JKI Data Sheets. Plant Diseases and Diagnosis. Phytophthora on Quercus ilex L. (holm oak) Tamara CORCOBADO SÁNCHEZ - PDF

2013, 84 ISSN DOI /jkidspdd JKI Data Sheets Plant Diseases and Diagnosis Tamara CORCOBADO SÁNCHEZ Phytophthora on Quercus ilex L. (holm oak) Julius Kühn-Institut, Federal Research

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2013, 84 ISSN DOI /jkidspdd JKI Data Sheets Plant Diseases and Diagnosis Tamara CORCOBADO SÁNCHEZ Phytophthora on Quercus ilex L. (holm oak) Julius Kühn-Institut, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants Imprint The open access series JKI Data Sheets Plant Diseases and Diagnosis is a publication that publishes original papers, pathogen descriptions, findings and reports on biotic and abiotic causes of crop diseases and crop damage. All manuscripts submitted for publication in the JKI Data Sheets are peer-reviewed by at least two independent referees while the anonymity of author(s) is preserved. All contributions are made available under the Creative Commons licence. This allows you to use and distribute the whole work or parts of the work at no charge as long as you use it only for noncommercial purposes, name the author(s) and source(s) and do not modify the work. Publisher/Editor-in-Chief: Dr. Georg F. Backhaus, Präsident und Professor Julius Kühn-Institut, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Kulturpflanzen Erwin-Baur-Str. 27 D Quedlinburg Deutschland Managing Editor: Dr. Olaf Hering, Informationszentrum und Bibliothek Julius Kühn-Institut Königin-Luise-Str. 19 D Berlin Deutschland Submission of manuscripts: Please go to the journal s website at ISSN: DOI /jkidspdd 3 Importance of Quercus ilex Quercus ilex L. (holm oak) is a dominant tree within the Mediterranean basin and is used as a bioindicator of Mediterranean-type ecosystems (Plieninger et al., 2004; distribution map for Q. ilex see Q. ilex is an evergreen tree which grows in four bioclimates (semiarid, subhumid, humid and perhumid) and is present in different soil types. It grows up to 25 m and has sclerophyllous, tomentose leaves with a shape ranging from round to longer leaves, with or without spines. It comprises two different subspecies: Q. ilex subsp. ilex and Q. ilex subsp. ballota (syn. Q. rotundifolia). In the Iberian Peninsula, its importance derives from its presence in the most widespread agroforestry system in Europe known as dehesa. Dehesas play a main role as an ecological, economical and social system. They are characterized by the rearing of livestock, the production of acorns for livestock feeding, firewood production and cereal cropping. Phytophthora species From Q. ilex trees, irrespective of the presence of decline symptoms, the following Phytophthora species have been isolated directly from the tissues or from the soil: Phytophthora species Disease symptoms Reference cinnamomi (most frequently isolated) Defoliation, leaf discoloration and wilting, dead branches, exudations from bark, root rot cryptogea Decline Scanu et al., 2012 gonapodyides psychrophila quercina ramorum 1 syringae Defoliation, leaf discoloration and wilting, dead branches, root rot Defoliation, leaf discoloration and wilting, dead branches, root rot Defoliation, leaf discoloration and wilting, dead branches, root rot Defoliation, leaf discoloration and wilting, dead branches Defoliation, leaf discoloration and wilting, dead branches, root rot Brasier et al., 1993 ; Sánchez et al., 2002 Corcobado et al., 2010 Pérez-Sierra et al., 2012, Scanu et al., 2012 Pérez-Sierra et al., 2012, Scanu et al., 2012 Denman et al., 2005 Pérez-Sierra et al., in the European Union P. ramorum is a regulated organism (see chapter Quarantine recommendation ) In nurseries, Q. ilex seedlings have been found to be infected with P. cinnamomi, P. cryptogea, P. drechsleri, P. cambivora and P. gonapodyides (Sánchez et al., 2004; Jung, 2011). 