MULTILINGUAL ASPIRATIONS IN CLUJ NAPOCA/KOLOZSVÁR. Botond Talpas, PhD Student, Júlia Anna Makkai, PhD Student, Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca - PDF

MULTILINGUAL ASPIRATIONS IN CLUJ NAPOCA/KOLOZSVÁR Botond Talpas, PhD Student, Júlia Anna Makkai, PhD Student, Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca Abstract: Cluj-Napoca/Kolozsvár the second biggest city

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MULTILINGUAL ASPIRATIONS IN CLUJ NAPOCA/KOLOZSVÁR Botond Talpas, PhD Student, Júlia Anna Makkai, PhD Student, Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca Abstract: Cluj-Napoca/Kolozsvár the second biggest city in Romania, the heart of Transylvania and the most important centre for the Hungarians in Romania, after the fall of the communism it became an important centre also for the youth. With more than students studying in the city, due to the institutions and NGOs, the city achieved big changes on social and economic level. By the decision of the European Youth Forum in 2012 the city won the possibility to become the European Youth Capital in In our work we are focusing on those innovative processes, changes made after winning this title, the European Youth Capital 2015 in the perspective of the use of multilingualism and how the view of Transylvania (the view communication of the region brand) can be changed thanks to the Hungarian NGOs and how could the non-profit sector implement the managerial innovations in their work. Keywords: youth, NGOs, social, economics, innovative processes, multilingualism, view communication, managerial innovation, European Youth Capital Cluj-Napoca/Kolozsvár is the second biggest city in Romania, with more than inhabitants, in the hearth of Transylvania. This is the economical and cultural capital for Transylvania and for the Hungarian community living in Romania. The city is also a youth centre, with more than students studying in the city, at 13 universities. Cluj- Napoca/Kolozsvár has the highest rate of youth in Romania. Cluj-Napoca/Kolozsvár has been a testing ground for minority communities co-living. The recent decades have been determined by the possibilities and perspectives of the Romanian Hungarian coexistence. In the case of Cluj-Napoca/Kolozsvár the visual language use and the dominant language is Romanian, thus the inter-ethnic communication too, which causes a lot of difficulties. Due to time constraints, we thought that we would present two cases from Cluj- Napoca/Kolozsvár. These organisations presented in those cases work in the field of the local community made up by the Hungarian minority too. The use of language is not only a description of the communication. It also may stimulate recipients to make inferences that go behind the literal meaning of these. Cultural differences could exist in the types of descriptions that individuals are habitually likely to generate. These linguistic habits may reflect general dispositions to think about social events in different ways and to communicate different information about them. Miscommunications among representatives of different cultures could be a result of these culturally sustained linguistic dispositions. (Semin, 445) 670 Brislin, in his volume, said that the global marketplace, individual negotiators were members of different cultures, whose values and negotiation strategies differed and whose expectations for one another likewise differed. The use of culture assimilators of the sort outlined by Brislin may become increasingly important in stimulating the negotiators understanding of the different perspectives that one brings to bear on negotiation and interpersonal relationships more generally. (Brislin, 1993) We think we manage the same problems in our city too. The Hungarian and the Romanian community have two different linguistic codes and they have two separate cultural backgrounds. Usually the communication and the common language is Romanian, which gives a special situation to the Romanian community. From this reason the value of the language of the Romanian community becomes higher. Unfortunately the Romanian community is not able to speak Hungarian, so the cultural events, programs which are presented in Hungarian constitute also a barrier of understanding for the majority. Cluj-Napoca/Kolozsvár will host next year, in 2015 the European Youth Capital, which is a title given for a European city every year by the European Youth Forum. During this year a lot of national and international youth events are hosted by the city, giving to it a bigger visibility. The first European Youth Capital was Rotterdam, from The Netherlands in 2009 and the current capital is Thessaloniki, from Greece. The following two organisations, the Hungarian Department of the University of Babeș- Bolyai and the Igen, tessék Yes, please! movement presented in our work are institutionally involved in the European Youth Capital project, their internal communication and internalmanagement is institutionalized horizontally, so they are open to innovative works and challenges. The project has several priorities, like: share space, share culture, work, power, joy and vision these were the vertical priorities European and responsibly these are the horizontal priorities and the key message of share. 1 In the Eastern European communist block, most of our organisations, administrations remain with a heritage of vertically organized management, with big bureaucracy and slow working administrative. Thanks to this heritage, in this part of Europe the organizing model of the management of an NGO or an institution is really difficult. Thanks to innovations, new ways of managements these regions could also be competitive. We consider, that winning the title of the European Youth Capital was also a good example to understand, how a project, management or communication could be competitive in Eastern Europe too. This project summerises the reserves of this region in creativity and also gathers those NGOs and institutions which can make performance in a short term. We consider an organisation or institution creative, if four keys are discovered its culture and environment; the strategic thinking style of the organization; the practices of ideation and collaboration for strategic implementation and the individual and accumulative creative behaviors, knowledge, experiences, practices and actions of the organization s managers that are the actors in the creative performance. (Kerle, 2010, p. 10) 1 Abouth the project, 671 Thanks to creative works in these fields, innovative solutions are integrated in the daily work of an organisation. Of course they still face several problems, when we speak about how their networks, works run we have to analyse the local factors. We decide to analyse the