Human Trafficking within the Framework of Social Policy and Social Security Implementations: The Case of Southern African Countries Hasan YÜKSEL 1 - PDF

Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 5(1): Human Trafficking within the Framework of Social Policy and Social Security Implementations: The Case of Southern African Countries

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Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 5(1): Human Trafficking within the Framework of Social Policy and Social Security Implementations: The Case of Southern African Countries Hasan YÜKSEL 1 Abstract The main objective of the research is to reveal the facts concerning the main determinants of human trafficking within the context of social policy procedures. It was supposed that the main determinants of human trafficking issue had been economic development rate as well as the lack of social policy, and social security implementations. However, in the aftermath of the research, it was seen that there is no such relevance between human trafficking and the level of the economy, lack of social policy and security deficiencies for Southern African countries. When compared to the developed countries, the economy, social policy and security procedures are too low and poor in Southern African Countries; nevertheless, these countries are referred in the list of origin countries of the human trafficking in medium or low category which is quite surprising and which can be interpreted as the fact that for Southern African Countries such as Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Lesotho, and Mozambique, the economic development, the strength of the social policy and security implementations are not the direct indicators for human trafficking activity. Therefore, it can be stated that the act of human trafficking is not in line with the economy and the public policies for these countries mentioned. Keywords:Social Security, Human Trafficking, Southern African Countries Sosyal Politika ve Sosyal Güvenlik Bağlamında İnsan Kaçakçılığı: Güney Afrika Ülkeleri Örneği Özet Araştırmanın temel amacı, sosyal politika uygulamaları açısından insan kaçakçılığının temel nedenlerini ortaya koymaktır. Bu anlamda araştırmanın temel varsayımı, insan kaçakçılığı uygulamalarının temel belirleyicilerinin ekonomik gelişme, sosyal politika ve sosyal güvenlik gibi toplumsal dinamiklerin eksikliğinden kaynaklandığıdır. Fakat araştırma sonuçları Güney Afrika ülkeleri ölçeğinde belirtilen bu parametrelerin eksikliğinin insan kaçakçılığına etkisinin olmadığını ortaya koymuştur. Eldeki verilerden hareketle gelişmiş ülkelerle kıyaslandığında ekonomik gelişmişlik, sosyal politika ve sosyal güvenlik uygulamaları açısından Güney Afrika ülkelerinin oldukça geri olduğu gözlemlenmektedir. Fakat insan kaçakçılığı yoğunluğunu belirten kaynak ülke tablosuna bakıldığında Angola, Demokratik Kongo Cumhuriyeti, Zambiya, Zimbabwe, Güney Afrika, Lesotho ve Mozambik gibi Güney Afrika ülkelerinin insan kaçakçılığı oranlarının orta ya da düşük düzeyde olduğu göze çarpmaktadır. Bu durum sosyal politika ve sosyal güvenlik uygulamaları eksikliğinin doğrudan insan kaçakçılığı ile sonuçlanmadığının bir göstergesidir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Sosyal Güvenlik, İnsan Kaçakçılığı, Güney Afrika Ülkeleri 1 Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Yalvaç Meslek Yüksekokulu, Isparta-TÜRKİYE E-posta: 17 Introduction Social policy and social security are the set of procedures and disciplines that strive to guarantee the future of the individuals against some possible social risks such as illness, disability, death, and so forth. This means that social policy and security implementations are something like the shield and protection for people. Concerning social security systems, they are the systems that are carried out by means of either government or private initiatives in order to take some certain precautions for the future risks. From this perspective, it can be stated that social security is something like protection systems. As the subdiscipline of social policy, the social security system actually reallocates and redistributes incomes by taking from the rich to the poor which is the main rationale behind it and which reveals its redistributive function. In a way, these systems are the relief valve of the communities. As for human trafficking, it can be regarded as the modern version of the slavery, so it is called as the modern-day slavery. As in African slaves in the past, a great many people are forced to work and they are held captive. Some of them are sold and kidnapped. Some of them are sexually abused while the others are deceived to be slaves. Whatever the types of human trafficking, the reality is the fact that the freedom of the people is detained by force. Under normal circumstances, there must be a close connection with economic development, social policy and social security procedures and with human trafficking