Методические указания по определению и переводу грамматических форм и структур в английском языке - PDF

Министерство образования Российской Федерации РОСТОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ Кафедра английского языка естественных факультетов Методические указания по определению и переводу грамматических форм

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Министерство образования Российской Федерации РОСТОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ Кафедра английского языка естественных факультетов Методические указания по определению и переводу грамматических форм и структур в английском языке Ростов-на-Дону 2003 2 Составители: ст. преп. Киселева М.П. Рецензент: ст. преп. Шаблыкина А.Н. Редактор: канд. филол. н., доцент Макарова Ж.И. 3 Методическая записка Методические указания предназначены для самостоятельной работы студентов. Основная цель состоит в том, чтобы: 1) научить идентифицировать IV формы глагола и переводить их на русский язык; 2) различать атрибутивные группы по составу и переводить их на русский язык; 3) находить по формальным признакам сказуемое. 4 Задание 1. Переведите формы глаголов, используя модели перевода (схема 1). Основное значение глаголов I форма глаголов. Неопределенная форма II форма глаголов. Прошедшее время III форма глаголов. Причастия прошедшего времени IV форма глаголов. Причастия настоящего времени 1. начинать to begin began begun beginning 2. ломать to bind bound bound bounding 3. ломать to break broke broken breaking 4. выращивать to breed bred bred breeding 5. выбирать to choose chose chosen choosing 6. рисовать to draw drew drawn drawing 7. запретить to forbid forbade forbidden forbidding 8. забыть to forget forgot forgotten forgetting 9. получить to get got got getting 10. дать to give gave given giving 11. молоть to grind ground ground grinding 12. расти to grow grew grown growing 13. слышать to hear heard heard heaving 14. держать to hold held held holding 15. хранить to keep kept kept keeping 16. знать to know knew known knowing 17. оставить to leave left left leaving 18. проходить to undergo underwent undergone undergoing 19. предпринять undertake undertook undertaken undertaking 20. писать to write wrote written writing 5 Задание 2. Определите состав словосочетаний в функции левого определения и переведите их на русский язык, используя схемы 2 и different body parts 2. a major research interest 3. warm coastal waters 4. the only common substance 5. quite stable ocean temperature 6. specific structural information 7. hydrogen ion concentration 8. solid-phase extraction 9. human growth hormone 10. the growing polypeptide chain 11. the most difficult ethical question 12. unique three dimensional conformations 13. proper genetic control mechanisms 14. the actual light-absorbing molecule 15. these two fundamentally different kinds 16. the highly schematic drawings 17. this increasingly important area 18. a recently devised method 19. recently suggested potential biomarkers 20. three major review articles Задание 3. Определите состав следующих словосочетаний в функции правого определения и переведите на русский язык, используя схемы 2 и problem involving eye color 2. time, taking only about 10 days 3. disturbances leading to death 4. by superscripts attached to 6 5. biochemical indicators showing genetic variability 6. in concentrations ranging of many orders 7. a cell wall composed of the carbohydrate cellulose 8. the protein associated with the plasma membrane 9. the solute, dissolved in a liquid 10. the cells moving from the area of 11. people being terrified by terrorists 12. domains joined in different combinations 13. amino acids joined together 14. the only vaccine produced through biotechnology (is) 15. knowledge gained by studying 16. even corn engineered genetically (is) 17. changes occurring with each of these population 18. of a single species occupying a particular area 19. German physician, discovering a law (is) 20. the large genetic similarity found in cheetahs Задание 4. Найдите сказуемое по подлежащему, выраженному личным местоимением, используя схему We are capable of self-control. 2. If you were a corn plant and you were under ideal conditions for corn, why mutate? 3. Accurate estimates of exposure in the invironment are difficult to obtain since they depend on a number of interactive variables. 4. I was trying to follow from psychology and behavior to an understandiny of the brain. 5. It is essential to try to define the objectives as clearly as possible. 6. You can never accept evolution by natural selection unless you have adopted population thinking. 7. If she had tried to get a grant back then, I doubt that it would have had a high priority. 8. He (Gould) showed that, in fact, there is no statistical difference between parts of the brains of women and men. 9. It touched off a whole questioning in me. 7 10. If you multiply all these high improbabilities, you come to a figure which, as I said, is indistinguishable from zero. 11. They looked like snakes, but they were not snakes. 12. We learn to control our emotions. 13. Well, of course I love corn. 14. It says that ther is no constant value to any variable population. 15. Let s say we had a billion species on earth. 16. As I walked past a grassy field I encontered a migration of animals across the field. 17. You could be the best scientist in the world, but if you can t write about your work, and if you can t, speak up and explain it, you go nowhere. 18. So for the 3,8 billion years that the Earth had life they sent signals to the Earth and no response ever came. 19. But because she is so eminent we must study this as an example of genetics. 20. He managed to publish or co-publish over 300 scientific papers and books. Задание 5. Найдите сказуемое по второму признаку, по личным формам глагола to be, to have, используя схему Such information is essential to making decisions on treatment rates of mesocosms. 2. Humans have a life cycle that is typical of other animals. 