4 Disease symptoms (see figures) Phytophthora species can attack different plant tissues and cause different disease symptoms on Q. ilex. The most common symptoms are: Crown: defoliation, leaf discoloration and wilting, branch dieback (Gallego et al., 1999) Stem: bleeding canker (Gallego et al., 1999) Roots: root necrosis (Corcobado et al., 2011) Possibility of Symptom Confusion The disease symptoms presented in the previous chapter are not specific only for Phytophthora infection. Oak decline mediated by drough can resemble those symptoms of Phytophthora infection such as defoliation and leaf discoloration and wilting. The fungus Botryosphaeria spp. can cause similar symptoms as Phytophthora infection, like cankers on branches and leaf yellowing and wilting (Sánchez et al., 2003). The fungus Biscogniauxia mediterranea only affects non vigorous Q. ilex trees, causing yellowing of the leaves, defoliation, epicormic shoots and exudations (Jiménez et al., 2005). To specify the cause of the disease, samples must be examined in the laboratory. Disease development The disease can develop in two different ways: i) with a sudden death of the tree where dried leaves keep attached to the branches or ii) with a slow decline characterized by a gradual crown defoliation where the foliage of the highest part of the tree is the first to wilt and eventually affecting to the whole crown (Gallego et al., 1999). The severity of the disease and its development depends on soil properties such as texture and ph, climatic conditions which influence water availability, tolerance of the tree and topographic position as valleys and slopes are associates with a higher incidence and severity of the decline. Diagnosis It is not possible to identify a Phytophthora infection only by disease symptoms. Different diagnostic techniques like direct isolation, molecular and serological methods help to identify Phytophthora as the cause of the tree disease and to specify the Phytophthora species. Information on Phytophthora diagnosis on trees or in general are given for example in org/key-to-species, and in Martin et al. (2012). Please contact your national authorities (see next chapter) for help with diagnosis. 5 What to do in case trees are suspected to be infected? Contact your responsible national authorities, for example: Austria: - Bundesforschungs- und Ausbildungszentrum für Wald, Naturgefahren und Landschaft (BWF) Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape (BFW ) Seckendorff-Gudent-Weg 8, 1131 Vienna, Austria; - Österreichische Agentur für Gesundheit und Ernährungssicherheit Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, Institute for Sustainable Plant Production Spargelfeldstraße 191, 1220 Vienna; Belgium: - Département Sciences du Vivant, Centre Wallon de Recherches Agronomiques Life Sciences Department, Walloon Agricultural Research Centre Rue de Liroux 4, B-5030 Gembloux; Anne CHANDELIER - Instituut voor Landbouw- en Visserijonderzoek (ILVO), Eenheid Plant -Gewasbescherming Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research, Plant Sciences Unit Crop Protection - Gewasbescherming Burg. van Gansberghelaan 96 bus 2, 9820 Merelbeke K ur t HEUNGENS Bulgaria: - Българска Агенция по безопастност на храните: Централна лаборатория по карантина на растенията plant protection regional services: - Агробиоинститут, Селскостопанска Академия бул 8, Драган Цанков 8, София 1164 Biotic Stress Group, AgroBioInstitute, Agricultural Academy 8 Dragan Tsankov blvd., 1164 Sofia Славчо Славов, Sla vt cho SLAVOV Czech Republik: Výzkumný ústav Silva Taroucy pro krajinu a okrasné zahradnictví, v.v.i The Silva Tarouca Research Institute for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening, Publ. Res. Institute Květnové náměstí 391, Průhonice, , Praha západ M a t ěj PANEK Denmark: - NaturErhvervstryrelsen, Ministeriet for Fødevarer, Landbrug og Fiskeri The Danish AgriFish Agency, - Institut for Geovidenskab og Naturforvaltning, Det Natur- og Biovidenskabelige Fakultet, Københavns Universitet Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen 6 Finland: - Elintarviketurvallisuusvirasto Evira, Kasvinterveysyksikkö Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Plant Health Mustialankatu 3, FI Helsinki - Metsäntutkimuslaitos Finnish Forest Research Institute P.O. Box 18, FI Vantaa Anna R Y TK ÖNEN - Maa- ja elintarviketalouden tutkimuskeskus MTT Agrifood Research, MTT FI Jokioinen P äivi PARIKK A France: - Services Régionaux de l Alimentation (SRAL) des Directions Régionales de l Alimentation, de l Agriculture et de la Forêt (DRAAF) Regional Plant Protection services - Laboratoire de Santé végétaux, unite de Mycologie, ANSES French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES)- Plant Health Laboratory, unit of mycology Domaine de Pixérécourt Bat E., Malzéville, France; Nathalie SCHENCK Renaud IOOS - Pôle interrégionaux du Département de la santé des forêts: Regional forest health survey organisation: Germany: - Pflanzenschutzdienstellen der Bundesländer, Adressenliste siehe: regional plant protection services, address list see: - Julius Kühn Institut Bundesforschungsanstalt für Kulturpflanzen (JKI), Institut für Pflanzenschutz in Gartenbau und Forst (JKI-GF) Julius Kühn Institut - Federal Research Center for Cultivated Plants (JKI), Institute for Plant Protection in Horticulture and Forestry (JKI-GF) Messeweg 11/12, Braunschweig, Germany Sabine WERRES 7 Greece: - Ινστιτούτο Δασικών Ερευνών, Βασιλικά, Θεσσαλονίκη, Ελλάς Forest Research Institute, Vassilika, Thessaloniki, Greece Στέφανος ΔΙΑΜΑΝΤΗΣ - Ινστιτούτο Μεσογειακών Δασικών Οικοσυστημάτων & Τεχνολογίας Δασικών Προϊόντων, Τέρμα Αλκμάνος, Ιλίσια, Αθήνα, Ελλάς Institute of Mediterranean Forest Ecosystems & Forest Products Technology, Terma Alkmanos, Ilissia, Athens, Greece Παναγιώτης ΤΣΟΠΕΛΑΣ - Γεωπονικό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών, Εργαστήριο Φυτοπαθολογίας, Ιερά Οδός 75, Αθήνα Agricultural University of Athens, Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Iera Odos 75, Athens, Greece Επαμεινώνδας ΠΑΠΛΩΜΑΤΑΣ - Μπενάκειο Φυτοπαθολογικό Ινστιτούτο, Στεφάνου Δέλτα 8, Κηφισιά, Αθήνα, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 Stefanou Delta Street, Kifissia, Athens, Ειρήνη ΒΛΟΥΤΟΓΛΟΥ Hungary: - Megyei Kormányhivatalok Növény- és Talajvédelmi Igazgatóságai Regional offices of NFCSO, Directorate of Plant Protection and Soil Conservation - MTA ATK Növényvédelmi Intézet Plant Protection Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences Herman Ottó u. 15, H-1022 Budapest, Hungary; Jó zsef BAK ON Y I Ireland: - Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Horticulture and Plant Health Division Backweston Agri-Campus, Celbridge, Co. Kildare, Ireland Italy: - COSVIR XI - Servizio fitosanitario centrale Italian Phytosanitary Service veblob. php/l/it/idpagina/ Dipartimento per la Innovazione nei sistemi Biologici, Agroalimentari e Forestali, Università degli Studi della Tuscia DIBAF-Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems, University of Tuscia Via S. Camillo de Lellis snc Viterbo- Italy Anna M a ria VE T T RAINO - Dipartimento di Gestione dei Sistemi Agroalimentari e Ambientali Sezione Patologia vegetale, Università di Catania Department of Agri-food and Environmental Systems Management, University of Catania Via Santa Sofia, Catania Italy Santa Olga CA C CIOLA 8 Latvia: Valsts augu aizsardzības dienests State Plant Protection Service Netherlands: Nationaal Referentie Centrum, Nederlandse Voedsel- en Warenautoriteit (NVWA) National Reference Centre, NPPO Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation Postbus 9102, 6700 Hc Wageningen, Nederland Johan MEFFER T Norway: Bioforsk Plantehelse Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Plant Health and Plant Pro tection Division Høgskoleveien 7, 1432 Ås, Norway; V enche TAL GØ Poland: Instytut Ogrodnictwa Research Institute of Horticulture, Dept. of Ornamental Plant Protection Konstytucji 3 Maja 1/3, Skierniewice L esz ek B. ORLIK OWSKI Portugal: - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária-UEIS-SAFSV National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinarian Research Quinta do Marquês, Av. da República, Nova Oeiras, Oeiras Ana Cristina MOREIRA & Amélia LOPES ; -Direção Geral de Alimentação e Veterinária Directorate General of Food and Veterinary Tapada da Ajuda, Ed. 1, Lisboa Paula CARVALHO Romania: Institutul de Cercetari si Amenajari Silvice - ICAS, Forest Research and Management Institute Statiunea Brasov; Closca 13, , Brasov, Romania, Danut & F lor entina CHIRA 9 Serbia: - Институт за шумарство, Одељење за заштиту шума Institute of Forestry, Department of Forest Protection Kneza Višeslava Belgrade, Serbia - Institut za nizijsko šumarstvo i životnu sredinu, Zaštita šuma Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, Forest Protection Antona Čehova 13, Novi Sad, Serbia Slovenia: Kmetijski inštitut Slovenije Agricultural Institute of Slovenia Hacquetova 17, 1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia Alenka MUNDA Spain: Grupo de Investigación en Hongos Fitopatógenos, Instituto Agroforestal Mediterráneo, Universitat Politècnica de València Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV ), Mediterranean Agroforestal Institute (IAM), Research group on Plant Pathogenic fungi Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia, Spain Ana Mª PÉREZ -SIERRA Sweden: SLU, Institutionen för Skoglig Mykologi och Växtpatologi Dept. of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology Box 7026, Uppsala Jan STENLID Switzerland: Eidg. Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft (WSL) Competence Center of Forest Protection (WSL) Turkey: - Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi, Fen Fakültesi, Biyoloji Bölümü, Çankırı, Türkiye Çankırı Karatekin University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Çankırı, Turkey S eçil AKILLI - Ankara Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi, Bitki Koruma Bölümü, 06100, Kalaba, Ankara, Türkiye Agricultural Faculty of Ankara University, Department of Plant Protection 06100, Kalaba, Ankara, Turkey Salih M ADEN United Kingdom: - Tree Health Diagnostic & Advisory Service, Forest Research, Northern Research Station, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9SY; - Tree Health Diagnostic & Advisory Service, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Wrecclesham, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH; 10 Management and control In order to limit the spread of Phytophthora and the severity of the disease, management and control practices are recommended. Among them, it can be highlighted the following ones: Activities to reduce Phytophthora inoculum and/or decrease Phytophthora disease severity on trees: - Soil biofumigation with brassicas (under-researched control practice; Morales- Rodríguez et al., 2012). - Calcium amendments (Serrano et al., 2012). - Application of phosphite by aerial, foliar or basal bark sprays and injections has been proven to prevent infection or reduce the severity of symptoms (Hardy et al., 2001). Before you use any kind of chemicals please contact your national authorities (e.g. plant protection services). Activities to reduce Phytophthora dispersal (McCabe, 2008): - Avoidance of people, livestock, vehicles and machinery movement from Phytophthora infested areas to non-infested areas, especially during the wet season. - Clean footwear, equipment and wheels of vehicles. - Installation of hygiene infrastructures. - Restrict travel to only roads and tracks. - Use of physical barriers to protect non-infested areas. - Restrict soil tilling. - Ensure good soil drainage to limit run-off. - Avoidance of high densities of livestock which increases soil compaction and runoff. - Replace herbaceous crops which host Phytophthora spp. with non-susceptible plants. Phytophthora disease awareness: - Design disease awareness programs. - Signposting of Phytophthora infested areas. Quarantine