EXETER UNIVERSITY AND UNIVERSITÉ D ORLÉANS The Cultural and Ideological Significance Of Representations of Boudica During the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I. Submitted by Samantha FRENEE-HUTCHINS to

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EXETER UNIVERSITY AND UNIVERSITÉ D ORLÉANS The Cultural and Ideological Significance Of Representations of Boudica During the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I. Submitted by Samantha FRENEE-HUTCHINS to the universities of Exeter and Orléans as a thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in English, June This thesis is available for library use on the understanding that it is copyright material and that no quotation from the thesis may be published without proper acknowledgment. I certify that all material in this thesis which is not my own work has been identified and that no material has previously been submitted and approved for the award of a degree by this or any other University.... (signature) 2 Abstract in English: This study follows the trail of Boudica from her rediscovery in Classical texts by the humanist scholars of the fifteenth century to her didactic and nationalist representations by Italian, English, Welsh and Scottish historians such as Polydore Virgil, Hector Boece, Humphrey Llwyd, Raphael Holinshed, John Stow, William Camden, John Speed and Edmund Bolton. In the literary domain her story was appropriated under Elizabeth I and James I by poets and playwrights who included James Aske, Edmund Spenser, Ben Jonson, William Shakespeare, A. Gent and John Fletcher. As a political, religious and military figure in the middle of the first century AD this Celtic and regional queen of Norfolk is placed at the beginning of British history. In a gesture of revenge and despair she had united a great number of British tribes and opposed the Roman Empire in a tragic effort to obtain liberty for her family and her people. Focusing on both the literary and non-literary texts I aim to show how the frequent manipulation and circulation of Boudica's story in the early modern period contributed to the polemical expression and development of English and British national identities, imperial aspirations and gender politics which continue even today. I demonstrate how such heated debate led to the emergence of a polyvalent national icon, that of Boadicea, Celtic warrior of the British Empire, religious figurehead, mother to the nation and ardent feminist, defending the land, women, the nation and national identity. Today Boudica s story is that of a foundation myth which has taken its place in national memory alongside Britannia; Boudica s statue stands outside the Houses of Parliament in London as a testament to Britain s imperial aspirations under Queen Victoria whilst the maternal statue of her protecting her two young daughters claims a Welsh haven in Cardiff. 3 Résumé en français: Cette thèse suit la trace de Boudica depuis la redécouverte de ce personnage dans les textes classiques par des savants humanistes du quinzième siècle jusqu aux représentations didactiques et nationalistes de ce personnage par des historiens italiens, anglais, gallois et écossais tels que Polydore Virgil, Hector Boece, Humphrey Llwyd, Raphael Holinshed, John Stow, William Camden, John Speed, Edmund Bolton. Ensuite l appropriation de son histoire par des poètes et des dramaturges sous Elizabeth I et James I couvre le travail de James Aske, Edmund Spenser, Ben Jonson, William Shakespeare, A. Gent et John Fletcher. En tant que personnage politique, religieux et militaire au milieu du premier siècle de notre ère cette reine celte de la région de Norfolk est placée au début de l histoire de la Grande Bretagne. Lors d un geste tragique de revanche et de désespoir elle a réuni un grand nombre de tribus britanniques afin d opposer l Empire Romain et obtenir la liberté pour sa famille et son peuple. Se concentrant sur les textes littéraires et non-littéraires j essaie de montrer comment la manipulation fréquente et la circulation de l histoire de Boudica au début de la période moderne ont contribué aux polémiques autour des identités anglaises et britanniques, l aspiration impériale et la politique entre les sexes ; polémiques qui continuent aujourd hui. Je démontre comment de tels débats ont mené à l apparition d une icône national et polyvalente, telle Boadicea, guerrière celtique de l Empire britannique, mère de la nation et féministe ardente œuvrant pour la défense de la terre, de la femme, de la nation et de l identité nationale. Aujourd hui l histoire de Boudica est celle d un mythe de fondation qui prend place dans la mémoire collective à côté de Britannia; la statue de Boudica debout devant le parlement à Londres, témoigne des aspirations impériales sous la reine Victoria, tandis que la statue maternelle de Boudica en train de protéger ses deux jeunes filles, prétend à un havre gallois à Cardiff. 