AEGAEUM 37 Annales liégeoises et PASPiennes d archéologie égéenne PHYSIS L ENVIRONNEMENT NATUREL ET LA RELATION HOMME-MILIEU DANS LE MONDE ÉGÉEN PROTOHISTORIQUE Actes de la 14 e Rencontre égéenne internationale,

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AEGAEUM 37 Annales liégeoises et PASPiennes d archéologie égéenne PHYSIS L ENVIRONNEMENT NATUREL ET LA RELATION HOMME-MILIEU DANS LE MONDE ÉGÉEN PROTOHISTORIQUE Actes de la 14 e Rencontre égéenne internationale, Paris, Institut National d Histoire de l Art (INHA), décembre 2012 Edités par Gilles TOUCHAIS, Robert LAFFINEUR et Françoise ROUGEMONT PEETERS LEUVEN - LIEGE 2014 SOMMAIRE Préface 11 A. Cadre naturel : Georgia KOURTESSI-PHILIPPAKIS, Local vs exogène? L impact du milieu naturel sur la composition des assemblages lithiques néolithiques en Grèce 15 Georgia STRATOULI, Anaya SARPAKI, Maria NTINOU, Eleni KOTJABOPOULOU, Tatiana THEODOROPOULOU, Vasilios MELFOS, Niels H. ANDREASEN, Panagiotis KARKANAS, Dialogues Between Bioarchaeological, Geoarchaeological and Archaeological Data: Approaches to Understanding the Neolithic Use of Drakaina Cave, Kephalonia Island, Western Greece 23 Erika WEIBERG, Timing, Perception and Response. Human Dimensions of Erosion and Sedimentation in the Greek Bronze Age 33 Evangelia STEFANI, Nikos MEROUSIS, Living on the Edge. People and Physis in Prehistoric Imathia, Macedonia, Greece 41 Mimoza SIDIROPOULOU, Eric FOUACHE, Kosmas PAVLOPOULOS, Maria TRIANTAPHYLLOU, Konstantinos VOUVALIDIS, George SYRIDES, Emanuele GRECO, Geomorphological Evolution and Paleoenvironment Reconstruction in the Northeastern Part of Lemnos Island (North Aegean Sea) 49 Thomas F. STRASSER, Anne P. CHAPIN, Geological Formations in the Flotilla Fresco from Akrotiri 57 B. Ressources naturelles : Katerina ATHANASAKI, A Serpentine Quarry-Scape in Gonies, North-Central Crete 67 Gerald CADOGAN, Water Worries and Water Works in Bronze Age Southern Crete 73 Jonathan M. FLOOD, Jeffrey S. SOLES, Water Management in Neopalatial Crete and the Development of the Mediterranean Dry-Season 79 Nagia SGOURITSA, Eleni SALAVOURA, The Exploitation of Inland Natural Resources on an Island Environment: The Case of the Mycenaean Settlement at Lazarides and the South/Southeast Aegina 85 Thomas G. PALAIMA, Harnessing Phusis: The Ideology of Control and Exploitation of the Natural World as Reflected in Terminology in the Linear B Texts Derived from Indo-European *bheh 2 u- Grow, Arise, Be and *h 2 eg-ro- The Uncultivated Wild Field and Other Roots Related to the Natural Environs 93 6 SOMMAIRE C. Paysage et climat : Miriam G. CLINTON, Sarah C. MURRAY, Thomas F. TARTARON, Gis in Action: Analyzing an Early Bronze Age Coastal Landscape on the Saronic Gulf 103 Peter PAVÚK, Magda PIENIĄŻEK, Simone RIEHL, Troy and the Troad in the Second Millennium: Changing Patterns in Landscape Use 111 Fritz BLAKOLMER, Meaningful Landscapes: Minoan Landscape Rooms and Peak Sanctuaries 121 Vincenzo AMATO, Fausto LONGO, Maria BREDAKI, Amedeo ROSSI, Matthieu GHILARDI, David PSOMIADIS, Maxime COLLEU, Laetitia SINIBALDI, Doriane DELANGHE-SABATIER, François DEMORY, Christophe PETIT, Geoarchaeological and Palaeoenvironmental Researches in the Area of Ancient Phaistos (Crete, Greece): Preliminary Results 129 Christos DOUMAS, Le paysage côtier de la région d Akrotiri, Théra, avant l éruption volcanique du Bronze récent 141 Anne P. CHAPIN, Brent DAVIS, Louise A. HITCHCOCK, Emilia BANOU, The Vapheio Tholos Tomb and the Construction of a Symbolic Landscape in Laconia, Greece 145 Athanasia KRAHTOPOULOU, Rena VEROPOULIDOU, Linking Inland and Coastal Records: Landscape and Human Histories in Pieria, Macedonia, Greece 153 Assaf YASUR-LANDAU, Nurith GOSHEN, The Reformed Mountains: Political and Religious Landscapes in the Aegean and the Levant 159 Georgios FERENTINOS, Maria GKIONI, Maria GERAGA, Georgios PAPATHEODOROU, Neanderthal and Anatomically Modern Human Seafarers in the Aegean Archipelago, Mediterranean Sea 165 D. Iconographie : Fragoula GEORMA, Artemis KARNAVA, Irene NIKOLAKOPOULOU, The Natural