Revista de Gestão Costeira Integrada / Journal of Integrated Coastal Zone Management, 15(4):###-### (2015) - PDF

DOI: Solid waste management in coastal cities: where are the gaps? Case study of the North Coast of São Paulo, Brazil * Andréa de L.

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DOI: Solid waste management in coastal cities: where are the gaps? Case study of the North Coast of São Paulo, Brazil * Andréa de L. ; Alexander Turra a2 ABSTRACT Coastal cities are surrounded by important but fragile ecosystems that are under pressure from population growth, tourism and large commercial enterprises. These factors contribute to a complex solid waste management situation, which is exacerbated by lack of planning and sanitation infrastructure, common factors in cities in developing countries. The municipalities of the North Coast of São Paulo State were used as study cases to analyze public policies for solid waste management in the coastal zone, with wide seasonal variations in population and solid waste production. The analysis included planning, implementation, performance indicators and future prospects. The results revealed that some key issues that are critical to the development and improvement of solid waste management in these cities must be considered: (1) the main focus of the plans and future prospects is landfills; (2) only a few of the outputs and outcome indicators are related to MSW; (3) recycling is not well implemented; and (4) no indicators of the amount of waste recycled are established. Solid waste management in these municipalities should be strategically reframed in order to adopt more-sustainable alternatives for waste treatment, with outputs and outcome indicators to evaluate policy implementation. In addition, citizen (residents and tourists) should be encouraged in monitoring and implementing these policies. Keywords: Solid Waste Management, Coastal Cities, Public Policies. RESUMO Gestão de resíduos sólidos em cidades costeiras: onde estão as lacunas? Estudo de caso do litoral norte de São Paulo, Brasil Cidades costeiras estão cercadas por ecossistemas importantes e frágeis, pressionados pelo crescimento populacional, turismo e grandes empreendimentos comerciais. Estes fatores contribuem para uma situação complexa de gestão de resíduos sólidos, a qual é agravada pela falta de planejamento e infraestrutura de saneamento, comuns em cidades de países em desenvolvimento. Os municípios do Litoral Norte do Estado de São Paulo serviram como estudo de caso para analisar as políticas públicas voltadas à gestão de resíduos sólidos na zona costeira, incluindo o planejamento, implementação, indicadores de desempenho e perspectivas futuras. Os resultados indicam que algumas questões essenciais para o desenvolvimento e melhoria da gestão dos resíduos sólidos estão sendo negligenciadas: (1) o principal foco dos planos e perspectivas estão focados em aterros sanitários; (2) existem poucos indicadores de desempenho relacionados à gestão de resíduos sólidos; (3) a reciclagem não tem uma cobertura adequada nos municípios; e (4) não existem indicadores estabelecidos que quantifiquem o volume de resíduos reciclado. A gestão dos resíduos sólidos deveria ser estrategicamente reformulada nestas cidades, proporcionando alternativas mais sustentáveis para o tratamento de resíduos sólidos, com indicadores de desempenho que Corresponding author to whom correspondence should be addressed: a Laboratório de Manejo, Ecologia e Conservação Marinha, Departamento de Oceanografia Biológica, Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico, 191, Butantã, São Paulo, Brazil. * Submission: 20 AUG 2014; Peer review: 18 SEP 2014; Revised: 18 MAR 2015; Accepted: 18 MAY 2015; Available on-line: 22 MAY 2015 Oliveira & Turra (2015) adequadamente o as políticas do setor e contribuam para o seu desenvolvimento. Além disso, a participação e engajamento dos cidadãos (residentes e turistas) deveriam ser incentivados, encorajando-os a colaborar na implementação das políticas e no seu controle. Palavras-chave: Gestão de Resíduos Sólidos, Cidades Costeiras, Políticas Públicas. 1. Introduction The increase of urban solid waste as well as the consumption of disposable items and the inappropriate ways in which this waste is collected and disposed of, lead to a worldwide crisis in urban solid waste management (UNHABITAT, 2010; Gray, 1997). Solid waste management is one of the most challenging problems faced by the world's municipalities (UNHABI- TAT, 2010). Coastal zones are even more exposed to this crisis due to the lack of appropriate landfill sites, wide seasonal population variations, extensive commercial enterprises and proximity to the marine environment with its fragile ecosystems Solid Waste Management and Marine Litter The global population is concentrated in low-lying coastal zones, where approximately 2% of the earth houses 13% of its people, a proportion that is rapidly increasing (McGranahan et al., 2007). In coastal cities, environmental features such as