Luiz E.R. Tavares and José L. Luque* Abstract. Key words. Introduction. Materials and methods - PDF

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Acta Parasitologica, 2005, 50(2), ; ISSN Copyright 2005 W. Stefañski Institute of Parasitology, PAS Ergasilus youngi sp. nov. (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Ergasilidae) parasitic on Aspistor

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Acta Parasitologica, 2005, 50(2), ; ISSN Copyright 2005 W. Stefañski Institute of Parasitology, PAS Ergasilus youngi sp. nov. (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Ergasilidae) parasitic on Aspistor luniscutis (Actinopterygii, Ariidae) from off the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Stefański Luiz E.R. Tavares and José L. Luque* Curso de Pós-Graduaçăo em CiPncias Veterinárias, Departamento de Parasitologia Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 74508, Seropédica, RJ, Brasil Abstract A new species of Ergasilus von Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda, Ergasilidae) parasitic on the gills of sea catfish, Aspistor luniscutis (Valenciennes, 1840) (Ariidae) from the coastal zone of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by the presence of 2-segmented first endopod with rosette-like array of blunt spinules, 3-segmented fourth endopod, first antennulary segment with single seta and not inflated cephalosome. Key words Copepoda, Ergasilidae, Ergasilus youngi sp. nov., fish, Aspistor luniscutis, Brazil Introduction Skóra Ergasilidae von Nordmann, 1832 is one of the major families of Poecilostomatoida (cf. Ho et al. 1992, Abdelhalim et al. 1993) and comprises 24 genera of parasitic copepods found in freshwater, brackish and coastal marine waters (Amado et al. 1995, El-Rashidi and Boxshall 1999). According to Amado et al. (1995) ergasilid adult females parasitize mainly teleosts with exception of species of Teredophilus Rancurel, 1954 that occur on annelids and bivalve molluscs. Ergasilus von Nordmann, 1832 includes species with high pathogenic potential, some of them responsible for great mortality among cultured fishes in freshwater and brackish environments (Lin and Ho 1998, Piasecki et al. 2004). To date, 21 species of Ergasilus were described parasitic on gills of Brazilian fishes (Table I). Recently, E. euripedesi Montú, 1980 was redescribed and new combination Gauchergasilus euripedesi (Montú, 1980) proposed (Montú and Boxshall 2002). Another species, E. foresti Boxshall, Araújo et Montú, 2002, was recently collected from the zooplankton communities of Brazilian estuaries (Boxshall et al. 2002). During a parasitological survey of Brazilian marine fishes, specimens of an undescribed species of Ergasilus were collected from the gills of sea catfish, Aspistor luniscutis (Valenciennes, 1840). The new species is described, illustrated and compared with the related species of this genus. Materials and methods Copepods studied are part of material collected from 69 specimens of A. luniscutis measuring 35.4 ± 2.2 ( ) cm, from Angra dos Reis, coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (23 01 S, W), between November 2002 and February Hosts were identified according to Figueiredo and Menezes (1978) and nomenclature follows Marceniuk and Ferraris (2003). Copepods collected were fixed and stored in 70% ethanol. They were cleared in 85% lactic acid before making dissection on a wooden slide (Humes and Gooding 1964). In measurements (µm), means are followed by range within parenthesis. Illustrations were made with the aid of a drawing tube mounted on a Hund Wetzlar H-600 phase contrast microscope. Copepod body terminology according to Boxshall and Montú (1997). The terms mean abundance, mean intensity and prevalence were used according to Bush et al. (1997). Type specimens were deposited in * Corresponding author: Ergasilus youngi sp. nov. on A. luniscutis from Brazil Stanisła Zdzisław 151 Coleçno Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (CHIOC). Results Ergasilus youngi sp. nov. (Figs 1 10) Female (Fig. 1): (based on 11 specimens). Total length 1,450.6 (1, ,494.5) (excluding antenna and caudal rami setae). Greatest width ( ). Cephalosome longer than wide, antennule and antenna visible in dorsal view, ( ) long, ( ) wide. First pedigerous somite ( ) long, ( ) wide. Second to fifth pedigerous somite narrowing posteriorly. Genital double-somite ( ) long, ( ) wide. Abdomen with 3 free somites; first free somite ( ) long, ( ) wide; second free somite ( ) long, ( ) wide; anal somite incised medially ( ) long, ( ) wide (Fig. 2a). All abdominal somites with row of spinules along posterior margin on ventral surface (Fig. 2b). Caudal rami longer than wide, ( ) long, 34.6 ( ) wide, bearing 4 setae, longest seta ( ) long. Antennule (Fig. 3): 6-segmented, setal formula from proximal to distal segments: 1, 11, 3, 3, aesthete, aesthete. Antenna (Fig. 4) long, slender, 4-segmented (coxobasis + 3-segmented endopod), coxobasis with minute inner proximal seta, proximal endopodal segment slightly curved, longer than medial and distal endopodal segments combined, armed with curved peg seta near mid-point of inner margin; medial endopodal segment with minute seta proximally and distally; distal endopodal segment short. Terminal claw strongly recurved. Mandible (Fig. 5a) anterior blade small with bristles on anterior margin; middle blade with large teeth on posterior margin; posterior blade with teeth on posterior margin. Maxillula (Fig. 5b) lobate, bearing 2 outer setae. Maxilla (Fig. 5c) consisting of large syncoxa, unarmed, tapering distally and small basis, armed distally with sharp teeth. First to fourth leg biramous with rami 3-segmented, except first endopod and fourth exopod which are 2-segmented. Basis of all legs bearing outer naked seta on posterior surface near to exopod. First leg (Fig. 6) exopod proximal segment with patch of spinules and spine distally located on outer margin, inner margin with setules; medial segment with patch of spinules on outer margin, inner plumose seta; distal segment with 4 plumose setae, 1 medial spine with serrated margins, 2 short plumose setae on outer margin only; endopod proximal segment with outer patch of spinules and inner plumose seta; distal segment with patch of spinules on outer margin, prominent rosette-like array of blunt spinules on near lateral margin, 2 short plumose setae apically, 5 plumose setae on inner margin. Second leg (Fig. 7) exopod proximal segment with spinules and distally located spine on outer margin, inner margin with setules; medial segment with spinules on outer margin, inner plumose seta; distal segment with spinules on outer margin, outer small plumose seta, 6 plumose setae; endopod proximal segment with setules and fine spinulation on outer margin, inner plumose seta; medial segment with few spinules on outer margin, 2 inner plumose setae; distal segment with very fine spinulation on outer margin, outer spine serrated on outer margin only, 4 plumose setae. Third leg (Fig. 8) similar to second leg. Fourth leg (Fig. 9) exopod proximal segment with few spinules on outer margin, inner margin with setules; distal segment with few spines on outer margin, outer short plumose seta, 5 plumose setae; endopod proximal segment with setules and fine spinulation on outer margin, inner plumose seta; medial segment with fine spinulation on outer margin, 2 inner plumose setae; distal segment with spinules on outer margin, outer spine serrated on outer margin only, 3 plumose setae. Fifth leg (Fig. 10) 2 papillate naked setae. Male: Unknown. Host: Aspistor luniscutis (Valenciennes, 1840) (Actinopterygii, Siluriformes, Ariidae). Site of infection: Gills. Type locality: Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brazil (23 01 S, W). Record of specimens: Holotype CHIOC No (female); paratypes CHIOC No (5 females); CHIOC No (5 females). Prevalence of infection: 88.4%. Mean abundance of infection: 6.7 ± 8.1. Mean intensity of infection: 7.6 ± 8.2. Etymology: This species is named in honor to Dr Paulo S. Young, in recognition of his contributions to the knowledge of Brazilian crustaceans. Remarks: the new species shows 2-segmented first endopod, 3-segmented fourth endopod, and first antennulary segment with single seta. Off 22 species described from Brazilian waters, five species shared 2-segmented