Montreal Protocol. Montreal Protocol. & Earth Summit. Montreal Protocol. Ozone Layer. Özgür ZEYDAN (PhD) - PDF

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Montreal Protocol Montreal Protocol & Earth Summit Özgür ZEYDAN (PhD) In 1974, Nobel Prize-winning scientists Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina posited that chlorofluorocarbons

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Montreal Protocol Montreal Protocol & Earth Summit Özgür ZEYDAN (PhD) In 1974, Nobel Prize-winning scientists Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina posited that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) could deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. Subsequent research confirmed that commonly-used chemicals many of them components of everyday consumer products - were destroying the ozone layer. By 1985, scientists saw a drastic thinning of the ozone layer over Antarctica, an annual phenomenon dubbed the ozone hole. Research since then has deepened our understanding of the causes and dangerous environmental and human health consequences of ozone depletion, showing that effects appear not just at the poles, but all over the world. Ozone Layer A thinner ozone layer allows more ultraviolet radiation to reach the Earth s surface, exposing humans and living systems to additional ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Overexposure to UV can cause a range of health effects, including skin cancer and other skin damage, eye damage leading to cataracts, suppression of the immune system, as well as ecological effects including crop damage, damage to phytoplankton, and potentially the marine food chain. Montreal Protocol Recognizing these dangers, on September 16, 1987, world leaders signed the Montreal Protocol. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer has been signed by almost every country in the world: more than 190 countries are now Parties to the treaty. Across the planet, major corporations continue to make dramatic strides replacing ozone-depleting substances (ODS) with safer substitutes, which will slow and eventually reverse the thinning of the ozone layer as well as provide important climate benefits. 1 Antarctic Ozone Hole The Process of Ozone Depletion NASA s Ozone Hole Watch Web Site, Sept. 24, Production of Ozone Chlorine-catalyzed Ozone Depletion Mechanism UV 2 Colours used in the UV Index 3 Questions and Answers about the Environmental Effects of the Ozone Layer Depletion and Climate Change: 2010 Update GEO: Global Environment Outlook 3 The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer Full text available at: /treaties_decisions-hb.php?sec_id=342 4 The Earth Summit The Earth Summit United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June governments participated. Principal themes were environment and sustainable development. The Earth Summit Twenty years after the first global environment conference, the UN sought to help Governments rethink economic development and find ways to halt the destruction of irreplaceable natural resources and pollution of the planet. The Summit s message: that poverty as well as excessive consumption by affluent populations place damaging stress on the environment. Results: eco-efficiency guiding principles for business and governments Patterns of production particularly the production of toxic components, such as lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste are being scrutinized in a systematic manner by the UN and Governments alike; Alternative sources of energy are being sought to replace the use of fossil fuels which are linked to global climate change; New reliance on public transportation systems is being emphasized in order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in cities and the health problems caused by polluted air and smog; There is much greater awareness of and concern over the growing scarcity of water. 5 1. Agenda 21 Resulting Documents 2. The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development 3. The Statement of Forest Principles 4. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 5. The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity Agenda 21 Agenda 21 addresses today s pressing problems and aims to prepare the world for the challenges of the next century. It contains detailed proposals for action in social and economic areas (such as combating poverty, changing patterns of production and consumption and addressing demographic dynamics), and for conserving and managing the natural resources that are the basis for life - protecting the atmosphere, oceans and biodiversity; preventing deforestation; and promoting sustainable agriculture Rio Declaration on Environment and Development Consists of 27 principles. Formally not binding. Full text available at: al/default.asp?documentid=78&articleid=1 163 Rio Declaration People are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature. Development today must not threaten the needs of present and future generations. Nations have the right to exploit their own resources, but without causing environmental damage beyond their borders. Environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process. 6 Rio Declaration Eradicating poverty and reducing disparities in living standards in different parts of the world are essential if we are to achieve sustainable development whilst meeting the needs of the majority of the people. Environmental issues are best handled with the participation of all concerned citizens. The polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of pollution. Sustainable development requires better scientific understanding of the problems. Nations should share knowledge and technologies to achieve the goal of sustainability. Follow-up Mechanisms Commission on Sustainable Development Inter-agency Committee on Sustainable Development High-level Advisory Board on Sustainable Development After Rio Rio+5, Earth Summit+5 in 1997 Rio+20: What's changed since Rio+10, World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002 Rio+20, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio+20: What's changed since Rio+20: What's changed since Rio+20: What's changed since Rio+20: What's changed since 8
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