activity. In more explicit terms, if the economy is up, the social policy and social security implementations are to be up and the human trafficking activity is to be down. For these eight different southern African countries, there is a different phenomenon. That is, these countries economy and social policy procedures are low, and the human trafficking activity is low or medium which is actually astonishing and also which is the main argument throughout the article. Social Policy It is actually very hard to define what social policy is on account of the fact that it creates confusion between whether it is an academic field of study or it is an interdisciplinary study. Actually, social policy which necessitates the elaboration of social relations for human well-being and the systems by means of which the well-being can be sustained, is the study of human welfare and human well-being and it aims doing goodness for people. 2 All 2 Hartley Dean, Social Policy, Polity Press Publication, Cambridge, UK, 2012, p.1. 18 H. YÜKSEL / Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi SBE Dergisi 5(1): these things reveal that if there is human, there will be social policy automatically. It is agreed that the social needs are a lot but the resources are too limited to meet all of them. So, the social policies are the ways to find particular solutions to the social problems which are barriers to be overcome for the community oriented needs. This means that the social policies are the solution based paths of the social needs. 3 It was demonstrated that there are different views about the definitions of social policy, but there are universal agreements about that. As an example, Baldock, Manning and Vickerstaff expose the social policy to an analytical framework which can be illustrated in the following figure. 4 The social policy as intentions and objectives The social policy as administrative and financial aggrements The social policy as outcomes: winners and losers Figure 1: The Analytical Framework of Social Policy Source: Baldock et al. (2007: 12) Here in the Figure 1, it can be seen that the intentions and the objectives put forward the individual or group policies of the social policy implementations, as for the administrative and financial arrangements of the social policies, they are the procedures used to deliver those policies, and lastly, the outcomes of the social policies summarizes the winners and losers in general. Depending upon the prior utterances, it can be said that the social policies are the plans, policies, paths that shape the communities and the groups of people. Social policies which should be seen as interconnected with the other policies 5 but different from economic or environmental policies can be regarded as diffuse and residual. In the academic environment, the term is 3 M Michael Lavalette and Alan Pratt, Social Policy, Theories, Concepts and Issues, Second Publication, Sage Publication, California, USA, 2006, p John Baldock, Nick Manning, Sarah Vickerstaff, Social Policy, Third Edition, Oxford University Press, 2007, p Michael Hill, Understanding Social Policy, Seventh Edition, Blackwell Publishing, USA, 2003, p fundamentally limited to the publicly provided and regulated like the programs of housing, social security, social services and health. On the other hand, there are some core areas that can be regarded as public policies and that aim to increase the well-being and the security of the individuals such as tax credits, tax allowances, labour market policies, education, occupational health and so forth. 6 The Social Aspect of Welfare Due to the fact that social policy procedures cover the social welfare provisions, it is actually significant to understand the meaning of welfare. 7 A dictionary definition of welfare says that it means help given, especially by the state or an organization, to people who need it, especially because they do not have enough money or physical and mental health and happiness, especially of a person and as for the welfare state, it means a system of taxation which allows the government of a country to provide social services such as health care, unemployment pay, etc. to people who need them. 8 In this context, there has long been a debate among the social reformers and policy makers about the fact that the social policies should be regulated in order to reduce the concept of poverty and inequality which sustains the idea that the terms of social policy and welfare state are in line with one another. 