Gestione delle emergenze idriche indotte da siccità - PDF

(google: eea, Europa, acqua) Bibliografia: Alberto Montanari, Gestione delle emergenze

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(google: eea, Europa, acqua) Bibliografia: Alberto Montanari, Gestione delle emergenze idriche indotte da siccità Precipitation across Europe ranges from less than 400 mm/year in parts of the Mediterranean region and the central plains of Europe to more than 1000 mm/year along the Atlantic shores from Spain to Norway, the Alps and their eastern extension (JRC, 2006). Much of this precipitation is lost as evapotranspiration, however, and the remaining 'effective rainfall' is no greater than 250 mm/year across much of Europe. In some parts of southern Europe effective rainfall is lower than 50 mm/year (JRC, 2006). Precipitation in Europe generally increased over the twentieth century, rising by 6 8% on average between 1901 and Large geographical differences are apparent, however, notably a reduction in the Mediterranean and eastern Europe (EEA, 2008; Map 2.1). In addition, some seasonal changes have occurred, notably an increase in winter precipitation for most of western and northern Europe and a decrease in southern Europe and parts of central Europe. As a whole, Europe abstracts a relatively small proportion of its renewable freshwater resource. Nonetheless, problems of water scarcity arise in many regions due to an imbalance between abstraction and availability. This imbalance is primarily driven by a mismatch between the distribution of people across Europe and the availability of water. In certain locations this is exacerbated by excessive abstraction rates. The state of water resources in Europe Artificial reservoirs have been constructed in Europe for hundreds of years with the oldest still in use dating back to the second century. Over the last two centuries there has been a marked increase in the height of dams and the storage capacity of reservoirs. These changes occurred to facilitate the generation of hydropower, to control flooding, and to supply water primarily for drinking, industrial production and crop irrigation. According to the criteria of the International Commission of Large Dams (ICOLD) there are currently about large dams in Europe (i.e.dams higher that 15 m or reservoir with a capacity greater than 3hm3). The number of large reservoirs is highest in Spain (ca 1200), Turkey (ca610), Norway (ca 360) Italy (ca 570), France (ca550), the United Kingdom (ca 500) and Sweden (ca 190). Many European countries also have numerous smaller dammed lakes. Europe's reservoirs have a total capacity of about 1400 km3 or 20% of the overall available freshwater resource (EEA, 2007). Three countries with relatively limited water resources, Romania, Spain and Turkey, are able to store more than 40% of their renewable resource. Another five countries, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Sweden and Ukraine, have smaller but significant storage capacities (20 40%). The number and volume of reservoirs across Europe grew rapidly over the twentieth century (Figure2.4). This rate has slowed considerably in recent years, primarily because most of the suitable river sites for damming have been used but also due to growing concerns over the environmental impacts of reservoirs. Water Supply These methods include rainwater harvesting, re-use of treated wastewater and re-use of greywater (household wastewater other than that from toilets). Although none of these methods reduces water use, all have the potential to decrease abstraction from conventional sources. Alternative supply methods Desalination Artificial water recharge has been practiced widely in Europe since the nineteenth century and today is used to produce drinking water in Belgium, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Greece, the Netherlands, Poland, and Spain. In Finland, 12% of the water produced by municipal water supplies originates from artificial groundwater, a share which is estimated to grow to 25% by 2030 (Isomäki, 2007). In Cyprus about 10% of drinking water needs are met using the artificial recharge of downstream aquifers by water released from dams. Additionally, both dam water and treated wastewater are used to artificially recharge aquifers. Artificial water recharge Inter-basin transfers Water Supply One relatively straightforward indicator of the pressure or stress on freshwater resources is the water exploitation index (WEI), which is calculated annually as the ratio of total freshwater abstraction to the total renewable resource. A WEI above 20% implies that a water resource is under stress and values above 40% indicate severe water stress and clearly unsustainable use of the water resource (Raskin et al., 1997). Water exploitation 2)Real time management 1)Prevention New direction in water resources management Drought management Re-use of greywater Rainwater harvesting and water efficient gardening Leakage reduction Raising awareness Water pricing and metering Water saving devices Sustainable use of the public water supply Prevention measures New direction in water resources management Drought management Agriculture New direction in water resources management Drought management Improving irrigation efficiency Modification of agricultural practices Agricultural policy Water pricing within agriculture Advice, education and information dissemination Wastewater re-use Sustainable use of the agriculture water supply New direction in water resources management Drought management Real time management New direction in water resources management Drought management Dalle norme del Piano di Tutela delle Acque: Il caso della Regione Emilia-Romagna Legislazione italiana WFD D.lgs. 152/06 Piani di Tutela Piani di Gestione delle Siccità Piani di Gestione delle Siccità Piani di Gestione delle Siccità Piani di Gestione delle Siccità Piani di Gestione delle Siccità Piani di Gestione delle Siccità Piani di Gestione delle Siccità
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