3. A woman with white skin had parents with medium-brown skin. 4. Behavior has a genetic basis. 5. Each group of females was presented a nest containing eggs. 6. Some animals are able to solve a problem. 7. The wasp is carring the prey to the hole and pulling it in. 8. This was a short-sighted policy, because the industries were not required to improve their production processes. 9. The trade will be continued despite a world wide ban on ivory trading. 10. The longer a person has lived in a city, the less the rural environment will be respected by him or her. 11. Radiactive waste will be a problem for our children, our children s children and many generations after them. 12. For thousands of years, fish have been an important part of the human diet. 13. Many countries in the world were already desperately short of food. 14. The 1950s and 70s were also the decades of co-called miracle strains of rice and other crops. 15. Coke is a smokeless fuel that is used in the production of iron and steel. 16. Oil was formed about 400 million years ago. 17. Fossil fuels are sources of energy that are buried under the ground: coal, oil and natural gas. 18. This oil had a high carbon content so it was a good source of energy. 19. The quality of soil will be improved by adding fertilizers. 20. The problem of urban expansion in the Third world will have no simple solution. 8 Задание 6. Найдите сказуемое по модальным глаголам и глаголам, образующим будущее время, используя формальный признак 2б (схема 5). 1. The purpose of such tests would be to study the influence of relevant environmental parameters that could have a significant effect on loss rates. 2. Today s nuclear power will be tomorrow s radioactive waste. 3. The radioactive fuel must be reprocessed regularly. 4. The nervous system can thus regulate the strength of contraction in the whole muscle. 5. During the course of the day, a human may be exposed to substantial changes in ambient temperature but will die if internal body temperature fluctuates more than a few degrees about a mean of 37 degrees C. 6. You might say that some things, such as the different human languages, are completely learnt. 7. The rods can be pushed into the radioactive core to stop the chain reaction. 8. Population growth must be controlled. 9. Millions of hectares of land would be freed for more productive use. 10. Carring capacities could be determined by factors other than food resources. 11. If these uncertainties are clearly identified it should be possible to design a mesocosm study with clearly identified objectives. 12. All of these effects may make it impossible for some organisms to survive. 13. Variations must arise and be present in each population if evolution is to occur. 14. Heavy metal compounds and pesticides could be one of the most common environmental pollutants that cause neurotoxicity. 15. Behaviour may improve because of ongoing developmental changes in neuromuscular systems, a process called maturation. 16. We can understand search images from our own experience. 17. We would expect natural selection to favor animals that choose foraging strategies that maximise the differential between benefits and costs. 18. More distant but larger prey will require more energy expenditure but will provide a high yield and thus may be chosen over small prey at middle and even close distances. 19. Viruses must be inside their host cell in order to reproduce. 20. Tomorrow we shall examine some espects of feeding from a behavioral perspective. Задание 7. Найдите сказуемое, используя формальный признак 2в (схема 5). 9 1. Table 1 showed that Africans would increase from 8.9 percent of the world population in 1950 to nearly 20 percent in Europeans fell from 15.6 percent to 6.4 percent. 3. The fast food industry grew in the 1970s and created a demand for cheap beef for making hamburgers. 4. Others countries soon saw the profit they could make from cattle farming and began to cut down their own rainforests. 5. It took many years of research before biologists conclusively determined that DNA was genetic material. 6. The government forbade this major mining company to use bacteria to obtain various metals. 7. The kreb cycle broke the carbon chain of amino acids. 8. The Hardy-Weinberg law gave us a way to tell if evolution had occurred. 9. Another rumor says that the doctors gave away a radio to every man who was sterilized. 10. Information flew from DNA to RNA to protein. 11. Life began with the cell. 12. Most scientists undertook controlled experiments. 13. DNA underwent rare changes (mutations) that alter its message. 14. Other geneticists chose bacteriophages, viruses that attack bacteria. 15. The world would not be very safe if atomic nuclei were always splitting and releasing energy! 16. Brazilian peasants drove off their land and burned the trees to clear new land for farming. 17. Beside each letter in the diagram below wrote the word smog, temperature, fossil fuels. 18. An interphase nucleus showed darkly stained chromatin regions. 19. Darwin began to gather evidence that adaptation to various environments results in diversity. 20. The government undertook new attempt to legislate the levels of toxic emissions from cars, power stations, factories and domestic chimneys. Задание 8. Найдите сказуемое по беспредложному существительному, стоящему после сказуемого, пользуясь схемой Sometimes the data support the hypothesis. 2. The hormone progesterone caused birds of either sex to incubate the eggs. 3. Scientists found DDT in human breast milk long ago. 4. The ecosystems involve two processes that can not be fully described at lower levels: energy flow and chemical cycling. 5. Some industries pollute underground rivers. 10 6. An owl eat primary consumers such as field mice and higher level consumers such as snakes. 7. Although ecosystems receive an essentially inexhaustible influx of solar energy, chemical elements are available only in limited supply. 8. Meiosis provides a way of forming new genetic combinations. 