9 Social policies, which are exposed to an ongoing change as we enter the twenty-first century because of the globalization process, 10 and which leave stamps on individuals, 11 are closely linked with social welfare provisions. From that perspective, it can be stated that it is very important to comprehend the fact that social policies refer the needs of welfare and provisions of service. Whereas the social welfare is particularly concerned 6 Harald L. Vilensky, Gregory M. Luebbert, Susan Reed Hahn and Adriane M. Jamieson, Comparative Social Policy, Theories, methods, findings, (abridged version of Wilensky et al., 1985) in MeinolfDierkers et al. (eds), Comparative Policy Research, London, Gower, 1987, 381; JochenClasen, Defining Comparative Social Policy, in A Handbook of Comparative Social Policy, Edited by Patricia Kennett, Edward Edgar Publishing Limited, UK, 2004, p Thornes, et. al., Social Policy & Welfare, Stanley Thornes Publication, UK, 2000, p Cambridge Advanced Learner s Dictionary, Cambridge University Press, Second Edition, Cambridge, UK, 2005, p Walter Korpi and Joakim Palme, The Paradox of Redistribution and Strategies of Equality: Welfare State Institutions, Inequality, and Poverty in the Western Countries, American Sociological Review, Vol 63, No 5, October 1998, p Anne Francis Okongwu and Joan P. Mencher, The Anthropology of Public Policy: Shifting Terrains, Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol 29, 2000, p Cathy H. Davis, Family Science and Social Policy: A Young Professional s Perspective on the Need For Integration, Family Relations, Vol 37, No 2, April. 1988, p with the needs of people, the level of policy deals with the collective needs and wellbeing rather than the individual ones. For instance, the social policy implementations aim at promoting and improving the collective human wellbeing through enhancing the living standards of them within the environment they focus. In a way, it can be uttered that the subject of social policy is distributing and redistributing the resources such as health, housing, educational opportunities, employment and etc. 12 The goals, intentions and ideas, the policies can be found within the framework of official government policy as the target of both the policies and the state is the welfare of the humans. Based upon this fact, it can be demonstrated that social policies are not static activities, in the stark contrast; they are active and always changeable. The key characteristics of social policy as a discipline which is also related to other disciplines such as philosophy, sociology, psychology, economics, law, history, and politics can be mentioned as well. 13 At the same time, there are some misconceptions about the social policy. Firstly, social policies are not only the sequence of policies that takes into account and that are applied for the welfare and the happiness of the people, but they are to be considered in line with the economic policies themselves. 14 So, this means that in the maintenance and the sustainability of the social policies, the economy must be well and unshakable. Social Security Social security can be defined as a social insurance program that provides social protection against socially recognized risks such as poverty, disability, old age, unemployment, death, and so forth. Social security may include social insurance in which people receive benefits or services in compatible with the contributions to the insurance scheme. These services are retirement pensions, disability and unemployment insurances, and survivor benefits. Additionally, social security also refers to the income maintenance that means the distribution of cash in case of interruption of employment, retirement, disability, and unemployment. Another thing to be considered about social security is the fact that it includes services like medical care, social work, and industrial relations Ibıd, Thornes, and et. al., p Ken Blakemore and Edwin Griggs, Social Policy: An Introduction, Third Edition, Open University Press, USA, 2007, pp Ibid, Hill, p Retrieved from ( ). 21 Human Trafficking Human trafficking is the term used for modern like version of slavery and it is mainly used for governments and organizations in the migration field. 16 As in African slaves in the past centuries, people today are kept captive and they are forced to work in various jobs. Some of the people are physically beaten to work while the others are sold into slavery. Actually most of the people are tricked into becoming slaves by being given false promises of money, work, better lives, and educations. The victims of human trafficking are trapped and some of them are even locked behind doors and they are chained. Some of the victims, additionally, are too small to understand that they have a freedom. 