World and its Representations: A View from Akrotiri, Thera 175 Andreas VLACHOPOULOS, Lefteris ZORZOS, Physis and Techne on Thera: Reconstructing Bronze Age Environment and Land-Use Based on New Evidence from Phytoliths and the Akrotiri Wall-Paintings 183 Elsa PAPATSAROUCHA, Minoan Landscapes: Plant Communities and their Artistic Representations 199 John G. YOUNGER, The World of People : Nature and Narrative in Minoan Art 211 Karen Polinger FOSTER, Fur and Feathers in Aegean Art 217 E. Agriculture : Georgia KOTZAMANI, Alexandra LIVARDA, Plant Resource Availability and Management in Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Greece 229 SOMMAIRE 7 Harriet BLITZER, Preliminary Notes on Olive Domestication and Cultivation in the Prehistoric Aegean 239 Orestes DECAVALLAS, Plant Oils from Neolithic Aegean Pottery: Chemical Proof of the Exploitation of Oleaginous Plants and the Question of Early Oil Production 245 Leonidas VOKOTOPOULOS, Gerhard PLATH, Floyd W. McCOY, The Yield of the Land: Soil Conservation and the Exploitation of Arable Land at Choiromandres, Zakros in the New Palace Period 251 Robert Angus K. SMITH, Mary K. DABNEY, Georgia KOTZAMANI, Alexandra LIVARDA, Georgia TSARTSIDOU, James C. WRIGHT, Plant Use in Mycenaean Mortuary Practice 265 Evi MARGARITIS, Katie DEMAKOPOULOU, Ann-Louise SCHALLIN, The Archaeobotanical Samples from Midea: Agricultural Choices in the Mycenaean Argolid 271 Evi MARGARITIS, Acts of Destruction and Acts of Preservation: Plants in the Ritual Landscape of Prehistoric Greece 279 Petra VAIGLOVA, Florent RIVALS, Amy BOGAARD, Rebecca FRASER, Armelle GARDEISEN, William CAVANAGH, Christopher MEE, Josette RENARD, Angela LAMB, Interpreting Ancient Crop and Animal Management Strategies at Neolithic Kouphovouno, Southern Greece: Results of Integrating Crop and Animal Stable Isotopes and Dental Micro- And Mesowear 287 Jörg WEILHARTNER, The Influence of Aegean Iconography on the Design of the Linear B Logograms for Animals, Plants and Agricultural Products 297 Marianna NIKOLAIDOU, Ernestine S. ELTER, Hunting, Fishing and Gathering at Sitagroi and Beyond: Strategies of Wild Resource Use in the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age 305 F. Ressources animales : Pietro MILITELLO, Wool Production in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Aegean 317 Stavroula APOSTOLAKOU, Philip BETANCOURT, Thomas BROGAN, Dimitra MYLONA, Chrysa SOFIANOU, Tritons Revisited 325 Alexandra KARETSOU, Robert B. KOEHL, The Minoan Mastiffs of Juktas 333 Olga KRZYSZKOWSKA, Cutting to the Chase: Hunting in Minoan Crete 341 Anna Lucia D AGATA, Sara DE ANGELIS, Minoan Beehives. Reconstructing the Practice of Beekeeping in Bronze Age Crete 349 Tatiana THEODOROPOULOU, Excavating the Sea: Recent Advances in Marine Zooarchaeology of the Prehistoric Aegean 359 8 SOMMAIRE Nancy R. THOMAS, A Lion s Eye View of the Greek Bronze Age 375 Ruth PALMER, Managing the Wild: Deer and Agrimia in the Late Bronze Age Aegean 391 Cyrille RIEAU, Armelle GARDEISEN, Florent RIVALS, Alimentation des troupeaux durant l âge du Bronze à travers l analyse des micro-usures dentaires, les exemples d Angelohori et Archontiko (Macédoine, Grèce) 401 Aurélien CREUZIEUX, Armelle GARDEISEN, Evangelia STEFANI, L exploitation du monde animal en Grèce septentrionale durant le Bronze récent : l exemple d Angelochori 409 Rena VEROPOULIDOU, Molluscan Exploitation in the Neolithic and Bronze Age Communities at the Former Thermaic Gulf, North Aegean 415 G. Peuplement et population : Pascal DARCQUE, Haïdo KOUKOULI-CHRYSSANTHAKI, Dimitra MALAMIDOU, Zoï TSIRTSONI, Laurent LESPEZ, Cécile GERMAIN-VALLÉE, The Impact of Environmental Changes on the Neolithic Settlement of Dikili Tash (Northern Greece) 425 Sylvie MÜLLER CELKA, Dario PUGLISI, Frédéric BENDALI, Settlement Pattern Dynamics and Natural Resources in MM-LM I Crete: The Case of Malia 431 Gert Jan VAN WIJNGAARDEN, Pavlos AVRAMIDIS, Nikolaos KONTOPOULOS, Dealing with Extreme Dynamics. Prehistoric Landscapes of Zakynthos 441 Michael L. GALATY, William A. PARKINSON, Daniel J. PULLEN, Rebecca M. SEIFRIED, Mycenaean -Scapes: Geography, Political Economy, and the Eastern Mediterranean World-System 449 H. Posters : Marcus J. BAJEMA, Mycenaean Snail-Lovers? 457 Dora CONSTANTINIDIS, Physis and Space: Aegean Bronze Age Depictions and their Architectural Context 459 Janice L. CROWLEY, Images of the Earth in Aegean Art 465 Mary K. DABNEY, Representations of Fig Cultivation in Aegean Art 469 Bryan FEUER, Environmental Aspects of the Northern Mycenaean Border in Thessaly 473 Walter L. FRIEDRICH, Annette HØJEN SØRENSEN, Samson KATSIPIS, Santorini Before the Minoan Eruption: The Ship Fresco from Akrotiri - A Geological and Archaeological Approach 475 Mercourios GEORGIADIS, The Physical Environment and the Beliefs at Leska, a New Peak Sanctuary on Kythera 481 SOMMAIRE 9 Effie GEMI-IORDANOU, The Meaning of Flowers: Symbolism and Interpretation of Flower Iconography in Minoan Art 485 Angelos GKOTSINAS, Angeliki KARATHANOU, Maria-Fotini PAPAKONSTANTINOU, Georgios SYRIDES, Konstantinos VOUVALIDIS, Approaching Human Activity and Interaction with the Natural Environment Through the Archaeobotanical and Zooarchaeological Remains from Middle Helladic Agia Paraskevi, Central Greece 487 Bernice R. JONES, Revisiting the Figures and Landscapes on the Frescoes at Hagia Triada 493 Dimitra KRIGA, Flora and Fauna Iconography on Strainers and Kymbai at Akrotiri: Theran Ceramic Vessels of Special Use and Special Iconography 499 Florence LIARD, Mineral Resources, Potting Techniques and Social Identities in Late Bronze Age Sissi, Crete 505 Stefanos LIGKOVANLIS, The Exploitation of the Thesprotian Wetlands (NW Greece) During the Middle and Early Upper Palaeolithic; Different Hominins yet Similar Strategies? Reflections from the Material World 509 Joanne M.A. MURPHY, The Wealth of Nature and the Nature of Wealth: Aspects of Pylian Ideologies 513 Heleni PALAIOLOGOU, Water Management, Climatic, Social Changes and Agriculture in the Plain of Mycenae during the 13th C. B.C. and Later: The Case of Chania 517 Christina PAPOULIA, Confronting the Sea: Navigation Skills in Pre-Modern Human Societies 521 Vassilis P. PETRAKIS, The Religious Significance of Insects in the Aegean Bronze Age: Three Notes 525 Anna PHILIPPA-TOUCHAIS, Gilles TOUCHAIS, Oreste DECAVALLAS, Armelle GARDEISEN, Matthieu GHILARDI, Evi MARGARITIS, Odysseas METAXAS Sevi TRIANTAPHYLLOU, Efi TSIOLAKI, Environnement, alimentation, hygiène et mode de vie dans la Grèce mésohelladique : le cas de l Aspis d Argos 531 Maria ROUSSAKI, New Evidence in Minoan Pictorial Wall Painting: The Swallows Fresco from the Knossos Area 539 Alessandro SANAVIA, How to Improve on Nature: Some Middle Minoan Triton Shells from Phaistos (Crete) 543 Robert SCHON, The Political Ecology of the Pylian State 547 Andrew SHAPLAND, After Naturalism: Human-Animal Relations in LMII-III Crete 555 10 SOMMAIRE Giorgos VAVOURANAKIS, The Changing Significance of Nature within Minoan Society 559 I. En guise de conclusion... Thomas G. PALAIMA, The Linear-B-Inscribed Triton PAR Ph 2012 and its Lessons about Phusis 563 THE WORLD OF PEOPLE : NATURE AND NARRATIVE IN MINOAN ART In the Neopalatial period landscape becomes a regular feature of Minoan art. I think of three major types of scenes with landscape: 1) unpopulated landscapes, either alone (plants and setting) or with animals; 2) populated landscapes, those with people; and 3) depopulated landscapes, where people are implied but not present. Some Minoan scenes focus on pristine nature: plants and/or animals. Most Minoan sealstones, however, concentrate on animals. A few focus solely on the animals with no indication of setting, 1 but most seals portray animals within some kind of background landscape a fish swimming amongst seaweed, for example, or a caprid reclining on a mountain top. 2 These are tame compared to the riotous Ayia Triada fresco of cavorting goats and cats hunting birds. While most seals present a perfunctory setting, just a simple frond in the field, a very few depict a broader landscape. The most sweeping is an impressed sealing from Knossos that depicts, as if seen from afar, a stream with rocks above and a recumbent caprid below at about 1.50 centimeters in diameter, this is a true tour de force. 