“Phenomenological Factors in Vygotsky’s Mature Psychology”

“Phenomenological Factors in Vygotsky’s Mature Psychology”

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 23
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.

Public Notices

Publish on:

Views: 2 | Pages: 23

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

   J. Hist. Human Sciences vol. 13(3) Aug. 2000. PHENOMENOLOGICAL FACTORS IN VYGOTSKY’S MATURE PSYCHOLOGY Paul S. MacDonaldUni!"#i$% o& Du"'a( The publication in 1900 of Edmund Hussel!s  Logical Investigations (second edition 1913" thidedition 1920) e#eted a pofound influence in a numbe of academic disciplines duing the peiod 1900 to191$ and %ust afte the &ist 'old 'a. ecent studies have demonstated the impact of Hussel!s po%ecton the inception of the stuctual model in linguistics and the categoisation of peceptual stuctues inestalt *s+cholog+. The pesent stud+ loo,s closel+ at the aticulation of a novel theo+ of individual ps+chological development poposed in seveal late -o,s b+ ev /+gots,+ (19193)" one of the geat pionee 4oviet ps+chologists. /+gots,+ attempted to demonstate that the development of human cognitioncould best be e#plained though the d+namic inteaction of t-o pocesses5 the intenali6ation of e#tenal paticulas and the deplo+ment of s+mbolic statements though 7inne speech!. 8n addition to a language of thought" humans have a language  for   thought" and this is a cognitive and behavioual contol language.8n offeing a sociocultual account of the constuction of an inne pivate -old (the self)" /+gots,+ stuc, off on a 7thid -a+! -hich he thought avoided the pitfalls of both an ovel+ natualistic" ob%ectiviste#planation of obsevable behaviou" fo e#ample" in 4oviet conditioned efle# studies and anintospective" sub%ectivist desciption of mental acts" an appoach -hich he identified -ith cetainmotivations -ithin philosophical idealism. 8n his chapte on :The ;uent ;isis in *s+cholog+<" he =uitecleal+ elegates Hussel!s phenomenolog+ to the latte appoach and citici6es Hussel!s theo+ of meaning in language fo lac,ing a genetic o d+namic dimension. Ho-eve" it is ou contention that/+gots,+ both misrepresents  the phenomenological anal+sis of meaningfomation and appropriates  basicHusselian conceptual tems in his elaboation of :the inne fom of the -od<.1  This stud+ poposes to illuminate phenomenological consideations in /+gots,+!s matue ps+chological theo+ -ith espect to t-o distinct Husselian schemes5 pat-hole theo+" fist put foth inthe  Logical Investigations  (1900) and the petheoetical chaacte of the 7na>ve! standpoint" fist stated in:*hilosoph+ as igoous 4cience< (1910) and in  Ideas First Book   (1913). The pincipal statement   of thetheo+ of pats and -holes occus in the Thid 8nvestigation" though it is ta,en up again in  Ideas First  Book   and  Experience and Judgement   (1930). 8n the peiod afte the publication of the  Ideas " Husselhimself -as -ell a-ae that pat-hole theo+ -as usuall+ oveloo,ed o dismissed in favou of the othe 8nvestigations. 'illiam ?neale" coautho of the magisteial  Development of Logic  (@#fod" 192)" on avisit to &eibug in 192" -as infomed b+ Hussel that the Thid 8nvestigation -as the best   stating pointfo the stud+ of his -itings in phenomenolog+. 4piegelbeg (19B1)5 BC @ne Hussel schola" Da+4mith" can =uite confidentl+ declae that the Thid 8nvestigation is" :fo all its inade=uacies" the singlemost impotant contibution to ealist (Aistotelian) ontolog+ in the moden peiod.< 4mith (192)5 3BC  Husserl’s Theory of Parts and Wholes 8n the Thid 8nvestigation" Hussel intoduces t-o pais of tems5 pat and -hole" dependent andindependent  it is the pemutations of these tems -hich endo- the theo+ -ith such po-eful logicalscope. Eve+ intentional ob%ect" i.e. eve+ thing consideed as the 7content! of a cognitive act" can beelated to anothe as pat to -hole" -hole to pat" o as pats of one -hole. 8t is the -a+ in -hich pats aeelated to pats o in -hich pats compose -holes that eveals -hethe the+ ae dependent o independent.An independent -hole is a comple# ob%ect" i.e. divisible into pats" -hich can e#ist alone in that it doesnot e=uie the e#istence of an+ othe ob%ect. A dependent -hole is also a comple# ob%ect insofa as it isdivisible into pats" but cannot e#ist alone it e=uies some geate -hole of -hich it is a pat. Anindependent pat (piece) is an ob%ect o content of thought -hich ma,es up a -hole o othe comple#ob%ect" -hich =ua pat can stand on its o-n" e.g. the handle of a teacup. A dependent pat (moment) is anob%ect -hich ma,es up a -hole o othe comple# ob%ect" but -hich cannot stand on its o-n" e.g. theteacups colou o shape. 