17 There is also a universal definition of human trafficking according to the United Nations Trafficking Protocol: 18 The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or a position of vulnerability or of giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitutions of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or removal of the organs. It is actually important for revealing human trafficking on a table for a more actual and more accurate analysis on the basis of human trafficking as a process, as a means and as a purpose Frank Laczko and Marco A. Gramegna, Developing Better Indicators of Human Trafficking, Brown Journal of World Affairs, Vol 10, Issue 1, Summer, Fall 2003, p Joyce Hart, Human Trafficking, The Rosen Publishing Group, New York, 2009, pp. 4, Alexis A. Aranowitz, Human Trafficking, Human Misery, Greenwood Publishing Group, USA, 2009, p. 1; American Society of International Law, International Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, The American Journal of International Law, Vol 95, No 2, April 2001, p. 408; Hasan Yüksel, The Snapshot of Human Trafficking: Humans As Commodities, Conference of Modern Day Slavery in Europe and Beyond, Vistula University, Poland, 2011, p Social Development Notes, Conflict, Crime and Violence, December 2009, p. 2; Ibid, Yüksel, The Snapshot of Human Trafficking: Humans as Commodities, p Table 1: The Identification of Human Trafficking (Process, Means, Purpose) Process Means Purpose Recruitment Transportation Transfer Harbouring Receipt of persons Threat Force Coercion Abduction Fraud Deception Abuse of power Abuse of vulnerability Giving and receiving of payments Exploitation which includes a. Prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation b. Forced labor and services c. Slavery and similar practices d. Involuntary servitude e. Removal of organs Source: Social Development Notes, Conflict, Crime and Violence, December 2009, p. 2; ( ). Table 2: The Categorization of Origin Countries according to their Frequency of Human Trafficking Activity Very High High Medium Low Very Low Albania Belarus Bulgaria China Lithuania Nigeria Rep. of Moldova Romania Russian Federation Thailand Ukraine Armenia Bangladesh Benin Brazil Cambodia Colombia Czech Rep. Dominican Republic Estonia Georgia Ghana Guatemala Hungary India Kazakhstan Latvia Mexico Morocco Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Afghanistan Algeria Angola Azerbaijan Bosnia&Herzegovina Burkina Faso Cameroon Congo Croatia Cuba Niger Peru Senegal Serbia&Montenegro Slovenia South Africa Sri Lanka Macedonia Turkey Venezuela Zambia Source: Katryn Cullen Du Port (2009: ) Argentina Bhutan Botswana Brundi Canada Dem. Rep. of Congo Djibouti Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Gabon Gambia Iran (Islamic Rep.) Iraq Jordan Lebanon Lesotho Madagascar USA Zimbabwe Brunei Darussalam Chad Chile Costa Rica Egypt Fiji Jamaica Macao China SAR Netherlands Paraguay Syrian Arab Rep. Uruguay Yemen Some sources emphasize that human trafficking is the term used for modern slavery. Like African slaves many people all around the world are held captive and forced to work in harsh conditions. Some of the people are beaten to make them work; a few of them are sold into slavery while the others are kidnapped. These people are actually deceived with the false promises of money, new jobs, educations, and better lives. However, these promises are broke later, so the victims of human trafficking are trapped. The others are to continue to work because of the fact that they owe money 23 to their captors. 20 All these pave the way that human trafficking is the modern name of slavery today. 21 To comprehend the human trafficking cases in Southern African Countries, it is of great significance to analyze these countries situation with the other ones. 22 It can be demonstrated that eight African countries which are the main focus of the research are in the category of Medium or Low. The Reasons for Human Trafficking It is actually of great importance to understand the particular dynamics of human trafficking by focusing on the reasons, types and specific measures to be taken and this part is entirely taken from the study called as The Snapshot of Human Trafficking: Humans As Commodities. 23 There are various reasons of human trafficking all over the world. The most important of all them is the instabilities in the economy and the disrupted socio economic conditions in the community. Corruption and the female youth employment are also the result of the unstable economic and political factors that increase the likelihood of the trafficking and make victims susceptible to trafficking. 24 Specific Measures to be taken Certain thing exists to be known. It is known that slavery is a bad thing occurred by bad people, and it is also known that slavery does not exist but it flourishes all around the world today. Almost twenty seven million people are in bondage. As a matter of fact many people are in bondage in the world today than were taken from Africa for nearly 350 years. 25 Therefore, the reality is that slaver does not come to an end, but it changes its shape and turns into human trafficking. For the solution of this problem, these parameters are to be taken into account internationally Hart, Ibid, p Hill Jean Lawson Saint, A Residential Program for Human Trafficking Victims, Unpublished Master Thesis Presented to the Department of Social Work, California State University, USA, 2010, p.1; Hasan Yüksel, Lack of Social Policy and Social Security As A Determinant Factor in Human Traffic
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