fields which are keypoints, if we want to measure the management innovation. These two fields are: communication and language use. We can divide communication in several ways, we decide to use Bakers communication levels : Interpersonal communication Group level communication Organizational level communication Inter-organizational level communication Mass communication (Baker, 2002, p. 2). We consider that communication has an important role in problem-solving, conflict management, has a key role in the way of internal reform of management and local community. It is important to mention that, due to horizontally organised communication in these two cases presented by us the NGOs are able to respond quickly and effectively to emergent issues, problems or shifting priorities of the target groups, these also have an important factor, if we speak about innovative management. (Cornelissen, 2004, p. 142) In the second part of our work we present two study cases, about their communication and language use of their works. From decades the Babeș-Bolyai University fills in an important cultural and economical role in Transylvania s life. It has been in continuous change for the last two decades: it provides education according to European standards in three departments (Hungarian, Romanian and German), 21 Faculties, starting from the bachelor degree, master s degree and even in doctoral studies. The current image of the Babeș-Bolyai University is defined by the historicity of those 140 years, the maintenance of tradition and the feeling of monumentality. This message contains in itself a distance between the institution and the future audience, and between the institution and the city or the wide range of community. All of this in the Hungarian Department (between Hungarian students community and Hungarian teachers community) is supplied with the fact that neither in the Hungarian students community nor in the wide range of community an image of the Babeș-Bolyai University s Hungarian Department was developed, despite the fact that in the past years as a result of the internal institution building a separate administration structure has been accomplished. Several moves were made to get through the communication gaps, but there still are insufficiencies in the communication with the youth and the community. Furthermore, the time before 2012 was characterized by the lack of communication tools with which the communication activities could have been put into practice. Essentially there was no media communication, Hungarian advertisement material (general presentation brochure, integrated fliers, informative booklets, image carrier etc.). The Hungarian website was deficient, there was no community facing which nowadays is the primary (most important) communication channel for university students, high school students and young adults. We have had to face the lack of integrally organized events at the level of department and communication problems in the past few years. 672 The Hungarian Department s planned communication activities which started in 2012 would like to solve this with the formulation and the broadcasting of a friendly and young image and with the strong presence of it in social life. Our target group is the Hungarian population in Transylvania, and even there the primary targets are high school students and university students because the result of the communication activities could strengthen the spirit among our audience. Beneath all this it could aid in a strong relationship between the Hungarian Department and the Hungarian population of Cluj- Napoca/Kolozsvár. Our goal is to reach the thousands of Hungarian high school students and at the same time with the participation on several community events to reach out to the whole Hungarian population of Transylvania and of Cluj-Napoca/Kolozsvár. The goal of the constantly developing communication tools since 2010 is to properly represent the Hungarian Department of the Babeș-Bolyai University. The bluish-green colour which is used as an image, has its own place in the colour spectrum among the Romanian Department s dark-blue colour and the usual green colour shades which are used by other departments. The aim is to give an integrated image in the communication, and in long terms to give the impression of permanency, constancy and trustworthiness. The aim of the package is to draw the organizations attention (inside the university) on its existence, which could be lifted up to the level of department and could be used concisely. By implementing it consistently and in an integrated way and by using these elements constantly, we can achieve an efficient communication and maintain it outside and inside as well. Another goal of this package would be to help the communication of the department, this is why the materials can be copied and they are for commune use. The communication activities of the Hungarian Department are structured in the following way: media communication (maintaining a constant relationship with the representatives of the media), online communication (constant refreshing of the online facing), event organization (organization of scientific, promoting and entertaining events) visual image designing (advertisement graphics, wrenching, redaction and designation of information slips). The Igen, tessék! Yes, please! movement activities focused on an economic approach, by encouraging local businesses to offer services in minority languages as well or more importantly to highlight this option using stickers in cases where they already have minority staff or persons who know the language of the local communities. The research done last year by the Igen, tessék! Yes, please! movement proved that this greatly increases business and does not have a negative effect on existing consumers (does not generate an ethnic response from the majority). This highlighting is even more beneficial for local minority groups, for example when going to a doctor or a mechanic they often cannot describe their issue in the majority language. So being able to express themselves in their own language helps them solve their problems more easily. In return for the support of the local businesses, they promote their partners and services as they are available in the mother tongue of the local community. This not only helps minority communities, but it helps support local businesses as well. We realise that the movement has two main target groups: the local community, which belongs to the Hungarian minority in case of Cluj-Napoca/Kolozsvár and the business sector, which uses the language of this minority group. The project was launched by István Horváth, university professor at Babes-Bolyai University and director of the Romanian Institute for Research on National