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ZESZYTY NAUKOWE POLITECHNIKI ŚLĄSKIEJ 2015 Seria: ORGANIZACJA I ZARZĄDZANIE z. 83 Nr kol Marek KRANNICH Politechnika Śląska Wydział Organizacji i Zarządzania KONCEPCJA POZYTYWNEJ ORIENTACJI PRZEDSIĘBIORSTW 1 Streszczenie. W artykule zaprezentowano pozytywną orientację przedsiębiorstw przemysłowych, rozumianą jako złożony proces istotnego wzmocnienia w budowaniu właściwych relacji interpersonalnych oraz zmian w procesach zarządzania personelem na poziomach: strategicznym i operacyjnym. Słowa kluczowe: pozytywna orientacja przedsiębiorstw, efektywność. THE CONCEPT OF POSITIVE ORIENTATION OF ENTERPRISES Summary. The article presents the positive orientation of companies with respect to industrial enterprises, un-derstood as a complex process of significant strengthening in building proper interpersonal relation-ships, and changes in the processes personnel management at levels: strategic and operational. Keywords: positive organization potential, effectiveness. 1. Introduction The positive organization potential is a trial of exact definition of an optimal use of the possessed organization assets. Positive organization concept as a special stream in interorganization research quests and application transformations, appeared in the publication of Cameron Quinn & Dutton [3]. The organization positive concept shaping process genealogy shows that the reasons of appearing of the new paradigm are rooted in the management sciences, and mainly in interpersonal relations management, social psychology, social business responsibility or science management. The positive stream in the management theory 1 Niniejszą pracę wykonano w ramach projektu badawczego finansowanego przez Narodowe Centrum Nauki NCN w Krakowie (grant nr UMO-2012/07/B/HS4/03128). Gratefully acknowledge the research support from the Polish National Science Center in Cracow (grant no. UMO-2012/07/B/HS4/03128). 336 M. Krannich focuses on description and interpretation of positive processes occurring in organizations and affecting results reached by such organizations. Trials are taken in order to determine the organization members attitudes and behaviors such as happiness, enthusiasm, personal engagement, vitality, tasks realization eagerness, openness or belief in the activity success. The whole is bonded by the inter-organization creative processes, resulting in creation of such development potential of individual features and competences, and consequently also activity of particular organization participants, which shall result directly in increase of over-standard efficiency of organization members. The model mechanism in this case is functioning as the space of stimulation of the procedural-personal-activity interactions, where the positive interrelations system, proper management attitude, pro-innovation employees approach, and also proper behavior and conflict-free organization climate affect an optimism, good emotions and increase of trust, resulting in a functional efficiency increase and the indicatively measured organization efficiency [11]. 2. Positive orientation in the management In essence the positive orientation doesn t aspire to the role of innovative concept with almost revolution change potential. The essential role here is played by a research approach and the way the organizational matters are seen. The hitherto approach strongly exposed analyses of difficulties, obstacles, barriers, negative consequences, impracticalities, deficits, faults, oversights, system blockades, pathologies, destructive conflicts, etc. The positive approach to organization is dominated by the reversed logic: prophylactic of negative events or processes shouldn t be identified with creation of positive events. Focusing on organizational & mental blockades only perfidiously and antagonistically supports generation, multiplication and synergizing of negative events, because it means very often a status analysis, showing no reasons or sources of pathologic process accumulations. Elimination of weak points not necessarily leads to supporting of a development potential. Reinforcement of advantages, focusing on development of strong points gives a chance for better decision making bases in the task teams. The examinations show that if employees can see symptoms of positive (civic) behavior in other people (who e.g. share a knowledge, loyalty, protectiveness), then they transform such attitudes into behaviors, the trust is reinforced and also the organizationally shaped social capital increases. The whole process supports a more innovative organizational culture. The pro-social behavior occurs when people act in the way so that also other people may benefit. The motivation based on mutuality or emotional exchange relation shall cause people to be prone to act more intensively, more usefully and simultaneously they percept such actions as a profit [9]. Koncepcja pozytywnej orientacji 337 The organization resource characteristics evolved, with more and more intensive learning of the management process specifics and complexity. Traditional, mechanistic formulation of work or material capital cannot reflect the enterprise situation complexity in the globalized economy. Nowadays the source system is seen as a set of multi-element, material or immaterial assets, disposing with which depends on many variable circumstances and they are used for most efficient realization of assumed targets. Supplementing of changing resources configuration shall lead to analysis of the social capital shaping, as the development factor not only in the supplementing categories relating to material capitals, but also as leading factor in adaptation to the complexity and dynamics of the turbulent, globalized surroundings. The social capital, understood from the organization point of view, is created by a human capital, basing on competences and by organization capital. In order to make the social capital the essential value, in frames of positive organization potential, proper interpersonal relations shaping conditions must be met. This in turn requires a proper interpersonal trust level and trust affect to creation of inter-organizational standards, rooted in the organizational culture. At the knowledge-based economy times the trust becomes an extremely important organization management element. The fact that positive trust affects interpersonal relations was found just in the middle of XX century. The trust measurably affects more efficient organization functioning, increases an activity speed and allows creation of satisfactory business and personal relations. Thus the trust is an immaterial asset that