9. In the open oceans, light intensity and temperature affect the productivity of phytoplankton communities. 10. Many desert animals escape intense heat by burrowing. 11. Periodic fires stabilize the community at a stage that precedes the typical climax state. 12. In the past our pollution in industrialized countries caused a visible haze called smog. 13. We cannot see, hear,taste or smell the earth s atmosphere, but it provides vital oxygen. 14. The man-made chemicals chlorofluorocarbons break up ozone molecules. 15. The ionosphere contains very thin air and electrically charged particles which reflect electromagnetic waves. 16. The threat of extinction affects many species on earth. 17. The death of one species threatens the survival of hundreds of others. 18. A few companies still cut down hardwood trees 19. The rainforests control the climate. 20. The trees soak up water in the rainy seasons and slowly release it into the ground and rivers. Задание 9. Найдите сказуемое по наречиям, пользуясь схемой The theory of evolution is indeed a unifying theory. 2. The lateral line system functions only in water. 3. Temporal variations in the invironment can also be described as coarsegrained or fine-grained. 4. But we are often too busy or too lazy to sort out trash for recycling. 5. In fact, spending money on the education of girls and women is the most cost-effective way to improve people s general health in a developing country. 6. The nucleus contains positively charged particles (protons) and neutral particles( neutrons). 7. The radioactive fuel is transported in a specially shielded container to reprocessing plant. 8. As well as encouraging alternative forms of transportation, governments should make the use of private cars less convinient and more expensive. 9. Children often play on landfill sites. 10. People who compaign for animal rights are usually young and healthy,and have not yet needed the benefits of medical progress. I have been a naturalist, I would say, ever since I could walk. 12. We can also think of a population as individuals of one species that simultaneously occupy the same general area. 13. I was really hung up for quite a while and not making any progress. 14. She recently left National Institute of Health to devote herself full-time to AIDS research. 15. The election configuration of carbon also gives it covalent compatibility with many different elements. 16. Although there are interesting exceptions, nearly all organisms share a common genetic code. 17. Ponds and lakes are also extremely sensitive to seasonal temperature changes. 18. Ecologists often use a variety of sampling techniques to estimate densities and total population sizes. 19. We must first look briefly at heat and temperature to understand this quality of water. 20. The electron transport chain makes no ATP directly. Схема 7 НАХОЖДЕНИЕ СКАЗУЕМОГО ПО ОКОНЧАНИЯМ -ed сказуемое -s -es Задание 10. Найдите сказуемое по окончаниям самого сказуемого, используя схему The composition of the atmosphere changes with the distance from earth s surface. 2. We used ionosphere ti send radio signals around the earth. 3. The lower part of the stratosphere contains a band of warm gas. 4. The industrial revolution reached most countries of the world several decades ago. 5. Everyone in a city needs food and shelter, and everyone produces waste. 12 6. In 1990, 25 percent of the population of the developing world lived in large towns or cities. 7. Thermal pollution kills some animals and plants. 8. The motor car improved the comfort and speed of road transportation. 9. Over thousands of years, the decomposed animal and plant material turned into crude oil. 10. The petrochemical industry produces detergents, plastics, fertilizers, manmade fibers, cosmetics and industrial chemicals. 11. Today oil provides 50 percent of world energy. 12. In the 19 th century, the British physicist Baron Rutherford discovered how to split nuclei more quickly. 13. Many survivors of the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki later died of cancer. 14. This steam drives a turbine which generates electricity. 15. Human societies evolved from small groups of hunter-gatherers to larger societies based around agriculture and domestic animals. 16. The earth contains a limited supply of fossil fuels. 17. Beadle and Tatum proposed that each gene specifies the synthesis of one enzyme. 18. Research indicates that the genetic code is essentially universal. 19. Both Charlse Darwin and Alfred Wallace proposed natural selection as a mechanism for evolutionary changes. 20. In 1951 James Watson and Francis Crick constructed a model of DNA structure based on chemical data and x-ray diffraction photograph taken by Rosalind Franklin. ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА Схема 1 ть л I форма II форма ла Infinitife ться Past Simple ло ли to show - показыва ть ся carri ed out = выполни л ла ло ли ущ III форма ный IV форма ющ Past Participle тый Present Participle а(я) мый я hold ing - держ ащий attend ed - посещен ный ная ное forgotten - забы тый тая тое lov ed - люби мый мая мое держ а attend ing - посещ ая посеща ющий ющая ющее tak ing - бер ущий ущая ущее бер я АТРИБУТИВНЫЕ ГРУППЫ В СОСТАВЕ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ Схема 2 левое Обстоятельство правое левое Подлежащее правое левое Сказуемое правое левое Дополнение правое левое правое Обстоятельство Определение Схема 5 СКАЗУЕМОЕ В СТРУКТУРЕ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ Нахождение сказуемого в структуре повествовательного предложения по формальным признакам, безошибочно его определяющим: 1) по подлежащему, выраженному личными местоимениями; 2) по признакам самого сказуемого: а) по личным формам глаголов to be, to have, б) модальным и образующим будущее время глаголам, в) а также нахождение сказуемого по II форме неправильного глагола, отличной от I и III формы. определение обстоятельство the, a, an, thi
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