Minorities. The 673 project was launched in From 2011 a group of 4 young people from the Hungarian Students Organisation of Cluj-Napoca/Kolozsvár took the initiative with the aim of promoting inter- and multiculturalism and preserving minority languages in Central and Eastern Europe. Over the last 3 years they have worked together, collaborated and helped the Hungarian minority communities in Transylvania, Slovakia and Ukraine, Romanian communities in Ukraine and Transnistria, German, Serbian and Bulgarian communities in the Banat region and several other smaller communities. The movement has several facilities. With the help of their business partners they provide a free Help Centre in 3 different languages for minority groups, helping them with every issue they might have. The movement has also published a monthly community newspaper, which contains general information about local events and with the help of this monthly community newspaper the movement also promotes the importance of preserving the mother tongue of a given community and the values of the local community. Unfortunately the image of this communication channel is sometimes thought to be the main activity of the movement. The Igen, tessék! Yes, please! movement initiates the multilingual services in the local economical life. 259 firms have joined the economic network of the Igen, tessék! Yes, please! movement in the city of Cluj-Napoca/Kolozsvár until May One third of this is active in the serving sector and two third of the partners run retails. Many dozens of these use and support the special propagation system of the association: 52 firms have advertised in the periodicals from December 2012 and 65 donated money to help the making and printing of the Igen, tessék! Yes, please!! maps every summer. The movement did the representative research in June 2013 questioning their partners. Last year 51,8 percent of the partners in Cluj-Napoca/Kolozsvár said that they experienced a growth in the number of Hungarian clients in comparison with the original values of the cooperation. During the research, 9 out of 10 partners said that the scale of the Hungarian customers is bigger compared to the population proportion in the city. Interesting to see that 94,7 percent of the business managers didn t receive any negative comment from the Romanian customers about the multilingual service. For example, the Igen, tessék! Yes, please! community newspaper is published monthly, the first being printed in Decemer This is an important communication channel. In the first eight months it had copies, from September 2013 we raised this number to In addition to the lightsome, popular topics, the partially coloured, 24 pages long periodical draws attention to the importance of the use of the native language. The partners of the association get a discount for the advertising in this Hungarian periodical of our country. Another solution is the Igen, tessék! Yes, please! call centre, which can be called for free from Romania and Hungary. The movement sometimes launches perodical projects, too: this summer the association handed out free copies of the pocket map. The map lists Hungarian historical street names and information of public interest as well as the names of dozens of partners of the Igen, tessék! Yes, please!. The movement also organizes several semi-complex campaigns, promoting the value of using several languages. In the campaign, they use the symbols and places of the local community in different, multilanguage ways. The communication activities of the Igen, tessék! Yes, please! are structured in the following way: media communication (maintaining a constant relationship with the 674 representatives of the media, newspaper), online communication (constant refreshing of the online facing), event organization (organization of events, campaigns, promoting and entertaining events) and visual image designing (advertisement graphics). The main colour used by the Igen, tessék! Yes, please! movement is green. It was important to have a visible impact when standing in front of a shop. The name is also commonly used in services: yes, please, this was the reason that this name was chosen for the movement. These two institutions have the same main target, to promote inter- and multiculturalism in Cluj-Napoca/Kolozsvár. Located in an area with a strong interethnic character, the Babeș- Bolyai University has chosen multiculturalism as its main direction of development, its students and teachers being Romanian, Hungarian, German and even representatives of the Romani people. The Babeş-Bolyai University provides complete studies in the mother tongue of the minorities, being, in this respect, multilingual. 2 The Igen, tessék! Yes, please! movement preserves minority languages in Central and Eastern Europe. As we said it was focused on an economic approach, by encouraging local businesses to offer services in minority languages as well and its work was closer to interculturalism. The new media is the first and very important innovative element in the management, precisely in the institutional communication. Besides the usual communication ways like media communication, in both cases we have a strong activity in the online communication, event organization and visual image designing. On social platforms like Facebook, Youtube, which nowadays are the most trendy communication channels we reach our target groups in an easy way (youngadults, students, locals, etc.). The Babeș-Bolyai University and the Igen, tessék! Yes, please! movement promote their facilities, on one hand the educational and on the other hand the economical/social (the value of using several languages) offer by promotional spots (commercial film). For example, the University made an animated (stop motion effect) video to inform highschool students about the admission. The movement also made a video, where a kissing couple promoted the importance of the language. The movement also organizes several semi-complex campaigns, in which they use the symbols and places of the local community in different, multilanguage ways. Like the famous campaign which was organised in the city centre, where people could ask questions from King Mathias, a very important character in our history. At the same time the University considers that, with the participation on several community events it can reach out to the whole Hungarian population of Transylvania and of Cluj-Napoca/Kolozsvár. For example, in the last two years the university participated at the Hungarian City Days, and the City Days (focus on the Romanian speakers). It also visited many schools and organised several programs at the alternative week for highschool students, like workshops, lectures, games and
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