on each department. The table 5 shows the rates as a snapshot of june 2007 values of a call center. Table 5. Weights of Service Quality and Efficiency On Performance weight of service quality score weight of efficiency total performance Inbound % 60 + %40 = % 100 Outbound %50 + %50 = % 100 Finance %40 + %60 = % 100 The reason of putting more weight on efficiency in inbound is the unability of the agents to change the efficiency rate. Changing the number of coming calls is not possible. 34 Therefore it is more suitable for the agents to focus on the service quality, not the efficiency. The reason of putting more weight on efficiency in backline is the type of the customers. The service quality evaluation is sometimes more flexible to the agents of the backline department. Because the customers who has an issue are called by the backline departments. The backline department has to keep the reputation of the company and solve the problems of the customers. Achieving both of these targets can mean waste of time. 2. Planning The planning function is the main function of the call centers. The planning of the bank call centers is also important for the bank operations. Because every bank takes support from the call centers at various events. There is a phone to connect. Ziraat bankası moved the support one step ahead and started VTM Project by using its call centers together with a new technology. By the VTM branches, it is possible to reach the regions which are not suitable to locate a branch (, 2008). Call centers need a strict planning. Call centers need to consider enterprise goals and marketing strategies, competitor standards and most importantly, the expectations of customers (Reynolds, 2003). The planning operation is made by the monitoring department. Monitori
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