Е.В.Семчук АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов факультета «Промышленная теплоэнергетика» - PDF

Е.В.Семчук АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов факультета «Промышленная теплоэнергетика» Санкт-Петербург 2014 МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ

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Е.В.Семчук АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов факультета «Промышленная теплоэнергетика» Санкт-Петербург 2014 МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ «Санкт-Петербургский государственный технологический университет растительных полимеров» Е.В.СЕМЧУК Английский язык Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов факультета «Промышленная теплоэнергетика» Санкт-Петербург 2014 УДК 802.2(075) С. 308 ББК. 81.2(англ.) я7 Семчук Е.В. Английский язык: учебно-методическое пособие для студентов факультета «Промышленная теплоэнергетика»/ СПбГТУРП. СПб., с. Содержит материалы для чтения и перевода с английского на русский язык. Предназначается для студентов факультета «Промышленная теплоэнергетика». Рецензент: канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков СПбГТУРП Т.В. Лиоренцевич. Подготовлено и рекомендовано к печати кафедрой иностранных языков СПбГТУРП (протокол 1 от г.). Утверждено к изданию методической комиссией факультета промышленной энергетики СПбГТУРП (протокол 2 от г.). Рекомендовано к изданию Редакционно-издательским советом университета в качестве учебно-методического пособия. Санкт-Петербургский государственный технологический университет растительных полимеров, 2014 ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ Пособие составлено в соответствии с требованиями программы по иностранным языкам для технических вузов. Цель пособия развитие навыков чтения научной и технической литературы по специальности и некоторых навыков устной речи в пределах тем, предусмотренных программой. Текстовый материал предназначен для развития навыков ознакомительного и изучающего чтения, а также для развития навыков устной речи и перевода. Приложенные, по необходимости, словарный минимум и транскрипция активизируют языковые навыки, помогают определить главное содержание, запоминание основных лексических единиц. 3 BIOMASS: RECLAIMING OUR OLDEST ENERGY SOURCE 1) reclaim [ rɪ'kleɪm] v осваивать VOCABULARY 2) reliance [rɪ'laɪən(t)s] n доверие, надежда 3) renewable [rɪ'njuːəbl] adj возобновляемый 4) unfavourable [feɪv(ə)rəbl ] adj неблагоприятный, неподходящий 5) constrain {kən'streɪn] v сдерживать 6) acreage ['eɪk(ə)rɪʤ ] n площадь в акрах 7) dedicate [ dedɪkeɪt ] v посвящать 8) repercussion( riːpə'kʌʃ(ə)n ] n отражение, последствие, влияние 9) rural ['ruər(ə)l ] adj сельский 10) community [ kə'mjuːnətɪ ] n община, общность 11) vie { vaɪə ] prep через 12) unprofitable [ ʌn'prɔfɪtəbl ] adj невыгодный, бесполезный 13) cope [ kəup ] v справляться 14) surplus [ 'sɜːpləs ] 15) overcome [ ˌəuvə'kʌm ] v преодолеть 16) encounter [ ɪn'kauntə ] v наталкиваться 17) obstacle [ 'ɔbstəkl ] n препятствие, помеха 18) steep [ stiːp ] adj чрезмерный, невероятный 19) consortium [ kən'sɔːtɪəm ] n соглашение 20) collaboration [kəˌlæb(ə)'reɪʃ(ə)n ] n сотрудничество 21) dissemination [ dɪˌsemɪ'neɪʃ(ə)n ] n распространение 22) outcome ['autkʌm ] n результат 4 23) mining [ maɪnɪŋɪn ] n горная промышленность 24) entire [ ɪn'taɪə ] adj полный, целый, весь 25) duration [ djuə'reɪʃ(ə)n ] n продолжительность, длительность Problems addressed Increasing reliance on renewable energy is an important priority of the European Union, since it can reduce the dependence on imports and prevent future imbalances in the energy market. What is more, increasing productivity in the agricultural sector and unfavourable market conditions, such as overproduction, constrain land use and acreage dedicated to plant cultivation. This decline in traditional agricultural activities creates a surplus of land and labour and has repercussions in our rural communities. We would like to promote a more rational use of low quality agricultural land and present energy forest planting as a viable alternative to unprofitable agricultural activities. We intend to offer would be entrepreneurs guidance and help them cope with major investment risks. Barriers to overcome Energy production from biomass is not always a popular proposition. We often encounter obstacles such as weak infrastructure, steep production costs, lack of history and public support, or just pure and plain