first endopod and 3- segmented fourth endopod with the new species (Table I), but E. youngi sp. nov. can be separated from E. callophysus, E. caraguatatubensis, E. colomesus, and E. cyanopictus, by the presence of prominent rosette-like array of blunt spinules near lateral margin of first leg endopod distal segment. Ergasilus foresti also presents rosette-like array of blunt spinules near lateral margin of first leg endopod distal segment, although differs from new species in antennule setal formula 1, 11, 5, 4, 2 + ae., 7 + ae. (1, 11, 3, 3, ae., ae. in new species), mandible anterior blade with terminal slender teeth (with bristles on anterior margin on new species) and maxilla basis short, with array of sharp teeth distally, provided proximally with spinule near anterior margin and row of spinules near posterior margin (maxilla basis longer in comparison to E. foresti and without spinules proximally on new species) (Thatcher and Boeger 1983, 1984; Amado and Rocha 1995; Boxshall et al. 2002; El-Rashidy and Boxshall 2002). Eight Ergasilus species originally described from other localities, E. argulus Cressey, 1970, E. cerastes Roberts, 1969, E. chautauquensis Fellows, 1887, E. clupeidarum John- 152 Luiz E.R. Tavares and José L. Luque Śląski Figs 1 5. Ergasilus youngi sp. nov., female, holotype: 1 dorsal view; 2a genital and abdominal somites and caudal rami, ventral; 2b abdominal somites; 3 antennule; 4 antenna; 5 mouth parts: a mandible, b maxillula, c maxilla. Scale bars = 300 µm (1); 100 µm (2a, 3, 4); 50 µm (2b, 5) Ergasilus youngi sp. nov. on A. luniscutis from Brazil 153 Roborzyński rosbśźćv fjad kadsććżć Figs Ergasilus youngi sp. nov., female, holotype: 6 first leg; 7 second leg; 8 third leg; 9 fourth leg; 10 fifth leg. Scale bars = 50 µm 154 Luiz E.R. Tavares and José L. Luque Table I. Ergasilus species originally described from Brazil Species Hosts 1 Hosts order and family Hosts habitat References E. atafonensis Mugil curema Perciformes, Mugilidae brackish Amado and Rocha (1995) E. bahiensis M. curema, M. gaimardianus, Perciformes, Mugilidae brackish Amado and Rocha (1995) M. liza, M. platanus, M. trichodon E. bryconis Brycon melanopterus Characiformes, Characidae freshwater Thatcher (1981a) E. callophysus * Calophysus macropterus Siluriformes, Pimelodidae freshwater Thatcher and Boeger (1984) E. caraguatatubensis* M. curema, M. gaimardianus, Perciformes, Mugilidae brackish Amado and Rocha (1995) M. liza E. coatiarus Cichla monoculus Perciformes, Cichlidae freshwater Araújo and Varella (1998) E. colomesus * Colomesus asellus Tetraodontiformes, freshwater Thatcher and Boeger (1983) Tetraodontidae E. cyanopictus * Mugil cephalus Perciformes, Mugilidae brackish Carvalho (1962) E. foresti * brackish Boxshall et al. (2002) E. hydrolycus Hydrolycus scomberoides Characiformes, Cynodontidae freshwater Thatcher et al. (1984) E. holobryconis Brycon pesu Characiformes, Characidae freshwater Malta and Varella (1986) E. hypophthalmi Hypophthalmus edentatus, Siluriformes, Pimelodidae freshwater Boeger et al. (1993) H. fimbriatus E. iheringi Hoplias malabaricus Characiformes, Erytrinidae freshwater Tidd (1942) E. jaraquensis Semaprochilodus insignis Characiformes, freshwater Thatcher and Robertson Prochilodontidae (1982) E. leporinidis Leporinus fasciatus Characiformes, Anostomidae freshwater Thatcher (1981b) E. longimanus Mugil sp. Perciformes, Mugilidae brackish Boxshall and Montú (1997) E. thatcheri Rhamdia quelen Siluriformes, freshwater Engers et al. (2000) Heptapteridae E. triangularis Laemolyta taeniata Characiformes, Anostomidae freshwater Malta (1994) E. turucuyus Acestrorhynchus falcatus, Characiformes, freshwater Malta and Varella (1996) A. falcirostris Acestrorhyncidae E. urupaensis Prochilodus nigricans Characiformes, freshwater Malta (1993) Prochilodontidae E. xenomelanirisi Atherinella brasiliensis Atheriniformes, brackish Carvalho (1955) Atherinopsidae E. yumaricus Pygocentrus natteri, Characidae, Characiformes freshwater Malta and Varella (1995) Serrasalmus eingenmani, S. rhombeus 1 Hosts nomenclature and taxonomy according to FishBase Online (www.fishbase.org). * Species that share 2-segmented first