mangroves, estuaries, beaches and bays, coupled with population growth, tourism and pressure from commercial projects such as ports, harbors and offshore oil and gas exploration makes difficult solid waste management, already compromised by the lack of planning and basic sanitation infrastructures that is prevalent in developing countries (Jiang et al., 2001; Li, 2003). In the coastal zone, this situation leads to the proliferation of marine litter (Seco Pon & Becherucci, 2012), defined as any manufactured or solid waste from human activities that enters the marine environment, regardless of the source (land-based or marine-based), but excluding organic matter (e.g. food and plant waste) (Cheshire et al., 2009). Marine litter causes harm to ecosystems and marine life and impacts economic and recreational activities in the marine environment, such as fishing, tourism and navigation (Cheshire et al., 2009). Land-based activities are the major source of marine litter, responsible for 80% of the marine litter collected in the marine environment (Balas et al., 2001; Hetherington, 2005). Coastal cities have a responsibility to avoid generating marine litter, by implementing and conducting appropriate waste management procedures (UNEP & NOAA, 2011). The second United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development, also known as the Earth Summit, Rio Summit and Rio-92, held in the city of Rio de Janeiro in 1992, was an international benchmark for waste management and protection of coastal zones. 2 Agenda 21 of this convention established the priority objectives of protecting the oceans, seas and coastal zones, and reducing pollution from solid waste. The convention envisioned a serious international commitment to improving solid waste management, minimizing waste generation, maximizing reuse and recycling, promoting adequate disposal and treatment, and expanding waste services (UN, 1992). In 2011, an international conference organized by the US NOAA (United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and the UN (United Nations) published the Honolulu Strategy, a resultsoriented framework of action with the overarching objective of reducing the impacts and amounts of marine litter over the next 10 years. The Honolulu Strategy is divided into three main goals that focus on reducing the amounts and impacts of marine litter from land-based and sea-based sources and the accumulation of marine litter in the marine environment (shorelines, benthic habitats and pelagic waters) (UNEP & NOAA, 2011) Solid Waste Management on the Brazilian Coast In Brazil, 24.6% of the inhabitants live in coastal municipalities (IBGE, 2011). Waste-collection coverage varies among municipalities, but is over 80% in all regions (North, Northeast, Southeast, South and Middlewest) (Astolpho & Gusmão, 2008). Nevertheless, half of Brazilian municipalities dispose of their waste in inappropriate areas (MMA, 2011), highlighting the urgency of pursuing alternative treatments for solid waste under the principles established in Agenda 21. In Brazil, the federal law that establishes the National Plan for Coastal Management (PNGC), published before Agenda 21, had already defined the coastal zone as an area in need of changes in management (Lei nº7.661, 1988). A federal law regarding solid waste management was promulgated only in 2010, establishing the National Policy on Solid Waste (Lei nº , 2010). One of the tools of the PNGC is the Macrodiagnosis of the coastal and marine zones of Brazil, which combines socio-environmental information from the entire Brazilian coast. This diagnostic procedure uses data on the collection and disposal of urban solid waste, coupled with the average per-capita income and the existence of other sanitation services, to calculate the social risk indicator, given that residents of cities with poor sanitation services and infrastructure are more likely to encounter problems affecting their living conditions (Astolpho & Gusmão, 2008). Currently, 18% (75 of 395) of Brazilian coastal municipalities are classed as high or very high social risk (Astolpho & Gusmão, 2008). Metropolitan regions with higher population densities tend to have higher social risk. In southeast Brazil, for instance, almost half (33 of 68) of the coastal municipalities, including 8 of 16 in the State of São Paulo, are classed as high or very high social risk (Astolpho & Gusmão, 2008). These indexes reveal the vulnerable situation of coastal municipalities, even though they are not directly related to solid waste management. In addition, several published studies have reported the occurrence of marine litter on beaches and other marine environments in Brazil. Araújo & Costa (2007) studied contamination by marine litter on an isolated beach in Pernambuco State. The main source of contamination was the Várzea do Una River, and the results indicated an exceptionally high level of contamination of the beach by plastics of urban origin, exposing the gravity of the basic sanitation situation in the urban centers