conservatism. Although biomass planting has a far greater potential in Hungary then other types of alternative energy sources, it is often completely ignored by policy makers and professional organizations. To help overcome these barriers we would like to inform stakeholders of the potential benefits of biomass planting and the verdict of our experts. Project structure The consortium carrying out this project consists of five members from four different countries, two educational and research institutions and three SMEs. The project is fully funded and was made possible by a grant from the budget of the European Union s 5 th Framework Programme. The 18 th month long collaboration officially started in December 2002 and the firs preparatory stage has been completed in May The execution is divided into six blocks, called work packages, each of which is either focused on a specific field of research or related to project management. Each work package has a strict deadline and an organization that is responsible for its execution. Work packages 1 and 2 are dedicated to project management and dissemination. Scientific work will start in work package 3 (land classification) with the characterization of potential planting sites. Work package 4 (energy forest plantation) deals with the optimal selection of biomass types. Work package 5 (socio-economic outcomes) will discuss the effects of biomass planting. Since work package 6 (the re-cultivation of open cut mining sites) is very important in some parts, it will run for almost the entire duration of the project. Expected impact and exploitation We hope that biomass will gain more acceptance and popularity, and that the risks and start-up costs involved could be reduced significantly. Our research will help stakeholders to consider planting energy crops as a real alternative by supplying them with hard data. By influencing the public opinion we will certainly to a better climate for future initiatives. Progress to date The project was launched in December 2002 and four and half months later we can report progress on two fronts. At our start-up meeting we agreed to focus on three reference areas, one in Poland, one in Hungary and one in Czech Republic. So far we have reviewed the Hungarian literature with a special emphasis on little known pioneering experiments, carried out by timber companies and engineers in the past. In the case of Poland, we have characterized the most common biomass types. As regards software development, we have defined the essentials required of the proposed database and the corresponding land classification methodology. Our earliest results will be made public in our firs newsletter coming out in mid-may. 6 LARGE SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ENERGY CROPS FOR COMBUSTION IN A POWER PLANT VOCABULARY 1) encouragement [ in'kʌrɪʤmənt ] n одобрение,поощрение 2) penetration [ penɪ'treɪʃ(ə)n ] n пропитка 3) restrict [ rɪ'strɪkt] n ограничивать 4) impact [ 'ɪmpækt ] n столкновение 5) eliminate [ɪ'lɪmɪneɪt v исключить 6) purification [pjuərɪfɪ'keɪʃ(ə)n ] n очистка Сhallenges Nowadays, there is no real data about the large scale utilization of the energy crops. They only solution is to take references of other types of biomass ( for example, straw) but take into account that the straw is a secondary product of a food crop. Instead of a crop cultivation for the generation of energy. The lack of reliable data about investment costs, running costs, etc. is a significant barrier for the large scale introduction of energy crops. Increasing the knowledge in this area means increasing the confidence in these kinds of renewable energy sources and decreasing its market uncertainty. Therefore, it can be said that this project will contribute to reduce the investment costs through the decrease of the financial risk associated with such investmen. Project structure This is the first European demonstration project carrying out industrial scale tests jointly on the cultivation, harvesting, logistic and combustion of an energy crop tons of Brassica Carinata and 720 tons of Triticale are grown to be used specifically in an exiting biomass 25 MWe combustion power plant located in 7 Spain, and devoted 100 % to the generation and sale of bioelectricity to the grid. The project is developed in six work packages: WP1: Demonstration of field performance. WP2: Harvest and logistic. This task consists of biomass collection, handing, packing, storage