recommendation The European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) considers P. ramorum to be a dangerous organism. It is listed on the EPPO Alert List. For details see QUARANTINE/Alert_List/alert_list.htm. In the European Union P. ramorum is a regulated organism according to the Commission Decision 2002/757/EU. 11 Literature used Brasier, C.M., Robredo, F., Ferraz, J., Evidence for Phytophthora cinnamomi involvement in Iberian oak decline. Plant Pathology 42: Cooke, D.E.L., Schena, L., Cacciola, S.O., Tools to detect identify and monitor Phytophthora species in natural ecosystems. Journal of Plant Pathology 89: Erwin, D.C., Ribeiro, O.K., Phytophthora diseases worldwide. APS Press. Corcobado, T., Cubera, E., Pérez-Sierra, A., Jung, T., Solla, A., First report of Phytophthora gonapodyides involved in the decline of Quercus ilex in xeric conditions in Spain. New Disease Reports 22: Denman, S., Kirk, S.A., Brasier, C.M., Barton, V.C., Hughes, K.J.D., Webber, J.F., Phytophthora ramorum on Quercus ilex in the United Kingdom. Plant Disease, 89: Jiménez, J.J., Sánchez, M.E., Trapero, A., El Chancro Carbonoso de Quercus I: Distribuci- ón y caracterización del agente causal. Bol. San. Veg. Plagas 31: Gallego, F.J., Pérez de Algaba, A., Fernández-Escobar, R., Etiology of oak decline in Spain. Eur. J. For. Path. 29: Hardy, G.E.St.J., Barrett, S., Shearer, B.L., The future of phosphite as a fungicide to control the soilborne plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi in natural ecosystems. Australasian Plant Pathology 30 (2): Jung, T., Phytophthora diseases of trees- An increasing threat to forestry, horticulture and nurseries in the world. In: Meeting abstracts of II Reunion científica de sanidad forestal (Sociedad Española de Ciencias Forestales), Plasencia, Spain, pp Martin, F.N., Abad, Z.G., Balci, Y., Ivors, K., Identification and Detection of Phytophthora: Reviewing Our Progress, Identifying Our Needs. Plant Disease 96(8): McCabe, S., Managing Phytophthora Dieback in Bushland: a Guide for Landholders and Community Conservation Groups. The Dieback Working Group, Western Australia. Fourth edition Morales-Rodríguez, M.C., Picón-Toro, J., Palo, C., Palo, E.J., García, A., Rodríguez Molina, M.C., In vitro inhibition of mycelial growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi by pellets of brassicas. In: Meeting abstracts of the Fourth Meeting of the IUFRO working party , Phytophthora in Forest and Natural Ecosystems, Córdoba, Spain, pp Pérez-Sierra, A., López-García, C., León, M., García-Jiménez, J., Abad-Campos, P., Jung, T., Species of Phytophthora associated with Quercus decline in the Mediterranean Park Carrascar de la Font Roja (Spain). In: Meeting abstracts of the Fourth Meeting of the IUFRO working party , Phytophthora in Forest and Natural Ecosystems, Córdoba, Spain, pp Plieninger, T., Pulido, F.J., Schaich, H., Effects of land-use and landscape structure on holm oak recruitment and regeneration at farm level in Quercus ilex L. dehesas. Journal of Arid Environments 57: Sánchez, M.E., Caetano, P., Ferraz, J., Trapero, A., Phytophthora disease of Quercus ilex in southwestern Spain. For Path 32: Sánchez, M. E., Venegas, J., Romero, M. A., Philips, A. J. L., Trapero, A., El chancro de en- cinas y alcornoques causado por Botryosphaeria spp. en Andalucia. Bol. San. Veg. Plagas 29: 12 Sánchez, M.E., Andicoberry, S., Trapero, A., Patogenicidad de Phytophthora spp. causan- tes de podredumbre radical de Quercus ilex spp. ballota en viveros forestales. Bol. San. Veg. Plagas 30: Scanu, B., Linaldeddu, B., Jung, T., Maddau, L., Franceschini, A., Phytophthora species occuring in decling oak ecosystems in Sardinia (Italy). Proceedings of the 6th IUFRO Working Party Phytophthora in Forests and Natural Ecosystems, 9th-14th September 2012, Córdoba, Spain, pp Serrano, M.S., Fernández-Rebollo, P., De Vita, P., Sánchez, M. E Calcium mineral nutrition increas
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