'ith egad to mateial things -hose -holes ae concete" pats and -holes aesaid to stand o e#ist on thei o-n (o not) as the ob%ects of cognition one should sa+ pehaps that the+can (o cannot) be made the content of pesentations.2  The geat po-e and scope of this schema" -hich has inspied so man+ late -o,es in the field"lies in Hussels essential insight into the puel+ fomal a pioi chaacte of the elations -hich hold bet-een an+ sot of pat and an+ sot of -hole. These a pioi egulaities have such heuistic scope due tothe citical distinction bet-een dependence and independence" a distinction gounded in the definition of foundation. Thoughout his discussion" Hussel ta,es the tem ob%ect in the -idest possible sense (too-ide" in fact" fo some citics) to include both tanscendent ob%ects in the natual -old and the intentionalob%ects -hich ae pesent to consciousness  the latte ae the pope domain of phenomenologicalen=ui+. The tem 7content! has sometimes been used to efe to the 7ob%ect! of an intentional e#peience" but Hussel ael+ uses the -od in that sense. The content of an intentional act includes onl+ -hat is in the act that ma,es that act the intentional e#peience that it is :the ob%ect is popel+ spea,ing nothing atall in  an idea<. The content of an act is al-a+s something distinct fom the act!s ob%ect" but -ithin the actitself thee ae diffeent components o moments that the tem 7content! can ade=uatel+ pic, out  the t-o pincipal 7sides! of the content ae its 7=ualit+! and its 7matte!. Thee ae also diffeent ,inds of content"-hich coespond to diffeent senses of -hat it means fo contents to be in consciousness  the+ can be7eal! ( reell  ) o 7ideal! ( ideal  ) content. The 7=ualit+! of an intentional act is that pat of an act!s content-hich diffeentiates the act accoding to its ,ind. The 7matte! of an intentional act is that pat of an act!scontent that detemines -hich ob%ect is intended in the act and ho- the ob%ect is intended" i.e. -hat the7ob%ect! is intended as . 8n contast -ith the 7eal! content" the intentional content of an act is an 7ideal! o abstact entit+ that can ta,e place in vaious conscious acts -heeas the 7eal! content of an act is uni=ueto that specific act alone. Fespite some changes in Hussel!s vie-s bet-een 1900 and 1913" he emainsconsistent on one conse=uence -hich is cucial fo ou undestanding of /+gots,+  the intentional contentof a cognitive act is a meaning   (Dedeutung) o  sense  (4inn). The ps+chical act -hich pesents a concete ob%ect" e.g. the appeaing apple" is immediate andindependent since it does not need" i.e. e=uie foundation in" an+ othe pesentations. 'heeas the act-hich appehends an abstact content" e.g. edness o oundness" is mediate and dependent since it doese=uie the pesentation of a concete ob%ect. ;oncete ob%ects can be eithe -holes" -hich one thin,s of as individual" selfsubsistent things" o pats of -holes as such" independent concete pats ae calledpieces. Abstact contents ae not thought of as individuals -hich can e#ist on thei o-n" though thoughthe pocess of ideation the+ can be thought of in tems of univesals -hich ae instanced in specific3  ob%ects as dependent pats the+ ae called moments. The s,in" seeds" pulp" etc. of an apple ae pieces of the -hole apple" that is" pats in the sense that the -hole apple e=uies thei pesence" but independent inthe sense that the+ can e#ist apat fom the -hole though of couse that apple no longe e#ists -hen so pieced. @n the othe hand" the edness and oundness of the apple ae moments of the -hole" since beinged and being ound as such cannot e#ist -ithout something -hose colou and shape the+ ae. This doesnot impl+ that the+ cannot be tougt of   sepaatel+" since of couse the concept edness o oundness can be conceived apat fom an+ ed o ound ob%ect. et it also be noted that a piece of that -hole apple"-hethe %ust the s,in o a segment" can also have both pieces and moments.Hussels concen is not meel+ -ith simple and comple# concete things" fo the fomalchaacte of the theo+ and its a pioi la-s of essence mean that such odeed stuctual elations" asoutlined above" hold also -ithin othe cognitive domains and higheode ob%ectivities. These latte compise" fo e#ample" the peceptual field of consciousness" mathematical and geometical constuctions" popositional meanings" comple# highl+ ogani6ed individuals (human beings)" classes of individuals" andmasses o collectives of nonindividuals (o GdividualsG" to boo- onathan o-es tem). The fact that anapple al-a+s appeas -ithin a field of othe copeceived ob%ects" and stands out due to the advetence of attention" also indicates a elation of essential dependence bet-een the -hole apple and the -hole peceptual field. 