and transport to the combustion plant. WP3: Economical assessment. WP4: Energy balance and environmental impact. WP5: Combustion tests. WP 6: Dissemination. Expected impact and exploitation This project evaluates, in an integrated scheme, the profitability of both Brassica Carinata and Triticale for power production by reproducing and evaluating the whole supply and energy generation chain on a real scale. Major scientific and technological prospects are the decrease of uncertainty degree related to biomass energy and the possibility of promoting future R&D and demonstration projects on the identified improvement points. On the one hand, a significant saving in the cost of energy is expected at the end of the project, which could be approximately 10 %, beginning with the cost of energy produced with straw (0,08euro per kwh). In the long term, there will be a clear improvement potential in all the economic areas mentioned above, thanks to the exploitation of the improvement points that are going to be identified in the project. On the other hand, the exploitation plan includes the encouragement of biomass penetration in Southern Europe, for example the creation of biomass plants in the Mediterranean area. As a first step, the aim of the project is to develop an effective supply chain of new Mediterranean energy crops up to the production plant, taking into account not only the farmers but also the final electric or heat utility and all the intermediate actors. The restricting factors for developing the energy crops on a large scale will also be identified and measured. Concerning the environmental impact, the project also addresses the large scale generation of electricity with reduced CO2 emissions from biomass. In particular, the project will produce tons of coal, thus avoiding the emission of about tons of CO2, 321 tons of SO2 and 48 tons of NO2. The effect will be similar to the purification effect of trees. 8 ENERGY AND HIGH-QUALITY FERTILISER FROM BIOWASTE VOCABULARY 1) fertiliser [ 'fɜːtɪlaɪzə] n удобрение 2) digestion [ daɪ'ʤesʧ(ə)n ] n усвоение 3) slaught [ 'slɔːtə ] n бойня 4) leather [ 'leðə n кожа 5) density [ den(t)sɪtɪ ] n плотность 6.) remove [ rɪ'muːv ] v удалять, устранять 7) soluble [ 'sɔljəbl ] adj растворимый 8) split [ splɪt ] n расщепление 9) dilution [ daɪ'luːʃ(ə)n ] v затоплять 10) deplete [ dɪ'pliːt ] v истощать,исчкрпывать 11) decontamination [ diːk(ə)ntæmɪ'neɪʃn ] n обеззараживание 12) grid [ grɪd ] n сетка высокого напряжения, решетка 13) residue [ rezɪdjuː ] n осадок,остаток 14) external [ [ɪk'stɜːn(ə)l ] adj наружный Сhallenges The project s approach is based on the state of the art of the following disciplines: organic waste composting and digestion, biogas up-cleaning, reduction of organic waste contaminants, and environmental contamination through liquid manure fertilizing. Energy production from organic wastes, based on biological 9 methods, can only be achieved by generation of biogas via the digestion progress. We want to achieve maximum energy yield from the digestion process by means of an innovative digestion technology and optimized process control of wastes from slaughterhouses and the leather industry. Fuel cells (FC) have been developed mainly with natural gas as the fuel. The introduction of biogas into the natural gas grid requires the removal of inert components in order to improve energy density and to meet existing standards. The main parameters that may require removal in an upgrading system are H2S, water, CO2 and halogenated and silicon containing compounds. Closing the gap between 50 ppm (state of the art) and 10 ppm H2S (required by the FC) will be achieved by an especially reliable biotrickling filter, as well as technologies to remove siloxanes,co2 and CH compounds. Today, reduction of organic waste contaminants can only be achieved either by mixing the material with non-contaminated additives (wood), or by the addition of complexing agents andseparation of the soluble metal complexes. The Komptech- Farwick s B.S.F.C. process (Biowaste Separation Fermentation Composting) is able to reduce heavy metals and salt contamination in organic wastes exclusively by dry mass splitting to produce an up-cleaned compost without dilution methods. The aim is to optimise depletion of heavy metals and salt in the raw material for composting by improving the separation process performed through a massseparator. Furthermore, an economically acceptable