Konseptuaalisen semantiikan käsitys mielestä ja kielestä: Tiernet a micro-modular approach to language - PDF

Konseptuaalisen semantiikan käsitys mielestä ja kielestä: Tiernet a micro-modular approach to language Urpo Nikanne, Abo Akademi AIVOT JA MIELI, KÄSITTEET JA KIELI Luonnonfilosofinen seura

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Konseptuaalisen semantiikan käsitys mielestä ja kielestä: Tiernet a micro-modular approach to language Urpo Nikanne, Abo Akademi AIVOT JA MIELI, KÄSITTEET JA KIELI Luonnonfilosofinen seura THE IDEA BEHIND IT ALL Åbo Akademi University - Domkyrkotorget Åbo 2 Representational modularity Representation Each sentence is a combination of different kinds of information, phonological, syntactic, semantic, etc. These levels of different informaton are called representations. Autonomous representation A representation is autonomous when it cannot be reduced to another level of representation. Representational modularity (Jackendoff 1997) Each autonomous level of representation is based on formation principles of a separate module. Autonomous representational modules have their own primitives and principles of combination. 3 Tiers In phonology, since 1980 s the phonological representation is seen as a combination of tiers (timing, melody, syllable, tone, stress, etc.). Each tier has its own primitives and principles of combination. Tier def = Representation def 4 THE DEEPEST ESSENCE OF TIERNET AND CONCEPTUAL SEMANTICS Åbo Akademi University - Domkyrkotorget Åbo 5 Layers of a linguistic theory (Nikanne, in progress) Goals of research: The research topic and the research perspective. Background assumptions: Motivated hypotheses on the nature of the research topic. These hypotheses give the research a direction. Methodological guidelines: Ways of thinking. The guidelines are based on the goals of research and background assumptions of the research topic and the ideas of right way to do scientific work. Formalism and technical solutions: The formalism and technical solutions must be compatible with the goals of research, background assumptions, and methodological guidelines. They express the theoretical ideas of the nature of the research topic. Conceptual Semantics (Nikanne 2008, in progress) Methodological guidelines (A) Formal approach Formalize your statements. WHAT: The conceptual semantics approach is formal, i.e. the statements of the research topic should be based on and presented by well defined terms. WHY: this guideline is based on the background assumption that language and mind are organized as systems. If language is a system, it should be described as a system and its behavior is to a large extent a consequence of the properties of the system. There is no way around this. As Esa Itkonen points out, this is the requirement of explicitness. Methodological guidelines (B) Analytical organization Keep the formation of formally independent sub-systems apart. WHAT: If it can be shown that there is a part of the system that has its own primitives and principles of combination, it constitutes a module of its own. WHY: It makes sense methodologically to keep the independent systems apart. The understanding achieved of the independent modules is always useful. Methodological guidelines (C) Simple Formation of Modules Keep the formation of the sub-systems simple. WHAT: the formation of sub-systems should contain as few primitives and as simple principles of their combination as possible. WHY: This is an application of Occam s Razor: One should not increase, beyond what is necessary, the number of entities required to explain anything. Also guideline B above suggests even if it does not logically entail that the representations be simple. Methodological guidelines (D) Importance of Linking: Study carefully the interaction between the modules. WHAT: The principles that govern the correspondences between the sub-systems are a crucial part of the system. WHY: As language and mind work as a whole the model should show how the whole works. representations does not always have to be one-to-one, because then the representations were analogical, and in practice both guideline B and C would be violated THE INGREDIENTS OF THE THEORY Åbo Akademi University - Domkyrkotorget Åbo 12 Micro-modularity: a tier based modular organization (cf. B Analytical organization) Micro-modularity is a consequence of the methodological guidelines of conceptual semantics. Independent structures are formed in their own modules. A sketch of the micro-modular organization of the Finnish grammar: 13 Examples of sub-systems (micro-modules) (cf. C Simple formation of modules) tone: H, L (max 3, OCP) f-chain (thematic funktions: causation, change, location): f3* f2 f1* act-chain (activity, dominance): (AC) (UN) word order: DA-system (logical subject and logical object = subject and object arguments): DA1 DA2 Grammatical functions: SUBJ OBJ Argument levelarg Building the network Åbo Akademi University - Domkyrkotorget Åbo 15 Linking types and strengths D (default), (fixed), (selection), (belong to the same unit), Princ (linking based on general principles) Åbo Akademi University - Domkyrkotorget Åbo 16 THEMATIC STRUCTURE Åbo Akademi University - Domkyrkotorget Åbo 17 Network and linking (Cf. D Importance of linking) The dependency structure and conceptual categories of the thematic structure of the sentence John made Mike go home. (Nikanne in progress) ZONE 3 ZONE 2 ZONE 1 f-chain schema f3* f2 f1* (* indicates that there are none, one or more functions of the kind in the dependency chain) Zone 1 the location zone Functions: Place- and Path-functions (TO, TOWARD, AWAY-FROM, VIA; AT, IN, ON, UNDER, etc.) and their arguments. Thematic roles: goal, source, route, location. Zone 2 the non-causative situation zone Functions: non-causative situation functions (BE, GO, MOVE, etc.). Thematic role: theme Functions: Zone 3 the causative (incl. inchoative) zone causative (and inchoative) functions (CS and INC). Thematic