endopod and fourth exopod, 3-segmented fourth endopod. Species that share 2-segmented first endopod and 2-segmented fourth exopod and endopod. Species that share 2-segmented first endopod, 1-segmented fourth exopod and 2-segmented fourth endopod. Species that share 3-segmented first endopod, 2-segmented fourth exopod and 3-segmented fourth endopod. son et Rogers, 1972, E. ecuadorensis El-Rashidy et Boxshall, 2002, E. pitalicus Thatcher, 1984, E. megaceros Wilson, 1914, and E. versicolor Wilson, 1911 also presented 2-segmented first endopod (Boxshall et al. 2002). Of these, the new spe-cies is particularly close to E. cerastes, parasitic on North American freshwater catfishes since they share armature of legs and the presence of prominent rosette-like array of blunt spinules on first endopod. Nevertheless, E. cerastes differs from new species in presence of 3 setae on first antennulary segment, rather than one in new species, and in hook-like shape of the spines of first endopod distal segment, which is not curved in the new species (Roberts 1969). Acknowledgements. José L. Luque was partially supported by a Research fellowship from CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Tecnológico). Luiz E.R. Tavares was supported by a Student fellowship from the Coordenaçno de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES). References Abdelhalim A.I., Lewis J.W., Boxshall G.A The external morphology of adult female ergasilid copepods (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida): a comparison between Ergasilus and Neoergasilus. Systematic Parasitology, 24, Amado M.A.P.M., Ho J.-s., Rocha C.E.F Phylogeny and biogeography of the Ergasilidae (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida), with reconsideration of the taxonomic status of Vaigamidae. Contributions to Zoology, 65, Amado M.A.P.M., Rocha C.E.F TrLs novas espécies de copépodes parasitas do glnero Ergasilus (Poecilostomatoida, Ergasilidae) coletadas em filamentos branquiais de peixes mugilídeos do Brasil. Nauplius, 3, Araújo C.S., Varella A Ergasilus coatiarus sp. n. (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) parasita dos filamentos branquiais de Cichla monoculus Spix, 1831 (Perciformes: Cichlidae) da Amazônia brazileira. Acta Amazonica, 28, Boeger W.A., Martins M., Thatcher V.E Ergasilus hypophthalmi n. sp. (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Ergasilidae) Ergasilus youngi sp. nov. on A. luniscutis from Brazil 155 from the gill rakers of the Amazonian catfishes, Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix and H. fimbriatus Kner. Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 53, Boxshall G.A., Araújo H.M.P., Montú M A new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda, Ergasilidae) from Brazil. Crustaceana, 75, Boxshall G.A., Montú M.A Copepods parasitic on Brazilian coastal fishes: a handbook. Nauplius, 5, Bush G.A., Lafferty K.D., Lotz J.M., Shostak A.W Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. Journal of Parasitology, 83, Carvalho J.P Ergasilus xenomelanirisi n. sp. parasito do peixerei Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard). Boletim do Instituto Oceanográfico, 6, Carvalho J.P Ergasilus cyanopictus sp. nov., parasito da tainha Mugil cephalus (L.). Archivos do Museu Nacional, 52, El-Rashidy H.H., Boxshall G.A Ergasilid copepods (Poecilostomatoida) from the gills of primitive Mugilidae (grey mullets). Systematic Parasitology, 42, El-Rashidy H.H., Boxshall G.A New species and new records of Ergasilus Nordmann (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) from the gills of grey mullet (Mugilidae). Systematic Parasitology, 54, Engers K.B., Boeger W.A., Brandno D.A Ergasilus thatcheri n. sp. (Copepoda, Ergasilidae) from the gills of Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from southern Brazil. Journal of Parasitology, 86, Figueiredo J.L., Menezes N.A Manual de peixes marinhos do Sudeste do Brasil. II. Teleostei (1). Editora Universidade de Sa#o Paulo, Sa#o Paulo. Ho J.-s., Jayarajan P., Radhakrishnan S Copepods of the family Ergasilidae (Poecilostomatoida) parasitic on coastal fishes of Kerala, India. Journal of Natural History, 26, Humes A.G., Gooding R.U A method for studying the external anatomy of copepods. Crustaceana, 6, Lin C.