4 CONTENTS Abstract in English P. 2 Abstract in French P. 3 Acknowledgements P. 5 List of Illustrations P. 6 Introduction P. 7 Chapter 1: Retrieving British History P. 28 Classical Visions of Boudica P. 33 Early Modern Receptions P. 38 Bookmakers and Gambles with History P. 42 Anxiety over Native Origins P. 52 Humphrey Llwyd, Raphael Holinshed & William Camden P. 59 Stow, Speed, Daniel, Clapham & Edmund Bolton P. 75 The Social Circulation of Boudica P. 88 Chapter 2: Female Emancipation: force, freedom, and fallacy P. 97 Reclaiming Women s History P. 101 In mirrours more then one P. 110 An Illusion of Empowerment? P. 129 The Cult of Elizabeth P. 140 Chapter 3: Unity, Harmony and Empire: an English Agenda? P. 149 King of Great Britain P. 152 The English Empire P. 160 The Historiographical Revolution P. 174 Early Modern Nationalism P. 184 Locating Cymbeline s Queen P. 193 The Relegation of Women P. 201 Chapter 4: Domesticating the Heart of the Wild P. 210 The Second Sex P. 214 Taming the Heart of the Wild P. 229 The Masculine Embrace P. 246 The Roman Embrace P. 267 Conclusion P. 285 Appendix : Petruccio Ubaldini's Le Vite Del Le Donne Illustri P. 302 Del Regno D'Inghilterra, & dell Regno di Scotia (Translated from Italian into English and French). Bibliography P. 311 5 Acknowledgements I need to thank a number of people for their help, advice and support; namely Dr Tracey Miller-Tomlinson, New Mexico State University, who sent me some of her work and allowed me to refer to it in my study. Dr Catherine Henze from the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay gave me advice about Jacobean music particularly that for Fletcher s plays. For the information on education I am indebted to Professor Nicholas Orme, Exeter University, who recommended a reading list to me. Thank you to Professor Malcolm Todd for allowing me to interview him at his home in Exeter; he gave me invaluable insights into the historical Boudica and Cartimandua, as did Dr Nicola Royan, lecturer in medieval and renaissance literature at Nottingham University. Dr Royan helped me with Boece's account, and William Craw identified the French translator of Hector Boece s Chronicles for me. For the translations of Petruccio Ubaldini into English and French I was given advice and help from Téa Couche-Facchin, Italian teacher at the Lycée-en-forêt, and from Professor Frank La Brasca, Director of the Italian Department at François- Rabelais University, Tours. The texts were translated into English by myself and Dr Valentina Vulpi. Dr Sandrine Soltane-Castellana translated Ubaldini into French. Mrs Barraton at Orléans University library has always helped me to locate and borrow obscure documents, so thank you. I am also grateful to Dr Claire Bouchet, Lycée-en-forêt, who proofread my work and made some invaluable suggestions. Thank you equally to Dr Carolyn Lyle-Williams at Reading University, Professor Richard Hingley at Durham University, Dr Ben Winsworth at Orléans University, chantal Lévy at the Lycée-en-forêt, Montargis, and Vanessa Collingridge for ideas and encouragement. I would like to give a huge mark of recognition to my own research directors, professor Tom Pughe, who set me on the right path and was a source of great encouragement and succor, and to Dr Philip Schwyzer who has always been available, supportive and very helpful. On the home front I must say thank-you to my sister, Beastie, who has always put me up, and put up with me, during my stays at Exeter. And last, but not least, I am greatly indebted to my husband, Eric for his moral and domestic support over the last few years. 6 Illustrations Figure n 1: Woodcut showing Boudica addressing her troops P. 67. just before battle is joined with the Romans. Holinshed s Chronicles: the History of England (1577) Figure n 2: Woodcut showing the final battle between the Romans P. 68. and the British warriors. Holinshed s Chronicles: the History of England (1577) Figure n 3: Woodcut showing Voada leading her army of ladies against P. 68. the Romans. Holinshed s Chronicle: the History of Scotland (1577) Figure n 4: Woodcut showing the execution of Voada's daughter, Vodicia. P. 69. Holinshed s Chronicles: the History of Scotland (1577) Figure n 5: Woodcut of an ancient British woman called Boudica. P. 77. John Speed s History of Great Britaine (1611) and his Theatre of the empire of Great Britaine (1612) Figure n 6. The gold coin Speed attributes to Boudica. P. 80. Figure n 7: Thomas Thornycroft's bronze statue in London (1902). P Figure n 8: James Harvard Thomas s marble statue of Boudica and her P Daughters (1916), Cardiff Civic Hall. Figure n 9: Newspaper cartoon of Margaret Thatcher during the Falklands P War; The Daily Express (24 June 1982) Figure n 10: Newspaper cartoon of Margaret Thatcher; the General P Elections of The Daily Telegraph (11 June 1987) Figure n 11: An advertisement for the Ford Motor Company P published in The Independent 10 th August, 2003. 7 Introduction: The Deployment of Boudica in the Early Modern Period Man was born free and everywhere he is in chains. Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1 Fascinated by the British myth of Boudica I began my research into her life and times with the ambition of writing a story. Curious to know what others before me had produced in this field I started to look at representations of Boudica by other historical novelists. I also wanted to understand how the historical Boudica of 60 AD had been transfigured over the years into the icon we have of her today. This desire led me back to the early modern period in British history, the moment when Boudica s story was re-discovered in the classical texts and began to circulate in the academic fields of the Tudor period. My original background in archaeology, ancient history and journalism was a curious prop, but one which has helped me to excavate the literary and non-literary traces of Boudica in the different fields covered by this work. In AD the Icenian queen, Boudica tried to free herself, her family and her people from oppressive Roman rule in England. She ultimately failed and died and her tribe was all but wiped out in Roman reprisals. England, Wales and parts of south Scotland became Romanised and Boudica faded from the collective memory of the Britons. However, the written account of Boudica s revolt was taken down by two Roman historians, Dio Cassius, writing in Greek, and Tacitus, writing in Latin. After the fall of the Roman Empire and other upheavals in European history those documents were all but inaccessible to scholars; Dio because he survived only in epitomes written by Xiphilinus in Greek, and Tacitus because a number of his documents were irrevocably lost. Through the greatest historical chance some of Tacitus s manuscripts were rediscovered by a restricted number of church agents and Italian scholars in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and these texts were copied and archived. The invention of the printing press around 1440 ensured the further dissemination of the classical works and was one of the motors of the Italian 1 Social Contract, 1762. facts. 5 However, an important paradox of this English identity lay in its British 8 Renaissance. It was thanks to the Italian scholar, Polydore Virgil, that the story of Boudica was reintroduced to an English public in the early sixteenth century. His Anglia Historia was to have far-reaching consequences on English historical thought and one which began Boudica s resuscitation and consequent trajectory across the political and social stages of the Tudor and early Stuart periods. This diachronic study of Boudica tries to give a general overview of the ways in which the story of Boudica was presented and represented in the early modern period by different social and political actors who wanted to give credence and support to their own particular belief systems. Furthermore, the representations of Boudica and the misapprehensions surrounding her story have to be set within the framework of a developing consciousness of the nation and of the self. The period has been referred to as one of self-fashioning by Stephen Greenblatt 2, an expression which defines the process by which men and women, as subjects of a state, construct their public and social identities, including class allegiance and gender roles, according to the social and political values of the early modern period, but where was that nation to be found? Early historical writers pose this very fundamental question as England emerges from the medieval period into the early modern period of new technology, greater social and geographic mobility, learning and knowledge. Annabel Patterson argues in Reading Holinshed s Chronicles that the didactic purpose of historical texts, such as Holinshed s Chronicles, was to show an Englishman what it meant to be English, 3 whilst other literary historians demonstrate convincingly that the historians of the sixteenth century purposefully constructed their English past in order to define their Englishness. 4 This echoes the work of Hayden White who had argued as early as the 1970 s that history was as much a making of a story as it was a finding of the antiquity. Philip Schwyzer argues in Literature, Nationalism and Memory in Early Modern England and Wales 6 that the ancient nation imagined in the literary works of Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, and, as I will also demonstrate, in the works of 2 Greenblatt, S. Renaissance Self-Fashioning. London, University of Chicago Press, Patterson, A. Reading Holinshed s Chronicles. London: University of Chicago Press, 1994, p See the book, John Stow ( ) And the Making of the English Past (Gadd, I. & Gillespie, A. (eds.). London: British Library ) wherein a number of the essays illustrate this idea. 5 White, H. Tropics of Discourse: Essays in Cultural Criticism. Baltimore & London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, p Schwyzer, P. Literature, Nationalism and Memory in Early Modern England and Wales. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. 