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English Henry GATSURA, Yury EPSHTEYN DOORS & STYLES ENCYCLOPEDIA ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF PICTURE NOTES Перевод на английский текста и подписей под рисунками ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF PICTURE NOTES Перевод на английский текста и подписей под рисунками Page 4. GATSURA Henry, EPSHTEYN Yury. DOORS and STYLES. ENCYCLOPEDIA. History, interior, style, accessories, décor. ISBN In the richly illustrated album-encyclopedia by Henry Gatsura and Yury Epshtein the history of the interior door art which has never been published and is little-known not only for a wide range of readers, but also for the experts of design in Russia, is described. The album contains some rare and previously unpublished in Russia information about the doors from original sources of the 17th 20th centuries. More than 500 pages contains a lot of graphics, which help to understand the styles of doors, accessories and other information about all the classic styles, Italian, French, Austrian, German, Swiss, British, American, Chinese, Russian artists and designers. Here you will find even drawings of secret doors; you will learn how they masked them in the wall panels and behind the furniture in the 13th-19th centuries. A special chapter of the book is devoted to modern doors, the best manufacturers and new technologies in this segment. Here you can find the best doors, any accessories for your apartment, your house or for the interior of the firm. The book is designed as a reference book not only for interior designers and architects, but also for people who are interested in interiors and history, or want to furnish his apartment in a modern or classic style. The book is presented in two languages - Russian and English. English photo footnotes are presented at the end of the book. Page 5. SHORT HISTORY OF DOORS. HISTORICAL SURVEY. Page 6. THE SHORT HISTORY OF THE DOOR. DOORS, GODS AND TIME. The first documented mention of the surviving doors, we find in the ancient sacred texts, in Egyptian tombs, in the ancient names of geographic places and the names of the ancient settlements. Ironically, all these references to the door are connected with the names of the gods one way or another. In the Old Testament, God says to Noah, that the door must be done to the side of the ark, and in the third book of Kings we are talking about the design and location of the doors in the temple of Solomon, which he dedicates to the God. But, perhaps, the oldest record of the doors, dedicated to God, is found in the Indian epic Ramayana and Mahabharata. They referred to the holy city of Haridwar, which is translated as the door of Harry, where Harry is one of the names of the god Shiva, and dvar - the door. They believe that the city was built in the place where the river Ganga, which was born in the Land of Gods (the Himalayas), begins to flow through the land of mortals and their illusions - Maya 1. Judging from the excavations, the city of Haridwar is no less than 5500 years old. The territory of modern Armenian Plateau has a unique door carved into the rock in the years BC, it s called door Mher» (Der-i Mihr) the door of god. It consists of three progressively smaller rectangular hole in the rock. According to the beliefs deities could enter and leave the mountain through these triple gates. Approximately the same picture of doors or carved stone portals with religious texts, leading to the other world was found in the tombs of Egypt. Ancient Egyptians believed that the souls of the dead could not just leave this world, but also come back through such false, painted or carved in stone doors. And this is only a small fraction of the world s doors associated with the gods. But the ancient Romans went on, they appointed the time patron, the god Janus, to the patron of doors. Doors and Janus embodied in Romans the beginning associated with life decisions, exits of the apartments and solutions of difficult situations, the transition to something new. Faces of Janus - old and young, were turned to the past and to the present. Only he knew if they would go out of the door, which they entered. Something in the bunch gods - doors - time is mystical, but this book is devoted to the doors that s why let s leave a pantheon of gods and heroes in peace and try to examine only the temporally evolution of doors. Let s switch on the memory of our former births 2, and go back to the past, asking two-faced Janus for the patronage and praising him, because the book is dedicated to Janus. Ancient Egyptian wooden door (by Prisse). Page 7. DOOR ORIGIN. Most of the ancient tribes living in natural shelters in the form of caves, holes, grottoes, tree hollows and artificially constructed houses, trying to protect them from weather and uninvited guests. When it was not possible to completely close the entrances to them, they tried to cover up or to mask them. We can say that it was the first prototype of a door. Theoretically, another door or the type of protection from the animals could be the fire kept 2 DOORS & STYLES. H. Gatsura, Y. Epshteyn. up before the entrance, but it could attract enemies from other tribes, and they were often much worse than all the animals at once. More often ancient people used woven vines, branches and twigs, mats, wide leaves, bark of trees, strung with leather straps or bands on wooden skeleton as a door or the defense of their primitive shelter from the weather. Often the smell or the appearance of the hide of killed animal could frighten off the uninvited guest. That is why skins of lions, leopards, bears were always so prized. Individual cabinet writers having never worked on the ground, from force of old habit, rewriting the texts of each other as notes and term papers at the Institute, claim that ancient people used to protect their cave dwellings by large boulders. The picture below shows the old man who covered the entrance to the cave by a large boulder (shown in red). Even by the most conservative estimates, the stone weighs more than 600 kg. Six apes won t move it, and they will have to wait Egyptian builders of the pyramids or invented until bulldozer for a long time, before they are able to free their countrymen from the cave. Even a small boulder, cm in diameter, which can close a hole for a small dog, weighs more than 100 kg ³. Theoretically, one of a million of Aboriginals could find thin and not very heavy slate plate, but it s better not to multiply this nonsense on the internet, trying on the life of the ancient people who weren t the champions in weightlifting the ancient Greek epic of the mighty giants, Cyclops, who filled up the entrances to their caves with pieces of rocks in case the heroes sitting there, the Argonauts left for dinner, wouldn t run away. We can assume that ancient people could reduce the width of the natural entrance to the cave by logs and boulders of a small size, which could move by hand because the narrow passages easier to protect and hide, but no more. Were many stone doors found near the caves with ancient people by archaeologists? None. They would not have missed such a door and would have described in any case. Anyway, imagine that you are tired after an exhausting hunt, with body of dead animal on your shoulders, you go to your cave, pursued by wild jackals feeling the smell of fresh blood, and you are met by three-kilo boulder, which you couldn t move alone. You wouldn t wish it on your worst enemy. Notes to the pages 6 and 7 1. According to ancient Indian religious teachings about Mayas - the illusory nature of the perceived world or existence - the universe is just a game of the imagination, or the dreams of the supreme deity Vishnu, who is in the form of a giant, resting in the pristine waters, or the form of the boy who plays on the branch of a banyan tree. In this case, the universe is thought of as a game of the god, the illusion generated by this game. 2. The memory of past births in Indian mythology is granted at a certain level to the highest perfection and to the ultimate liberation from rebirth. 3. The average specific weight of 1 m3 of rock is about 2.5 tons. Janus, the Roman patron god of doors, of the chronology and of the time. Ancient people closing the entrance to the cave by a large boulder (highlighted in red). Picture from the book by V. Tsirkunov, 1965, About the origin of architecture. Page 8. Ancient man was surrounded by a bunch of predators, for which he was also a lure, and also by tribesmen who were even angrier. An important condition for its survival was the speed because he might disappear with his part of the pray, taking it to children and wives. In theory, the simplest door was always at hand of ancients it was any thorny shrub or tree, such as blackthorn, fir, pine, hawthorn, and even dog roses. People cut down the roots and the trunk of the tree dragged him into the narrow hole of the cave. Thorny branches rested on the walls and tightly locked the passage. They could pull out such a door only from within. This is the most effective method of the protection against predators or uninvited guests which is still taught in the departments of spies abroad. Such doors do not live for a long time and go for firewood, so they do not get to historians. The first long-lived door was woven from vines and twigs as a round shield, but of the rather rectangular form, which in the case of an attack on the house they can protect themselves, repulsing the attacks of animals or people of another tribe. Who was the first to use this way to protect their property, with a shield in one hand and a club or a spear in the other, became the first leader in the area. Subsequently, the slightly modified the design of handles, the shield was used in offensive combat. A simple lock which securely locked inside the entrance to a cave was made with the help of a sturdy wooden hook, a tree trunk, a stick and a piece of vines, vines or strips of leather. The figure below provides its construction. Slightly loosen the tension, you can slide the panel to the side and slip through the crack out. In caves and dwellings someone always left to look after the fire and close the door. But even a child would cope with such a lock. Nor the beast, nor the attacker could just break through a door. And if they strengthen it by the skin, attach or mask it on the top by briars or thorns, the best door cannot be found. Wicker, vine, branches, sticks these are the first materials for doors, panels. If there were no vines, they cut strips of animal skins. If there were problems with the wood, they created the framework from the bones, ribs, or tusks of mammoth, on which they stretched several fresh skins of large animals, which became hard over time, so that they could not be attacked by any arrow or any stone. About the same square removable panels, flexible braided vines and vertical poles were used in the Zulu kraal until the 20th century. They slid between two vertical jambs, standing on either side of the entrance, H. Gatsura, Y. Epshteyn. DOORS & STYLES. 3 and closed the entrance of the hut at night. As mentioned above, more often the ancient tried to hide the entrance not from the animals but from other people. In the 19th century, the famous Scottish missionary and explorer, D.L. Livingston ( ), who studied the life of ancient tribes, wrote in his Travel and study in South Africa, Every hut there (in villages) was surrounded by a dense palisade. The door to the hut was just made of stakes tightly driven into the ground. The door was never opened, and when the owner wanted to enter the hut, he took two or three stakes, sneaked through the crack in and then stuck stakes in place so that the enemy, who would come up to the cabin at night, couldn t find where the entrance. Simple door of any thorny tree or shrub. Braided construction details of door-panels of various materials at hand: lianas, willow sticks, vines, branches, and so on. Page 9. These stockades show feelings of insecurity; obviously nobody here considers himself and his property secured from attacks by their citizens. Wild animals that might disturb people are not here. Over time, early humans migrated out of the caves, pits and hollows of large trees and started to build artificial dwellings with wood, stone and clay for themselves. There already required more robust design doors of planed trunks. The doors which were so heavy at that moment firmly established on the axes and the lighter designs were mounted on various types of hinges made of leather belts, dressed vines, as until recently the gate, which can be found in every village. Entrance doors of the skin on a wooden frame, in the form of woven grass made of soft bark, until the 20th century it was still used in many homes in Africa and Asia. It can be assumed that these doors can be used as interior doors in wealthy homes, with many rooms, with offices for the cattle, larders with supplies of food and feed for animals. Indeed, in many countries, especially in cold ones, people lived under the same roof with their cattle and poultry. They were separated from each other only by a wicker fence and by the door in the form of the wicket. Here it can be called the first interior door. We have determined how a person could make the first exterior and interior doors, and don t delve into the assumptions of historians of the 19th-20th centuries, and even the results of recent excavations of old doors of age of 5500 from Switzerland. Our encyclopedia is designed not to archaeologists, but to the designers, artists, architects, and it s based on actual facts, figures, designs and drawings actually existing doors. This edition we dedicate to internal doors, inside the architectural object. It includes interior doors, tambour, vestibule, stairs, doors to stairwells in apartment, office space, etc. Over the past 100 years in Russia there was made only one attempt to publish a book about interior doors, but it was dedicated to the doors of model homes which were built after the war for the Soviet Nomenclature (list of high-ranking functionaries). Ordinary Soviet citizens never dreamed about such conditions and many people were still living in the former occupied territories in the dugouts at the time. The album Doors, of 1955, with less than 100 pages, with an introduction which fits on one page, but the work on which lasted about two years, showed only 73 doors. A few illustrations from the book are in the head of our encyclopedia devoted to the second half of the 20th century. EVOLUTION OF DOORS, STYLES Interior doors do not exist in a kind of abstract space, they live in time and interiors. Each door is created for a special opening and for a certain defined space. It was especially true of the period, when the production of doors was not put on the industrial stream. However, even in mass production the door to be sold must comply with the current fashion at the time. The principle of the work of the simplest lock for a door-board: 1. Shield 2. a hole in the cave 3. Cave. 4. Trunk. 5. Bunch of lianas, leather belts, ox-sinews or cord 6. Stick for stretching belts; 7. Wooden hook, 8. Leather straps, belts attached to the shield, which played the role of the handle, which can be described as the first door accessories. In the case of necessary, putting his hand into the handles, ancient man could use a door as a shield. Door with a curtain from the manuscript of the Bible dated the 9 th century. Page 10. This fashion, existing at some point in history, is called style. For ease of understanding, of what period and what style it is, they all have a name and are tied to the reign of monarchs. Just look at the classic style table in the chapter The doors and styles, and you ll understand. This style table, conventionally linked to the years of the kings of France (so that none of the countries was hurt, and in memory of the royal dynasty interrupted under the guillotine), is used by all the countries that were not colonies of England. At most of Britain and its colonies, past and present, there is its own style table, which is often called the colonial, it is tied to years of government of British monarchs. Use it in the European continent, except in Britain; it is an insult to the host country, its rulers and history. This is the same thing as saying that all of its kings were vassals of the British, and the country was a 4 DOORS & STYLES. H. Gatsura, Y. Epshteyn. colony of England. If you are an employee of the diplomatic corps, you won t be forgiven. Wait a headache to solve the slightest problem, while the embassy will not get rid of a person who doesn t know styles and diplomatic history. In spite of the huge number of literature published in the last 200 years about the history of styles and interiors, there are no valid images of internal doors before the Romanesque period. All the historical reconstruction of dwellings of the Romans, the most advanced in this period in the interior, tell us that the Italians used thick curtains, but not mounted door panels for interior doorways. ROMANESQUE PERIOD, years. Romanesque style is one of the fundamental stages in the development of medieval European art of the 10th- 12th centuries, laid the foundations of the Gothic. We saw only a few drawings of the doors belonging to the church interior of northern Europe. We can support that most of the churches in these areas as conventional dwellings in these areas had cold porch or vestibule equipped with input doors and internal doors leading directly to the temple. The door and the portal in the church in Scandinavian - Romanesque. Norway, the 11 th - 12 th century. The interior of the Roman house. The picture from the book The mode of life of different nations, Saint-Petersburg, Page 11. Inside the templeы, of course, there was the altar and the door, performing ceremonial functions, and doors leading to the storage and utility rooms of the temple. There is no doubt that the latters are likely to remind latticed doors made of wood or metal bands, such as those that can be seen in the chapter The church door. The design of such doors was due to the fact that at that time the metal and seasoned woods sawing by hand for the manufacture of doors were expensive materials. Boards were received by splitting, squaring, slicing or manual sawing logs. They sawed tree trunks with large two-handed saws. It was a laborious process. Up until the first mechanical sawmills, in the era of the late Gothic and Renaissance, all unnecessary wooden objects were carefully disassembled and resorted to the production of new doors and furnishings. So some things of Gothic and Renaissance can be made of wood from older subjects. Even cutting little boards were used. The latticed doors were often made of such rests. And seasoned boards less warped in wet areas. In the Middle Ages in the West, in the East, the doors with fittings were rather expensive products, therefore, in the case of conquering palaces, monasteries, castles or cities, the hijackers shot and took with them in the form of production not only city gates bound in metal, but the rest doors. Perhaps that is why, in some temples there are doors, obviously taken from other people s hinges. And by age, they are often hundred years older than the church itself. A small amount of household items of Romanesque period, including the doors, reached our time. This is not only because they do not survive, just because there were not a lot of interior doors in Romanesque period. Portals within buildings were curtained by rugs or canopy according the old fashion. GOTHIC, the 12th century years. Early Gothic of the 12th 14th centuries couldn t boast of a rich interior of castles. Their bare stone walls were still decorated and rugs and trellis were cleaned out during the cold winter months. Even the huge firepl
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