generates a value for an enterprise. On the other hand a mistrust in the working place shall lead to a/o lack of engagement or open communication, not much employee satisfaction and it may lead to increase of its economic activity costs, even up to 50% [6]. Mistrust means also a higher number of destructive interpersonal conflicts in the company, which cannot add to the organization development driving power, but may cause a lack of cooperation inside teams and dislike to take actions for the organization. This may result in the organization inability to react quickly to changes in a dynamically changing surroundings. Mistrust makes the negotiation process difficult, because it discourages people from attending transactions with possible contracting parties. The mistrust makes the relationship marketing creation process more difficult or sometimes impossible. The relationship marketing requires assumption that the partner is trustworthy and he shall act honestly. Trust cannot be substituted by any other value, because the trust is simply a basis and stimulator of other culture standards and it cannot be built using a superior (administration) ordinance or be imposed on others. However the management style shall affect the trust inside the organization. The trust isn t given forever, it s dynamic and may change in time being stronger or weaker. It decreases an uncertainty which allows increased acceptance of changes in organization and its surroundings. Creation of the trust culture in an organization shall be aimed at a functioning efficiency improvement. It should be kept in mind that the possible organization culture change is limited and the culture development process is controlled 338 M. Krannich conditionally only [4]. The trust is favored by organization structure decentralization and flattening as well as by enabling employees participation in the decision making process. The important determinant in shaping of a trust culture may appear the organization past, because the trust in large part bases on experience and artifacts functioning in the organization. Since the social (relationship) capital may be created also in a pathological or even illegal activities, then positive adjective was introduced in order to describe its specifics and denotation in frames of a positive organization concept. The positive social capital means the one enlarging the creative potential of each individual or organizational society. It s elements aren t only and solely the trust and system of generated interpersonal relations, but also the behavior based on kindness, altruism and generosity, stimulating feeling of satisfaction, gratitude, openness for changes and ability to absorb new ideas [1]. XXI century s industry enterprises face to complex challenges the genesis of which is seen in changes occurring in a globalized economic system, new geopolitical conditions and a high variability of social and economic situation in transformation relations. Management efficiency and enterprise attitude today significantly exceed the simple activity resources, i.e. intelligence, experience, special competences or evolving education. Values included in the organizational culture, ethics and sustainability determine ability of selection of proper targets in development strategy of particular organization. As rightly pointed out by J. Brzóska [2]: New methods and management systems emerge while existing ones are being developed. Among them, management concepts oriented at effectiveness and innovativeness growth are important, which, in the consequence, should to lead to the company value growth principles or paradigm of contemporary company. Basing on a positive organization potential allow better understanding of existing risks, social costs, chances in environment and expectations of the interested. Moreover, differentiation of values between different social groups in organizations shall lead to a relativism, loss of guide-posts in activity evaluation in different social situations, but also to a global control of activities, behaviors. Today enterprises subject to a pressure of these threats, and consequently organizations undertake different projects, implement new organizational and social structures and regulations in order to prevent effects of sometime exponentially growing threats [5]. The reaction to such threats results in different secondary threats (e.g. threats arising due to fault decisions caused by an attack to information safety or effects of irrational decisions taken in result of partner s fraud etc.). Technological and innovative enterprise is characterized by interactivity and multidisciplinary approach, expressed by a multi-sequence of processes, functional separateness and also by a parallel phase linkage and interdependence. Such innovation understanding results in a need of creation of enterprise innovative relations with other local partners, customers, users, suppliers, wholesalers and many research centers with different scientific profiles. Part of innovations only results from the research and development works. They Koncepcja pozytywnej orientacji 339 depend on managers knowledge and experience (education level, contacts with customers, suppliers and competitors). The innovative processes are of a local nature, that is a creation and diffusion of innovation occurs in a particular space. Innovative-oriented enterprises prefer a geographic proximity of other producers, scientific and research organizations, customers, suppliers which facilitates exchange of technologies, information and advisory. Innovation requires integration in the range of task targets and functions including marketing, research and development, design, supply and production. Such integration relates not only to enterprise but also to subjects cooperating with it in particular innovation process phases. Very important here is a flow of information, knowledge and services for realization of a common target. Innovation (and also technological enterprise) is a learning process, i.e. accumulation of defined knowledge and information usable in an enterprise activity. This is an interactive process, based on external and internal sources, built on a work resources available for a company. Innovations have their historical references in tradition and culture, which should be taken into account when creating the corporation competition ability bases. This phenomenon may affect positively if the production branch change, in any particular region, bases on products hitherto produced here. However difficulties may arise in case of radical changes in production manner or social culture causing a rejection