of this river basin. Other studies also reported a high occurrence of marine contamination along the Brazilian coast, from the South to Northeast regions (Araújo & Costa, 2004; Ivar do Sul & Costa, 2007; Oigman- Pszczol & Creed, 2007; Cordeiro & Costa, 2010; Oliveira et al., 2011). All these studies suggested that the waste mismanagement was one of the major causes of contamination Study Objectives In order to analyze this issue closely and to increase understanding of the coastal zone of Brazil, the North Coast of the State of São Paulo was chosen for a case study. Despite their particularities, the municipalities of the North Coast of São Paulo have similar conditions to other coastal areas, including fragile environments; an economy based on tourism, especially vacation homes, with a marked seasonal variation in population; prospects for new projects that will conflict with existing activities; and the potential to produce marine litter. This study analyzed the solid waste policies in these coastal municipalities. The following questions related to public policies for solid waste management were posed: Are there policies regarding solid waste? What are their main objectives and targets? How are the policies implemented? What are their main indicators for solid waste management assessment? Are the prospective future projects suitable for the area? 2. Research Method 2.1. Study Area The North Coast of São Paulo is composed of three municipalities on the mainland, Caraguatatuba, São Sebastião and Ubatuba; and one island, Ilhabela (Figure 1). The region is an administrative unit of the State of 3 São Paulo, for coastal management (Lei nº , 1998) and water resources (Lei nº 9.034, 1994), i.e., the North Coast has not only a physiographic identity but a management identity as well. This concept can also be applied to solid waste management. The region has 11 federal, state and municipality Conservation Units, including one National Park, three State Parks, one Ecological Station, two Environmental Protection Areas and four Private Natural Heritage Reserves (CBHLN, 2011). The parks are fully protected areas where the main objective is to preserve nature, and only indirect uses of their natural resources are permitted. These areas comprise 76% of the entire area of the North Coast region (SMA, 2006). These numbers illustrate two important factors for the region. The first is tourism, which depends on the natural landscape; and the second is the limited space available for urban expansion and, as a result, for landfills and other solid waste management facilities Local Economic and Sanitation Context The coast of São Paulo is the site of several large projects related to transportation (ports and roads) and offshore oil and gas exploitation. The State of São Paulo published a document titled Strategic Environmental Assessment Port, Industrial, Naval and Offshore Dimensions on the São Paulo Coast that analyzed several ongoing and future projects in the area (ARCADIS, 2010). According to this document, if all the projects planned for the region were to be implemented within the next 15 years, the total cost could be 93 billon USD (209 billion BRL). The majority of these projects are located in the Central Baixada Santista (where the Port of Santos is located), where 92% of the total would be spent; 7% would be allocated to the North Coast, and less than 1% to the South Baixada Santista (ARCADIS, 2010). Despite the small percentage of the total funds invested in the North Coast region, the contrast between the natural tendency for environmental protection and tourism and the possibility of increased urbanization is stark. Urbanization based on these large projects would compromise the environmental features and the natural situation of this coast. These investments in the North Coast would be for infrastructure, such as the expansion of the Port of São Sebastião, construction of divided highways, and installation of oil and gas pipelines, among others. The municipalities have been conducting public hearings to discuss these new projects, including the environmental permitting process, installation and operation. These projects are likely to increase the population growth rate, putting pressure on the sanitation infrastructure. The local economy is based mainly on services related to tourism activities, such as accommodation, food and Oliveira & Turra (2015) Figure 1 - Map of the North Coast of São Paulo State. Image: Mariana Corá. Figura 1 - Mapa do Litoral Norte do Estado de São Paulo. Imagem: Mariana Corá. transport. São Sebastião is the only exception; the royalties (taxes) that it receives from the Port of São Sebastião and the Almirante Barroso Transpetro Terminal provide it with the highest Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the region (IBGE, 2010). The main source of tax revenue for the other municipalities is the service sector. The permanent population of all municipalities of the North Coast is 290,429 inhabitants, but this number increases significantly during the summer high season (Table 1). As an indicator of this process, all the municipalities have a high proportion of non-occupied households (seasonal residences), especially Ubatuba, where 50% of the households fall in this category. The sanitation situation varies widely among the municipalities, according to an assessment by IBGE (2010), Caraguatatuba has the highest proportion of households with adequate sanitation (88.7%). Ilhabela has the highest proportion of households classified as inadequate (32.2%). In São Sebastião the majority are considered semi-adequate (84%) and in Ubatuba more 4 than half of the households have adequate sanitation (Table 1). The local sanitation systems are deficient, and when overloaded may fail and themselves become a source of pollution. The region s solid waste collection coverage is good, with almost all households covered (99.5%) (CBHLN, 2011). However, the lack of regular collections leads the residents to discard their waste in vacant lots and waterbodies, increasing diffuse pollution (CBHLN, 2011) Local Policies and Policy Implementation Local policies were organized and analyzed, in order to identify the issues related to solid waste management and their approaches. Policy implementation was analyzed based on the Multiannual Plans (MAPs), Municipal Integrated Solid Waste Management Plans (MISWMPs) and Municipal Sanitation Plans (MSPs) when available. The Multiannual Plans (MAPs) were analyzed through the identification of programs related to solid waste Table 1 - Gross Domestic Product (GDP), population (permanent and temporary), occupancy rate of households and the sanitation situation in the municipalities of the North Coast of São Paulo State. Tabela 1. Produto Interno Bruto (PIB), populacional (fixa e flutuante), taxa de ocupação dos domicílios e situação sanitária dos municípios do Litoral Norte do estado de São Paulo. Caraguatatuba Ilhabela São Sebastião Ubatuba GDP (in thousands, BRL)¹ 1, , GDP per capita (in BRL)¹ 13, , , , Permanent population in 2010¹ 100,840 28,196 73,942 78,801 Temporary population² 1,120,000 (annual) 100,000 (summer) 336,560 (annual) Not specified Occupancy rate of households¹ 43% 28% 38% 50% Adequate Sanitation Situation¹ 88.7% None 7% 52.8% Semi-adequate Sanitation Situation¹ 11.3% 67.8% 84% 47% Inadequate Sanitation Situation¹ None 32.2% 9% 0.2% Sources: 1- IBGE (2010). 2 CBHLN (2011). 1 USD is equivalent to 2.2 BRL. Sanitation Situation criteria: 1. adequate: there are drains connected to the network or general septic tank, water is provided by the water-supply system, and waste is collected directly or indirectly by cleaning services. 2. semi-adequate: at least one of the above services is classified as adequate. 3. inadequate: sewage enters a rudimentary sewage ditch, river, lake, the ocean or other sewer; water is obtained from wells, springs or other sources, and waste is not collected, but burned, buried or discarded into vacant lots, rivers, lakes or the ocean. management, their indicators, and the resources invested. The MAP is a planning tool that must be prepared and approved for a period of four years. The plan organizes governmental actions, with programs oriented toward strategic goals defined for the period when the plan is in effect (Lei nº11.653). The municipal MAPs from 2010 to 2013 were analyzed with respect to budget items related to solid waste management, as well as the policy indicators used to evaluate these initiatives. The Municipal Sanitation Plans (MSPs) and Municipal Integrated Solid Waste Management Plans (MISWMPs) analyzed were published after 2012, and the MISWMPs from Ubatuba and Caraguatatuba were published in The aspects considered in the analysis were (1) if the diagnosis in the plan considered the population growth during high season and the kind of solid waste collected and disposed of; (2) if the municipality had a well-established recycling program; (3) if the municipality established a target for the plan; (4) if the municipality had adequate performance indicators Data Analysis The analyses were based on qualitative parameters, and a general profile was drawn for each municipality based on the public policies, MAPs, MSPs, and MISWMPs (when available). The indicators were classified and analyzed according to Mosse & Sontheimer (1996) and Greene & Tonjes (2014), evaluating if they were inputs or process indicators, and discussing their weaknesses and strengths Results 3.1. Landfill Crises on the North Coast of São Paulo Inappropriate disposal of solid waste is a chronic problem in the region. Caraguatatuba and São Sebastião had their landfills classified as inadequate for the first time by CETESB (Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, or Environmental Sanitation Technology Company of the state of São Paulo) since the classification process started in 1997; Ilhabela had its landfill classified as inadequate for the first time in 1998; Ubatuba had its landfill classified
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