role: causer. The f-chain and th-features (Nikanne 1990, forthc.) The feature hierarchy (another notation) f-chain element Features and their hierarchy SITUATION ZONES Zone 3, Causative zone Zone 2, Figure zone f3 f2 f1 [M] [B] [T] [D [GL][SO]] [T] [M] [D [GL][SO][RO]] LOCATION ZONE Zone 1, Location zone [D {[GL][SO][RO]}] [B [C [A] [3D {[in][on][ ]}] [Di] Thematic role Causer Theme Landmark (i.e. goal, source, route, location) Complex category governed by f Situation Situation Place or Path Jackendovian functions GO, ORIENT, and EXT as feature combinations GO, ORIENT, EXT, MOVE f2 f1 M Time Direction Directio n Distributed M FEATURE Formalism in Nikanne (in progress) Argument level formation General rules: A. f must select Arg. Specific rule A.1 Specific rule A.1.1 f [M] does not need to select Arg. f2 must select Arg. B. f may select max 1 Arg. The formation of the CS representation of John goes into the house F-chain schema f2 is obligatory Arg-level formation Arg obligatory Arg level: max 1 arg + no feature [M] Select another f. Arg-level formation Arg obligatory [John] [house] f2 f1 f-chain schema The selected f is f1. Lex CS of into: [f1 [D [B [3D [in]][m]]] Time Direction Direction Bounded Monadic Dircection Feature pciple D-feature shared with f2 and f1 [Goal] Lex CS of go: [f2 [T][D]] 3D [in] John house f1 John goes into the house Direction Bounded Distributed Monadic f2 Goal Contacted 3D Time Direction Åbo Akademi University - Interpretation of the sentence 29 Domkyrkotorget 3 - John Åbo goes into the house SYNTAX AND INFORMATION STRUCTURE Åbo Akademi University - Domkyrkotorget Åbo 30 Derivation from D- to S-structure leads to mirror image in the finite verb morphology in the H&al-model D-STRUCTURE AgrSP NP AgrS lapset j (children) V-T-AgrS TP sö-i-vät (eat-past-3pl) Spec T t j T VP S-STRUCTURE t i NP V t j V NP t i makkaraa (sausage-part) 31 The maximal structure of the Finnish finite sentence: A new perspective YELLOW: Lexical Finite Sentence Categories ORANGE: Morphological Finite Sentence Categories BLUE: Information structure Categories The word order tier CP C AgrSP AgrS NegP Neg TP T Spec C Spec AgrS Spec Neg Spec T - Word order tier: Finite sentence morphological categories: AgrS T Ptc PASS - Finite sentence lexical categories: NEG AUX V Information structure The information structure tier is based on categories such as focus and topic. The information structure elements are linked to the word order tier as follows: Focus1 (Vilkuna s contrast) has a fixed link to position 0 and topic to position 2. 34 A model on the word order, information structure and morpho-syntax in Finnish finite sentence (Nikanne, in progress) Correlation between conceptual structure and syntactic categories in English and Finnish [f1 ] Default P [f 1 ] Default V - If the zone of the governing function in the lexical conceptual structure of word W is 1, then the syntactic category of W is by default P. - If the zone of the governing function in the lexical conceptual structure of word W is bigger than 1, then the syntactic category of W is by default V. A fragment of linking network of Finnish (sketch) Linking types: D (Default), (fixed), (selection), (same unit), Princ (linking based on general principles) Arg Arg Arg DA1 DA2 Princ f f f SUBJ OBJ D Foc1 TOP A D D XP / \ X Princ D AgrS T Ptc Pass Princ Princ Neg Aux V N P 37 MODAL TIER, A SKETCH Åbo Akademi University - Domkyrkotorget Åbo 38 Primitives of the modal tier (Nikanne forthc.) Negation: NOT Necessity: NEC Probabilty: PRB Possibility: PSB These primitives are operators with a scope. The modal tier has semantic fields of its own (Epistemic and Deontic). Negation is not associated to the semantic fields. Modal tier (Nikanne forthc.) Equal implications Epistemic modals and negation (Nikanne forthc.) CONCLUSIONS Åbo Akademi University - Domkyrkotorget Åbo 42 Conclusions Tiernet is an open network of very simple, formally motivated sub-systems that interact with each other (cf. non-linear phonology). The set of modules and links may differ in different languages, and the links may be stronger or weaker. The technical solutions and the formalism are compatible with the principles above Åbo Akademi University - Domkyrkotorget Åbo 43 Conclusions There is no need to operate with such representations and modules as phonology, syntax, semantics, etc. A sub-system whose formation is independent from other sub-systems, is treated as a micromodule (tier) of its own. The theory must define the autonomous formation principles of each micro-module as well as links to other micro-modules Åbo Akademi University - Domkyrkotorget Åbo 44 Selected references Fodor, G. 1982: Modularity of Mind, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Jackendoff, R Semantics and cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Nikanne, U. 1990: Zones and tiers. Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society Nikanne, U. 1995: Action tier formation and argument linking. Studia Linguistica 49, 1-32 Nikanne, U Kerrokset ja kytkennät: Konseptuaalisen semantiikan perusteet. (http://www.abo.fi/fak/hf/fin/kurssit/konsem/ ) [ Tiers and links: Introduction to Conceptual Semantics ] Nikanne, U. 2008: Conceptual semantics. In Handbook of Pragmatics, Östman, J.-O. and J. Verschueren (eds.) John Benjamins. (20 p.) Nikanne, U. in progress: Tiernet [Working title] Pörn, M. 2004: Suomen tunnekausatiiviverbit ja niiden lausemaiset täydennykset. Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society. Paulsen, G. 2011: Causation and dominance: A study of Finnish causative verbs expressing social dominance. Ph.D. dissertation Åbo Akademi University. Petrova, O. 2011: Of pearls and pigs': A Conceptual-semantic Tiernet approach to formal representation of structure and variation of phraseological units. Ph.D. dissertation, Åbo Akademi University. Stalmaszczyk, P. 1999: Structural predication in generative grammar. : University of dz. 45
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