3 Other scenes zoom in to focus more telescopically on two agrimia climbing a triangular pile of rocks, a palm growing on a similar pile, or an agrimi on a mountain top. 4 Similar in theme but more cinematic in layout are the longer frieze-like wall paintings, the Spring fresco from Akrotiri, the Knossos blue bird fresco, and the West House naval expedition. Other scenes balance the two components, animals and their setting, like the felines hunting ducks by a river on a niello dagger from Shaft Grave V, or interweave them like the blue monkeys scampering among Minoan rocks as if they were trees. So far, all these scenes are unpopulated no people. Most, interestingly enough, occur on the smaller portable art forms, especially seals and ivories, as if providing a peephole into a natural world that you could carry with you. A few portable art forms, like stone relief vases, and the permanent frescoes, however, place people in a landscape. Acrobats do handsprings in a field or somersaults near a palm. 5 A crowd of men and women watch a dance near a grove in a fresco from Knossos; a woman kneels in a wild landscape in a fresco from Ayia Triada. These landscapes are populated. A variation on the populated landscape is the artificial landscape with people. Trees growing from shrines provide an artificial landscape that at least on the Mochlos ring could be transported. Another convenient artificial landscape is the mountain on which young girls gather crocus in Xeste 3 from their court dress and bare feet they must actually be in a garden, as Maria Shaw suggested; a good candidate is the rock outcrop in the east wing of Phaistos with circular holes cut into the rock. 6 Modern production of saffron does not rely on naturally growing crocus but on plants planted in June, some 7-15 cm deep (3-6 inches) like the holes cut into the rock at Phaistos. 7 Other scenes, however, portray people indirectly in the landscape. Since blue monkeys are not native to the Aegean, the one adoring a shrine at Akrotiri must have been imported its handler is not depicted. Caprids lying atop masonry 8 and lilies growing from pots as in a fresco from Amnisos both imply a person as a circumstantial agent someone must have built the masonry and someone must have planted the lilies. Often the human agent seems just 1 E.g., CMS VII no. 236, cow suckling a calf. 2 E.g., CMS VI no. 254, and III no. 150, respectively. 3 CMS II.8 no E.g., CMS VI nos. 129 and 157, and III no. 150, respectively. 5 E.g., CMS VI no. 184, and a Minoanizing fresco fragment from Tell El-Dab a: M. BIETAK, N. MARINATOS, and C. PALYVOU, Taureador Scenes in Tell El-Dab a (Avaris) and Knossos (2007) 149, Fig M. SHAW, The Aegean Garden, AJA 97 (1993) M. KAFI, A. KOOCHEKI, M.H. RASHED, and M. NASSIRI (eds.), Saffron (Crocus sativus) Production and Processing (2006) CMS I Supp. no. 192. 212 John G. YOUNGER outside the depiction, just off stage : an arrow in a calf s chest, a bull leashed in a sanctuary, 9 the harnessed blue monkey Saffron Gatherers in a fresco from Knossos. I think of these scenes as depopulated, the people are implied but have been removed from explicit view; they are a present absence. An interesting example of the depopulated landscape occurs on the Sanctuary Rhyton. People have built the sanctuary, the altars, and the protective wall around it. People have visited it, left an olive branch on the step altar, picked some crocus probably women therefore and have departed. Associating people with both animals and landscape in art implies the dichotomy, culture/ nature. It is this tension that the examples of the populated and depopulated landscape concern: the Saffron Gatherers, the arrow in the wounded calf, the bull leashed in the sanctuary preliminary to its sacrifice. Nature may be wild but it can be tamed. That agrimia and large birds reclaim their mountain top after the women have left refers to nature s incessant drive to reclaim the artificial landscape of culture; the populated, depopulated, and artificial artistic landscapes, however, refer to the concept of the parádeisos, the depicted landscape that appears to be pristine but is actually artificial and benign, even beneficent (as in a garden or zoo). 