8t also indicates that a goup of apples (o" moe cleal+" a goup of dots) ogani6ed in aspecific manne" though entiel+ sepaate fom each othe" -ill al-a+s be peceived as foming adeteminate figual shape o gestalt and thus that the gestalt is dependent on a cetain odeed elation bet-een all of its constituent moments.@f geat inteest hee is the ecension of linguistic meaning in light of these fomal featues5these :+ield the necessa+ foundation fo the essential categoies of meaning on -hich... a lage numbe of a pioi la-s of meaning est.... These la-s" -hich goven the sphee of comple# meanings" and -hoseole it is to divide sense fom nonsense" ae not +et the socalled la-s of logic in the pegnant sense of thistem5 the+ povide pue logic -ith the  possible meaning forms .< Hussel (19B0)5 93C He then goes on todistinguish the expression  of a statement as composed of sensuous (audible) pats fom its meaning. Aninvestigation of the fome is a matte fo desciptive ps+choph+siolog+ (late codified in phonolog+)" buthe does hint at some ,e+ aspects of the sensuous manifestation of language5 stessed versus  unstessedcontents and the manne in -hich such contents ae blended. ibid5 $03C Ieaning" ho-eve" onl+   petains to an e#pession in vitue of the mental acts -hich give it sense. 8t -ould be incoect to thin, that Hussel -ants to reduce  meaning to the mental acts -hich find thei :voice< in the spea,esutteance. &o he does ma, the cucial dichotom+ bet-een -hat an e#pession intimates " i.e. -hat itindicates about the spea,es mental and emotional states" and the ob%ectivit+ to -hich the statement refers  b+ -a+ of its meaning.A statement is composed of pats" bound togethe b+ s+ntactical ules" -hich can be eithe independentl+ o dependentl+ meaningful. 4ingula tems and complete sentences" the linguistic substatefo the statement" ae independentl+ meaningful" that is" a singula tem can Gconstitute the full" entiemeaning of a concete act of meaning.G 'heeas othe ,inds of pats" e.g. connectives" pepositions"advebs" etc." ae onl+ dependentl+ meaningful" since the+ e=uie othe tems to complete a content -hichcan be made the ob%ect of a pesentation. The a pioi la-s -hich goven the combination of independentand dependent contents patiall+ detemine the sense (o nonsense) of the -hole statement of -hich the+ae pats" insofa as these la-s ae in accod -ith the given s+nta# of the language. Dut the+ cannot of themselves detemine the validit+ o absudit+ of such la-full+ fomed combinations. Thus the statement":That thing is a ound s=uae<" is s+ntacticall+ coect" i.e. it has not violated an+ of the ules fo sentencefomation" and +et it cannot be made the meaningful content of a pesentation. Decause intentionalit+ assuch is composed of both the mental act and its content" an intuition  of the content as suchandsuch can be compatible -ith anothe content onl+ insofa as these intuitions  ae in accod -ith puel+ fomallogical la-s.An intuition" as the fulfilled content of an intention -hich gasps the ob%ect pecisel+ in themanne in -hich it is given can be diected not onl+ to-ad the concete" singula ob%ect  -hethe in peception" phantas+ o memo+  but also to-ad abstact" univesal ob%ects -hich function as speciesfo -hich paticulas ae eithe individuals (independent components) o moments (dependentcomponents). 8t is in tems of univesal popositions that Hussel fomulates a pioi la-s petaining to thecon%oining of such contents in eithe a necessa+ o contingent connection. An anal+tic poposition is one-hose tuth is completel+ independent of the specific content of thei ob%ects and of an+ possiblee#istential assetion. A s+nthetic poposition" on the othe hand" is one -hose tuth is indeed dependent onthe specific contents of thei ob%ects" -hich ma+ be necessail+ connected" but -hich also ma+ beempiical specifications" i.e. -ith factual delineations.$
Related Search
Similar documents
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks