Elverparken Herlev. Group 2. Gunnhild Karin Nybø, Monika Rekos, Rami Al-Khumisi and Ida Løvenkjær Design by management 2013/2014 project 2 - PDF

Elverparken Herlev Group 2. Gunnhild Karin Nybø, Monika Rekos, Rami Al-Khumisi and Ida Løvenkjær Design by management 2013/2014 project 2 1 Table of contents Introduction... p. 3 SWOT analysis... p. 4

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Elverparken Herlev Group 2. Gunnhild Karin Nybø, Monika Rekos, Rami Al-Khumisi and Ida Løvenkjær Design by management 2013/2014 project 2 1 Table of contents Introduction... p. 3 SWOT analysis... p. 4 Existing trees map... p. 5 Soil profile... p. 6 Topography... p. 7 The park today... p. 8 Problems... p. 9 Functions today... p. 10 Future potentials and functions... p. 11 Aim - how to reach the goal... p. 13 Our vision... p. 15 Areas of focus...p. 16 Biodiversity - how do we enhance it?... p. 17 Area 1... p. 18 Area 3... p. 26 Area 5... p. 28 Budget... p. 34 Discussion and conclusion... p. 36 2 Introduction One of the great challenges the municipalities are facing now and in the future, is economy and to deliver more for less money. As cities are expanding, so is the need for well-functioning parks and green structure both in the city centers and the residential areas. The citizens demand for more nature and more quality is also increasing. We want to focus on developing activities and offers for the user groups, for example by using different forest development types and adding biological values in and close to the wet areas. By trying to have all of it everywhere there will certainly be user conflicts. Therefore, we decided that different parts of Elverparken also should have different focus. This assignment aims at adapting closer to natural processes, both in the soluitons for design and for maintenance of parks. The reason for this is to satisfy peoples need for nature, while still keeping the qualities of a park. More natural areas do not have the wanted aesthetical, economical or functional values in a city environment while some qualities found in nature are hard to develop in smaller scales such as in a park. The assigned park, Elverparken in Herlev municipality, is used mainly by locals. In and close to the park there are sports fields and a school and kindergarten. It is not a park that people come from far away to see and experience, unless there is a tournament or sport activity of some kind. The location of the park plays a role. Even though it is not considered a big park, it is still one if the bigger green areas here. It is frequently used for dog walkers and the elderly. Since the school is placed in the park and there are quite a few football fields here, the park is naturally used by children as well. There are also several other activities through the year that focuses on kids, such as the children s festival. It is important to develop the offers for some of the most frequent users. 3 SWOT analysis Strengths - Location (much used by locals and the school) - Amphitheatre - Activities (football, children s festival etc.) - Wet areas increasing biological values - Grown and well-developed trees and plantings Weaknesses - Dog feces - Many wet or swampy areas - The parking lot is a bit too big (other than during sport activities and arrangements) - Uninteresting schoolyard - Areas not used as inteded Opportunities - Wet areas with focus on biodiversity - Combine the use of wet areas: biodiversity and education (the school is located in the park) - Park developed for the existing users and their wants and needs Threats - Flooding - Drainage problems - Economy - Ash disease 4 Existing trees Row of platanus trees Mixture of alder, fraxinus and prunus padus Playground with birch, quercus robur, conifers and shrubs of symphoricapos albus Shrubs of Symphoricapos albus Mixture of conifers and broadleaves Shrubs of Cornus alba 5 Soil profile for the area The soil in the area is mixed with soil from other areas. It is decomposed, removed soil and therefore an extremely disturbed soil situation. Soil has been removed from certain places and put on top somewhere else. Parts of the former gravel pit are today made into an amphitheater in the hillside. Only one place is relatively undisturbed when it comes to the soil situation. This is the boggy area north of the school (area 5). A soil sample here shows peat on the bottom, and a wet soil with drainage problems. This is also visible though the water tolerant species growing in the area. There is also clay here, indicating nutrition. The quality of the soil, shown in water and nutrition would in an ecogram show 8 (out of 9) on the water scale, and 5 (out of 6) on the nutrition scale. These soil samples shows to different profiles. The picture on the right, had soil very similar to the rest of the area. The picture on the left had a very clayish soil, and was the most natural soil that we found in the park. 6 Topography Elverparken has both hills and smaller valeys. There are two small ponds in the park, both placed in a low area. This means that the areas often get flooded. The park has a main path that leads to the school, and smaller paths that leads around in the park. According to historical maps, the area where the park is now, was a field and a gravel pit and as time passed, buildings where established around it. Later on, the park was created. A map from 2012, that shows the levels in the park. The darkest areas are the steepest. A map from 1995, showing that the area is starting to take form as the park we know from today. A map from 1945, showing the gravel pit. 7 The park today This picture shows who the main users are in each area today. The park is not used in the way the municipality wishes for. There are many potentials, which are not exploited. Area number 1 is often flooed, and are mostly used as a walking through area, because the soil is often wet. Area number 2, is two small football fields, but are used as a dog park insted. There is a problem with dog leavings, which results in an unused football area, and a not so attractive dog walking area. Area number 3, is not very interesting, since it s a big asphalt area used only by children from the school with a forest like landscape nearby. This is not in use, since there are shrubs in the understory. Area number 4 is a football field, on a very wet soil. The area is often flooded. It s used by children for recreational used, but because of floodings, there are seasons when it s not in use. The area number 5 is unused. It looks cluttered and wet, so people don t want to spend time there. However it has a lot of unexploited potentials. 8 Problems The park is not used as the municipality inteded. There are problems with dog leavings, and very wet soil in the recreational areas. Area 1: The area around the small pond is often flooded, so after heavy rain this place is unable to be used. When the area is not flooded, there are nice green areas and also a small amfitheater. The main problem is that the area is often flooded, and the ground is wet, so the area has become a passing thorugh area. In the area where the children festival is held (in the red circle on the map) there is not much activity during the rest of the year. Its a very open area, and have potentials of other uses during the year, but it should still be kept as a big open area, since it has a great size for the festival. Area 2: Here there are two small football fields. Both fields are used for dogwalking, which has lead to that the area is a huge dog toilet. This means that no children are using the area for its purpose: playing football. Area 3: This is a schoolyard, with a small forestlike area with trees of birch and scots pine and shrubs. The planted area is not in use. Area 4 is a football field that is often flooded. Its lying next to a big road. It needs to be safer. Area 5 looks messy, and its not used. The soil is wet, and people dont use the area. 9 Functions today This picture shows how the local people uses the park, and what function each area play. Area 1: Today this area is mostly used as a walking through area. It is als the area with big open space, which is used for the childrens festival. There is also a smaller playing area near the schoolyard. Area 2: This area is mostly used for walking dogs, and are rarely in use as a footballfield. Area 3: The schoolyard, where the children are playing when they have a break from school. In the planted area, there are no users since the place is planted with shrubs in the entire understory. However, there is a small playground between the schoolyard and the planted area. Area 4 is a football field. Area 5 appears as a cluttered area, with no proper acces to the small pond and the trees. The area is not very often in use, and people are passing by it. 10 Future potentials and functions Each area will be used for different things, to provide recreational values for different kind of users of the park. Area 1: This area will be an open playground as well as an educational area for children. The flooded area will be used for recreational use, and by enhancing and exploiting the flooding, there will be a possibility of enhancing biodiversity. The water can be used as a playing and leraning element, by implementing a boardwalk. This will also be a recreational area for elderly people, since it s nice to look at and take a walk in. The childrens festival area, will have a few plants, to make the area a little less open. This will provide a felling of encloseness and still keep the area open. This will make it possible for all local users to use the area at all times. Area 2a: One of the football fields will be used as a dogagility area. This will give the dogwalkers a place to be, and decrease the dog leaves. The equipment will be made of wood from the park. Area 2b: This area will continue to be a football field, free of dog leaves. The two areas will be devided with a fence. Area 3: This will still be a schoolyard, but some of the shrubs will be removed so there will be room for playing in the area. Lightdemanding trees will be planted, so the area will function as a natural playground, with stumps and fallen 11 trees. This will also be an extension of the small playground in area 1. Area 4: This will continue to be used as a football field. Area 5: This will be planted with dense trees, for enhancing biodiversity in a different way than the rest of the park. It will be a fun area to play in, since there will be many hiding places, and there will also be many insects and other animals living in this area. There will be implemented a boardwalk, so people can pass through the area if they are curious to see what is going on. It will be an area of playing and learning. This picture shows an example of how the boardwalk could look like. 12 Aim - how to reach the goal We want to make the changes in a way so the costs will be as small as possible. This means, that we will keep the existing plants in some areas, and use the trees that will be cut down, as equipment for the dogs and children. There will be implemented new trees and shrubs, to reach the goal for using the park for learning and playing. The concept is to reorganize the functions in the area to make it more useful, and to explore and exploit untapped potential. We will start by dividing the park in smaller parts. This will provide different areas for different users, because there are problems with areas that are not really in use, flooded areas and dog leavings in the whole park. We will focus on area 1, 3 and 5, since these have the biggest potentials for reaching our vision A park for learning and playing. Area 2a, 2b and 4 will be mentioned briefly. Area 1: The main idea is to design a platform to make this place more accessable for people as it is temporary flooded after heavy rain. It will be used as a play and learn area. It will be possible for children to play safely in the shallow water, when there has been heavy rain and the area is flooded. It will also function as an area with increased biodiversity, since there will be planted new tree species. 13 Aim - how to reach the goal Area 2a and 2b: The main assumption was dividing this area, so there wasan area for dogs and an area for playing football. The project involves special equipment in area 2a, and will be made from wood from the park. This will reduce costis. Area 3: In the area with the trees and shrubs, most of the shrubs will be removed to make room for playing. The rest of the shrubs will be surrounding the area for more encloseness. This will also provide hiding places for both children and animals living in the shrubs. This will extend the existing playground. There will be planted pioneer species that will provide light. The equipment for playing, will be the fallen trees and the stumps. Instead of shrubs, the soil will be covered with bark. As and extra edition, we will change the asphalt in the schoolyard with a rubber surface, in many colors, for a more interesting playground. Area 4: The football field must be drained. Area 5: In this area we want to combine biodiversity functions with educational functions. We will plant FDT 32 consisting of alnus, populus and 5-10% oak, lime and rowan. This terrain is often flooded and inaccessible and its small, so by creating a boardwalk, the area will be accesible, interesting and useful. It would create an opportunity to introduce children to nature develops, and which animals that lives in a wet area. 14 Our Vision Our vision A park for playing and learning about nature The users will be the local people; children, dogowners and elderly people. 4 5 E D 3 1. Wetland- and childrens festival area 2a. Dogagility area 2b. Football field 3. Playground near schoolyard 4. Football field 5. Wet dense area A. New path B. East forest with FDT 13 C. West forest with FDT 23 D. Northern forest with FDT 32 E. Boardwalk 1 B 1 E A C 2b 2a We will focus on area 1, 3 and 5 since these areas has the best possibilities for combining learning, playing and biodiversity. 15 Areas of focus The marked areas shows which part of the park that we choosed to focus on. These areas have great potential for increasing biodiversity, which we will enhance, as well as the possibilities of experiencing and learning from the nature. FDT 32 Extension of playground FDT 23 FDT 13 This picture shows the borders for our FDT s 16 Biodiversity - how do we enhance it? In the park there are some places that occasionally get flooded and there are also quite wet areas. The simplest solution for these areas would be to keep its impression of being natural, and let them develop into swampy areas for biodiversity to flourish. In area 1 there is a permanent pond that gets substantially bigger during periods with heavy rainfall. Simultaneously, water inundates the surrounding area. By creating an environment where biodiversity will be in focus, the educational values will also be heightened, something that is even more suitable when there is a school nearby. In order for people to be able to use the area, a boardwalk could be created, that will lead down to the pond. This will also provide an educational values where both children and adults can go and see what lives in the water and in the tress in an area like this. In area 5, tree species such as ash, alder and salix grow by the wet area north of the school. The area gives off an impression of being cluttered and there is a big distance between the water and the trees. The vegetation in this area will be replaced by FDT 32 (poplus and alnus with oak, lime and rowen), becuase this will give the dense and biodoverse area that we wish for. In this area there will also be implemented a boardwalk, that will be above water level, so people can walk through the area, finding animals in the water, and discover insects and birds, living in a dense area like this. The two areas will distinguish from each other because of the different species there will be planted in each area. Area 1 will be light, and area 5 will be dense. A picture from the pond in area 1, where its easy to see that its a wet area. A picture from area 5. The area seems cluttered, and has a dense right side, and an open, also cluttered, left side. This area has a great potential to enhance biodiversity. 17 BIODIVERSITY CURRENT CONDITION This picture shows the current condition in area 1. We made a transect, and divided the area into east and west, because of the species that are already growing there. We made an unmanged transect from 0 to 50 years, and a managed transect with the FDT s that we chosed for east and west from 0 to 50 years. Mixed forest of conifers and broadleaves, with a variety of different species. Dense underbrush of bushes, with many hiding places for smaller wildlife. Degeneration seems to be present, especially in the inner parts of the planted belt. Island of grass in close proximity to the lake. Potentially good area to create a naturally grown meadow, potentially enhancing biodiversity by introducing new biotopes. Plant belt of mixed trees, bsuhes and shrubs. Areas with beech have less undergrowth due to lack of light. Another forest-like biotope. Surface of water - the cradle of life. Home for many aquatic plants, animals and insects, and a source of drinking water for the wildlife. Edges between biotopes are important areas in terms of biodiversity, and Elverpark is not lacking on this part. This picture shows the transect for area 1 18 Eastern forest-strip (unmanaged) Current condition: 50 years after current condition: Currently the forest consists mainly of sycamore and beech with a couple of other species such as norway spruce and bird cherry. 100 years after current condition: Shade tolerant species beech and sycamore will slowly take over the area, eventually overshading any other potential species. In a long timespan beech might become the most dominant specie, due to a longer lifespan and higher growth. Unmanaged, the eastern forest-strip will most likely turn into a forest very similar to FDT 12 (Beech, sycamore, ash) although the ash would have to migrate to the forest from the nearby areas. 19 Eastern forest-strip (managed FDT-13) Management year 0: 50 years after management: The first management will clear areas of trees to allow group regeneration for new plantings. Certain healthy trees are kept to maintain a forest-like feeling. 100 years after management: Over time the dominant species should become beech, douglas fir and larch (FDT-13). The relatively short lifespan, and fast growth rate, of larch and douglas fir, will be able to keep up with the shade tolerance and long lifespan of the beech,. The creating trees a will self-regenerating regenerate groups forest. will the help of clearing maintenance. During wintertime the douglas fir will stand out being the only evergreen specie in this FDT. 20 21 Western forest-strip (unmanaged) Current condition: 50 years after current condition: The forest in this area consists of a mixture of different species such as betula, tilia, acer, pinus and picea. 100 years after current condition: The lower area of the strip is slightly more wet due to it s close proximity to the lake, and will appeal to wet tolerant species such as betula. Over time the area will most likely develop into a more open and wet area on the lower part of the hill and a more dense and dry area on the upper part of the hill. 22 Western forest-strip (managed FDT-23) Management year 0: 50 years after management: The first management will remove many trees to make space for group regeneration of new planted trees. Further regeneration requires removal of the canopy in gaps. The aim is to turn the western forest-strip into FDT23 which consists of oak, pine, larch and some smaller species. 100 years after management: This FDT is a very light forest, allowing a varied undergrowth of smaller trees (betula) and shrubs. The undergrowth, combined with trees such as oak and pinus, will create many small biotopes to increase the biodiversity in the area. During wintertime, pinus will stand out between the other naked trees and shrubs. 23 24 Suggestions Area 1: In this area there is a great possibilty for a biodiverse area, since there are many different trees and shrubs. In our transect we discovered many
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