10 On Prepalatial seals and on most Protopalatial vessels the natural world is small, a few spiders on Lerna sealings, some vague flowers on Kamares ware. The world of people is mostly implied, like the lyres on Lerna sealings. People do not appear frequently on Prepalatial seals and even on Protopalatial vessels they are rare. And when people do appear, their purpose is obscure to us they re too uncommon for us to see patterns: on an EM stamp seal, are the man and woman having sex? 11 are the paisley women from Phaistos dancing in a Kamares bowl? is the incised female on a EM III jug from Malia giving birth? But on the Protopalatial seals made by the Malia Workshop people are indeed the overt main subject. On these seals, men play board games, carry trussed agrimia, work with their dogs; men and women cook, and women make pots and cook. 12 In other words, the Malia Workshop seals create the first narratives and these narratives are purely human: apart from some fronds, they do not include landscape at all. The Malia Workshop seals also occasionally combine people and animals, a man and a goat or a man and a goat head, 13 but our instinct to create narrative will translate these scenes into hunting or feasting. Similarly, we will interpret a man with a spear as a hunter. 14 Or two men in a boat with fish below are obviously fishing. 15 All the Malia Workshop scenes thus depict the world of people they portray us doing something, they portray culture. The tension between people and nature, the dichotomy culture/nature, is not yet developed here. Instead, it is seals of the next period, early Neopalatial, that situate narrative within a landscape: a fish thinks it s sheltered in a seaweed nest but actually it s captive as if in a fishbowl; the agrimi thinks it s safe on a ledge above the hound whose barking will attract his huntermaster CMS VI no. 404 and V no. 198, respectively. 10 P.P. BETANCOURT, Recognition of Gardens and Fields in the Archaeological Record, in F. LANG, C. REINHOLDT, J. WEILHARTNER eds, Στέφανος Αριστείος. Archäologische Forschungen zwischen Nil und Istros: Festschrift für Stefan Hiller zum 65. Geburtstag (2007) K.P. FOSTER, The Earliest Zoos and Gardens, Scientific American 281 (1999) 48-55; Gardens of Eden: Exotic Flora and Fauna in the Ancient Near East, in J. ALBERT, M. BERNHARDSSON, R. KENNA eds, Transformations of Middle Eastern Natural Environments: Legacies and Lessons (1998) J. SCHÄFER, The Role of Gardens in Minoan Civilization, in V. KARAGEORGHIS (ed.), Proceedings of an International Symposium: The Civilizations of the Aegean and Their Diffusion in Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean, B.C. (1989) CMS II.1 no. 446a. 12 CMS VI nos. 45a, 25a, 44c; II.8 no. 275; XIII no. 80; and II.8 no. 243, respectively. 13 CMS VI no. 60b and 36b, respectively. 14 E.g., CMS I 68a. 15 Prism from Malia, now lost: J. BOARDMAN, Greek Gems and Finger Rings (1970) Fig CMS VI no. 254 and 180, respectively. NATURE AND NARRATIVE IN MINOAN ART 213 What do these narratives do for us? Let s find out. Here s a simple test (Pl. LXIXa and c): here are two seal motifs without people, a simple lily and a galloping bull. They are nice scenes, even comforting, but not terribly interesting. Now, let us add people (Pl. LXIXb and d). We are intrigued: why hold a lily? the bull-leaper looks like he s in danger. Once Minoan art gives equal value to people and nature, we co-opt nature into our anthropocentric world simply because our world, that is, the world, revolves around us: we see the fat fish swimming amongst the seaweed and we think: it s coming out of its hiding place:
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