phenomenon. Social dimension of an innovation process, manifesting in a given organization in ability of incremental overcoming of culture models. It s necessary to create and keep good relations inside employee groups, especially in new projects with a large innovation scale. Innovation is a creative destruction process, connected not only with its external social dimension, but also with a destructive affect to internal enterprise structures. Therefore the product innovation implementation must be connected with parallel, or even quicker, introduction of organization and management method changes, especially those relating to the organization human resources. Long and complicated innovation development cycle, hard to foresee a priori, which leads to situation where its length is an individual attribute of each innovation project and it cannot be standardized. Thus a depreciation is possible resulting from a quick knowledge progress and a changing market demand. Innovative activity is expensive and risky, which results from such innovative process features as uniqueness, relatively long lockup period or irregularity. Outlays are higher and higher as the innovative project is realized. Moreover a risk grows if the project has a pioneer and prospective nature. Minimization of risks cannot be connected only with simple risk calculation schemes in a traditional economic modeling. With the growing implementation process complexity and structure elasticizing phenomenon it s impossible to ignore transaction costs or also alternative costs, e.g. lost profit costs, resulting directly from devaluation of resources based on the human, social or intellectual capitals. Seeing the individual or organizational level elements it s impossible not to try to refer the enterprise development to its positive organization potential, especially relating to leadership, structure and relations with environment. Concentration on an organization, not as a whirl of 340 M. Krannich problems to be solved but as a secret, which we can study, makes an opportunity of better interpretation of those organization phenomenon, which hitherto escaped traditional approach or technique [12]. Positive organization potential creates some kind of new enterprise thinking philosophy. Not rejecting occurrence of such development blockades as nepotism, corruption, egoism, manipulation, distrust, mobbing or discrimination the positive organization potential shall mean use of such elements as esteem, partnership, cooperation, confidence, reliability, vitality, sense rendering, loyalty, respect and honesty [3]. Organization leadership is one of the main problems mentioned in the nowadays organization and management science. Description of the leadership essence and the phenomenon itself still seems to be incomplete and leaving large space for additional analyses and conclusions, still enabling creation of new theories or analytical models. Simultaneously the leadership may be one of the most important elements building a success of metallurgical corporations; efficient leaders often can prepare their organizations for sequent environment challenges, stimulate or reactivate them or create brand new subjects. In frames of configurative organization development theory an organization is seen as a holistic unit described in terms of conceptual domains, consisting of mutually acting dimensions [8]. The most frequently mentioned conceptual domains in the configurative theory context are manager s leadership, organization structure, development strategy and organization environment [7]. Leadership may be seen as a human interrelation attribute, personal features, social relation or as a function of existing social systems. This shows a significant leadership role in stability of flexible, task-oriented and simultaneously intellectual capital enforcing organization culture. Assumption of equifinality shows that the different leadership, strategy or structure types may be equally efficient in the same environment. The assumption relating to a fitting shows importance of a balanced connections system between particular domains in high technology organizations. Taking as proper the statement that the negative stimulus or phenomenon are more motivating for organization members, the reaction to them isn t stronger. It means a necessity of such sensitizing to a negative phenomenon redundancy in an organization so that a relative balance in negative and positive affecting occurs. Positive reinforcement gives not only a behaviorally stronger motivation, but also a chance of analysis of the existing management faults and it shows that the hitherto leadership type is dysfunctional. Penal sanctions cause very often intensification of typical situations and they give no chance to interpret causes of improper employees attitudes and behaviors and they also fix in management an opinion of omnipotence of the used negative reinforcements as universal attitude panacea in crisis situations. In assumptions of a positive organization potential very often are copied honest behaviors, realized intentionally allow reaching an extraordinary efficiency. This relates to both individual attitude and complex expression of organizational behaviors. Koncepcja pozytywnej orientacji Conclusions Leadership features mirrored in everyday organization routines and in the decision making process also forms the adopted business model, task characters or interactions with environment. These features result not only from personal attributes and strictly character features. The features mirrored in organizational behaviors, during realization of tasks, are transferred to organization members subjecting to given leader, and they step by step transform into a culture-fixed artefactal attitude custom building a dominating culture orientation of a given organization. Such attitude is important because introduction of a new group dynamic in an organization is connected with intensification of indirect affect to subordinated. In such an interpretation a specific system of relations based not only on formal obligations, but also on a trust-supported interpersonal ties, shaped by a flow of a competence and emotional succession, built between the leader and followers seems to be the most important. Moreover a positive orientation isn t aimed for trivialization of ties in organizational culture, where structurally dependent epigonus unreflectively imitate the power realization method of their superiors. Leadership in such meaning should be mainly identified with activity for supporting employees in their actions aime
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