-L., Ho J.-s Two species of ergasilid copepods parasitic on fishes cultured in brackish water in Taiwan. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 11, Malta J.C.O Ergasilus urupaensis sp. n. (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) das brânquias de Prochilodus nigricans Agassiz, 1829 (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae) da Amazônia brasileira. Acta Amazonica, 23, Malta J.C.O Ergasilus triangularis sp. n. (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) das brânquias de Laemolyta taeniata (Kner, 1859), (Characiformes: Anostomidae) da Amazônia brasileira. Acta Amazonica, 24, Malta J.C.O., Varella A.M Ergasilus holobryconis sp. n. crustáceo parasita de Holobrycon pesu (Muller & Troschell), um peixe da Amazônia brasileira (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida: Ergasilidae). Amazoniana, 10, Malta J.C.O., Varella A.M Ergasilus yumaricus sp. n. (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) das brânquias de Pygocentrus natteri (Kner, 1860), Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus, 1819) e Pristobrycon eingenmanni (Norman, 1929) (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae) da Amazônia brasileira. Acta Amazonica, 25, Malta J.C.O., Varella A.M Ergasilus turucuyus sp. n. (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) das brânquias de Acestrorhynchus falcatus (Bloch, 1794) e A. falcirostris (Cuvier, 1819) (Characiformes: Characidae) da Amazônia brasileira. Acta Amazonica, 26, Marceniuk A.P., Ferraris C.J.Jr Family Ariidae. In: Checklist of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America (Eds. O.N. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J.Jr. Ferraris). EDIPUCRS, Porto Alegre, Montú M.A., Boxshall G.A Gauchergasilus, a new genus for Ergasilus euripedesi Montú, 1981 an abundant parasitic copepod from the Patos Lagoon in southern Brazil. Systematic Parasitology, 51, Piasecki W., Goodwin A.E., Eiras J.C., Nowak B.F Importance of Copepoda in freshwater aquaculture. Zoological Studies, 43, Roberts L Ergasilus arthrosis n. sp. (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) and the taxonomic status of Ergasilus versicolor Wilson, 1911, Ergasilus elegans Wilson, 1916 and Ergasilus celestis Mueller, 1936, from North American fishes. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 26, Thatcher V.E. 1981a. Os crustáceos parasitos de peixes da Amazônia brasileira I Ergasilus bryconis n. sp. (Copepoda: Cyclopoidea) da matrinchn Brycon melanopterus (Cope). Acta Amazonica, 11, Thatcher V.E. 1981b. Os crustáceos parasitos de peixes da Amazônia brasileira II Ergasilus leporinidis n. sp. (Copepoda: Cyclopoidea) das brânquias de Leporinus fasciatus (Bloch). Acta Amazonica, 11, Thatcher V.E., Boeger W.A The parasitic crustaceans of fishes from the Brazilian Amazon. 4. Ergasilus colomesus n. sp. (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from an ornamental fish Colomesus asellus (Tetraodontidae) and aspects of its pathogenicity. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 102, Thatcher V.E., Boeger W.A The parasitic crustaceans of fishes from the Brazilian Amazon. 9. Ergasilus callophysus sp. n. (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from Callophysus macropterus. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 51, Thatcher V.E., Boeger W.A., Robertson B.A The parasitic crustaceans of fishes from the Brazilian Amazon. 12. Ergasilus hydrolycus n. sp. (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida) from Hydrolycus scomberoides (Cuvier). Amazoniana, 8, Thatcher V.E., Robertson B.A The parasitic crustaceans of fishes from the Brazilian Amazon. 3. Ergasilus jaraquensis n. sp. (Copepoda: Cyclopoidea) from the gills of Semaprochilodus insignis (Schomburgk). Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 42, Tidd W.M A new species of Ergasilus (parasitic Copepoda) from a characinid fish of Brazil. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 61, (Accepted February 2, 2005)
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