method to reduce N and P contamination in the liquid digested residues have to be developed. The new technology will smooth the way for the construction of small, autonomous plants which are highly adapted to local situations. Expected impact and exploration ENERDEC will help to create a set of technologies for use in the fields of renewable energy, biotechnology, agro-industry and environmental protection. These technologies will help to strengthen the competitiveness of the SMEs involved by expanding their competence and experience in the waste-treatment and energy-production sectors, as well as contributing to the sustainable care of the environmental by recycling waste into the product cycle. As a technological impact, the digestion process will be combined with the improved composting technology to establish a new B.S.F.C. technology of solid organic waste treatment systems on the market and to restructure exiting plans. 10 А concept for decontamination of liquid digested residues, which must be both economically and ecologically attractive, with raise the acceptance of such technologies. Another main impact should be the application of a biological biogas purification system to pass the up-cleaned biogas into the natural gas grid. Progress to date After half a year, work on the project is progressing according to schedule.in the digestion part of the project, different part of organic wastes, such as kitchen waste, slaughterhouse waste and pulper waste, were pre-processed under different conditions and tested for their digestion behaviour, their potential for biogas formation, and the composition of liquid degested residues. The slaughterhouse wastes were investigated in more detail: after separation into five fractions, each was processed in continuous lab-scale digestion units as a basis for specific loading calculations. For the methodological development of a purification treatment for the digested residues, two different reactor types a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) were installed at laboratory scale and operated using centrifuged digested residue to maintain the process parameters. Nitrification was observed to be quite good, as was dinitrification, but the latter process depends on the availability of carbon which might be insufficient. Currently, tests are running with the addition of an external carbon source. COD could be degraded from an initial 10g/l to concentrations below 1g/l. Centrifugation experiments on digested residues on a technical scale provided the necessary amount of digested liquid for these investigations. Arrangements for experiments on the reduction of heavy metals and salt content in the solid products of the B.S.F.C. process have now been finalized a survey of the process was performed by detailed monitoring of the method. A suitable filter arrangement was planned for the biogas upgrading tasks. As a first step, a laboratory-scale biotrickling filter is actually being constructed in order to optimize H2S removal. THE PYROARC WASTE TO ENERGY PROCESS UTILISING GASIFICATION,PLASMA AND VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY VOCABULARY 1) incineration [ ɪnˌsɪn(ə)'reɪʃ(ə)n ] n сжигание 11 2) decompose [ ˌdiːkəm'pəuz ] n распад, разложение 3) tar [ tɑː ] n деготь, жидкая смола 4) shaft [ ʃɑːft ] n вал,ось 5) quencher [ 'kwenʧə ] n тушитель 6) solid [ sɔlɪd ] adj твердый 7) consecutive [ kən'sekjutɪv ] adj последовательный 8) slag [ slæg ] n шлак 9) recovery [ rɪ'kʌv(ə)rɪ ] n восстановление 10) zinc [zɪŋk ]n цинк 11) sensible heat [ 'sen(t)sɪbl ] adj ощутимое тепло Objectives The objective is to build and demonstrate a commercial operating PyroArc plant south of Trondheim in Norway. The capacity of the plant is tonnes of waste per year and it will be possible to treat all sorts of waste, except radioactive. The plant will recover the energy from the combustible part of the non-combustible part. The energy will be recovered as hot water and electric power. The hot water will be utilized in the local grid and the electric power will be used partly internally, the rest being exported on the local net. Slag can be sold as a construction material while the metal can be sold to foundries for the production of simple foundry products, for example counter-weights on trucks. The plant will generate very little, residue (for example ash)which has to be put in landfill. Challenges Owi
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