9 Fletcher, was not England but Britain. This may well be explained by the popular influence of the Italian Renaissance and England s veneration for the classical authors of Roman antiquity who had identified the British Isles as a mysterious block on the very fringes of their known world. The Britons of these unknown islands were seen as marginal and other. In an effort to be integrated into the civilised world of Roman history English historians, such as Geoffrey of Monmouth in the twelfth century, had elaborated an interesting, but factually unsound, British myth of origin based on the Trojan ancestor of Brutus. Enter Boudica in the sixteenth century, an authentic but radical Briton, who challenged pre-conceived perceptions and inventions of national identity and forced historians to reassess the facts. We can say then, that this is a study of national memory tracing the historical rebirth and circulation of Boudica s story in the Tudor period to the imaginative reconfigurations of her body in the early seventeenth century. More specifically this thesis covers the ideological and cultural significance of representations of Boudica during the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I but also looks at the wider implications of representations of Boudica in the literary and non-literary records of the period in an attempt to understand her legendary and iconic status in Britain s national memory. Here, it is perhaps useful to refer to Edward Said s understanding of cultural discourse; that what is circulated within a given culture and period is not truth but representations. 7 He was of course referring to an Occidental writer s position of exteriority to his subject matter (Orientalism) and that writer s sense of superiority in the social, political and military hierarchy when describing the foreign lands of the Orient, but Said s reference to exteriority can also be applied to Tacitus s and Dio s relationship to the Roman colony of Britain, and later to early modern representations of Britain s mythical, primitive and colonised pasts, which included Boudica. I try to approach the story of Boudica in an interdisciplinary way by using the historical and archaeological knowledge we have of her and by drawing upon popular imagination in literature, music and the visual arts. On Boudica s way to the top she is re-processed and re-marketed several times but it is during Elizabeth I s reign and then James I s that images of Boudica are really distilled and shaped for the clearly defined political and social needs of the day, and these early representations of the warrior 7 Said, E. W. Orientalism: Western Conceptions of the Orient. New Delhi : Penguin Books India, p. 21. 10 queen set the tone for future depictions of the nation s greatest female patriot. Under Elizabeth I England affirms a more self-confident and self-conscious national identity based on political, religious and cultural unity. When Elizabeth came to the throne in 1558 the country had followed the religious pendulum of four different monarchs in just twelve years, and the reign of a Catholic woman, Elizabeth s older sister, Bloody Mary had provided a negative and violent role model for women. Elizabeth s reign may have offered stability, peace, religious tolerance and unity for her country but at the beginning of her reign she had to forge a strong public image of herself as a political, religious and military leader; no easy feat for a young, unmarried woman of illegitimate birth. With no police force or standing army monarchs were dependant on the support of the people for political and social control of the nation. According to Michel Foucault this was achieved through the discursive practice of the state and the arts, which are frequently a reinforcement of the dominant ideology. 8 Through the state control of education, of worship and through representations of the national body the monarch could control what people thought and what they believed. Louis Althusser originally demonstrated this phenomenon by making the same distinction between the visible state apparatuses of control, which in the Tudor and Stuart periods included the systems of censorship and criminal justice, and the ideological state apparatuses of schools, politics, the arts, sports. 9 Althusser poses the question of how, as individual subjects, we internalise and come to believe, or not believe, the ideologies generated by such institutions. Ideologies, he argues, use the same rhetorical formatting of persuasive communication because they 'interpellate' individuals as subjects by addressing them directly. 10 All texts (here I mean any cultural artefact) interpellate the reader or viewer by making a direct address to him or her as a subject. Further identity of the self with the ideology is produced by creating a sense of empathy and emulation in the subject for the belief system presented. Eagleton posits that successful ideologies are those that succeed in making their beliefs appear natural, self-evident and universal. 11 In this way they are rationalised and legitimated by the individual and thus internalised: a mode of domination is generally legitimated when those subjected to it come to judge their own behaviour by the c
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