En vue de l'obtenton du DOCTORAT DE L'UNIVERSITÉ DE TOULOUSE Délvré par : Insttut Natonal Polytechnque de Toulouse (INP Toulouse Dscplne ou spécalté : Géne Électrque Présentée et soutenue par : M. NICOLA

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En vue de l'obtenton du DOCTORAT DE L'UNIVERSITÉ DE TOULOUSE Délvré par : Insttut Natonal Polytechnque de Toulouse (INP Toulouse Dscplne ou spécalté : Géne Électrque Présentée et soutenue par : M. NICOLA SERBIA le mercred 9 janver 4 Ttre : CONVERTISSEURS MODULAIRES MULTINIVEAUX POUR LE TRANSPORT D'ENERGIE ELECTRIQUE EN COURANT CONTINU HAUTE TENSION. Ecole doctorale : Géne Electrque, Electronque, Télécommuncatons (GEET Unté de recherche : Laboratore Plasma et converson d'energe (LAPLACE Drecteur(s de Thèse : M. PHILIPPE LADOUX M. POMPEO MARINO Rapporteurs : M. ANDREA DEL PIZZO, UNIV. DEGLI STUDI DI NAPOLI FEDERICO II M. MOHAMED MACHMOUM, UNIVERSITE DE NANTES Membre(s du jury : M. MOHAMED MACHMOUM, UNIVERSITE DE NANTES, Présdent M. PHILIPPE EGROT, EDF R&D MORET SUR LOING, Membre M. PHILIPPE LADOUX, INP TOULOUSE, Membre M. POMPEO MARINO, SECONDA UNIVERSITA DI NAPOLI, Membre M. VINCENZO IMPROTA, SOCIETE ANSALDOBREDA NAPLES, Membre MODULAR MULTILEVEL CONVERTERS FOR HVDC POWER STATIONS Acknowledgements The Phd thess s not just an ntensve work perod of three years. Ths s an experence of lfe where I had the opportunty to ncrease my personal and professonal experence. In these three years through the nterfacng wth persons that asssted me and wth whch I had the honor to share ths perod. Wth them (drectly and un-drectly, I had the opportunty to grow up my professonal knowledge and to mprove my personalty. Frstly I would lke to thanks the members of the jury: Mr. Mohamed MACHMOUM, Professor at the Polytech Nantes and Mr. Andrea DEL PIZZO, Professor at the Unverstà degl Stud d Napol Federco II, for havng read n detals ths dssertaton and for havng wrote a very detaled and exhaustve report about the manuscrpt as examners of my thess by contrbutng to the mprovement of the work. Mr. Phlppe EGROT, engneer at EDF n the HVDC frame for havng accepted to revew my thess and havng been part of the jury. Mr. Vncenzo IMPROTA, Engneer at Ansaldobreda SpA for havng accepted to revew my thess and havng been part of the jury. Then I would lke to thanks Mr. Paolo BORDIGNON, executve vce presdent of Rongxn Power Electronc Co., Ltd for hs economc (by means the company and professonal support to the development of the work Then I lke to say thank you to my two supervsors. Peoples that I'll never stop thankng. I can consder these two persons the only guys who attended to my professonal development and they prncpally contrbuted to my professonal and recently personal maturaton. I know that s very dffcult to meet persons lke them. These two persons are alphabetcally sorted below. Thank you to Mr. Phlppe LADOUX, Professor at the Insttut Natonal Polytechnque of Toulouse and drector of my thess. Frstly for havng accepted me as Ph.D. student and to have beleved that for me was possble facng ths much hard and trcky subject. Thank for gvng me hs support and hs methods, and for best havng supervsed my studes. He taught me how the complex world of engneerng can become very easy and pleasurable. For me was an honor workng wth hm and I hope that a new workng adventure s gong to start. Besdes the professonal aspect I found a person wth a great humanty and frendshp. It was able to make easy all the dffcultes that I had at my arrvng n France. Thank you, Phlppe hs famly, because they spent a lot of tme wth me gvng me the honor to meet me at ther home. Wth ther help I never had any dffcultes. Thank you for ther precous frendshp. Ncola Serba Thank you to Mr. Pompeo MARINO, Professor at the Seconda Unverstà degl Stud d Napol, supervsor of my fnal project of the Laurea degree n 7, supervsor of my fnal project of the Laurea Magstrale degree n and fnally my PhD thess drector. Thank you for trustng n me. Thank you havng gave me the opportunty. Thank for your very precous suggestons and your ntutons. He taught me that everythng s possble by workng hard and fne. Under the human aspect I thnk that there are many thngs to learn by hm. He made my Ph.D. perod a superlatve experence. He shared wth me hs passon for the salng whch for me was a very formatve and fantastc experence. So, of course I m sure that a very great frendshp has been consoldated. It s always an honor spendng tme wth hm, thank you Prof.! Thanks to the LAPLACE, I have met a lot of people, and I have to say thanks to someone of them: All the members of the group Convertsseur Statque, expecally the responsble Mr. Frédérc RICHARDEAU. Thank you Les Super Flles! Carne BASTIE, Lea BOULANGER, Cécle DAGUILLANES, Catherne MOLL-MAZELLA and Valére SCHWARZ. Besdes ther mpeccable professonalsm they made the tme at the laboratory more pleasant and cheerful (partcularly the Valere sneezes. Mr Jean-Marc BLAQUIERE for hs great techncal experence and for havng helped me n the realzaton of the prototype. Mr Jeaques BENAIOUN for hs great techncal nformatcs experence. He was very effcent to solve my nformatcs problem. All the PhD students, Post-Doc and others that shared all the good tmes, especally: Andre DE ANDRADE (dedé, he helped me especally at the begnnng. Thank for your frendshp. He never left me alone and Julo BRANDELERO, Clement NADAL and Damen BIDART, les colocatares plus emportants». Franços PIGACHE, a very good frend always helpful and frendly. Then Johannes SCHELLER and Samer YAMMINE, I found very good frends; they are prncpally responsble of my ntensve week-ends. Alberto ROSSI, Etenne FOURNIER (thank you for your help for the language, Jule EGALON, Sebasten SANCHEZ (mon professeur de toulousan, Maud TAUZIA (ma prof de Franças Amanda VELAZQUEZ SALAZAR ( la nna, Mustapha DEBBOU, Bernardo COUGO, Eduard Hernando SOLANO SAENZ, Julan Andres SUAREZ, Benedkt BYRNE sorry f I ve forgotten someone. MODULAR MULTILEVEL CONVERTERS FOR HVDC POWER STATIONS Then I say thank you to Gulano RAIMONDO, thank to hs help especally at the begnnng. It was prncpal responsble of my ntegraton. Thank you for your frendshp too. I have also to say thanks to the people of DITEN from the Unversty of Genova, especally to Ganluca PARODI, Lus VACCARO and Prof. Maro MARCHESONI. I have also to say thanks to the people of the Dpartmento d Ingegnera Industrale e dell Informazone of the Seconda Unverstà degl Stud d Napol, especally to: Ncola GRELLA and Angela BRUNITTO for ther effcency n all the bulky admnstratve procedures. My Italans colleagues: Mchele FIORETTO for hs frendshp and for hs tme spent together Lug and Gudo RUBINO, for ther techncal experence and ther very precous help. Especally lately. Felce Andreozz, Marco BALATO and Lug FEOLA. Professors Roberto LANGELLA and Alfredo TESTA for havng shared several tme of hs research wth me, and all the others PhD students I ve met n Aversa. At the end I d lke to say thank you to my FAMILY, they supported always my choces. They are responsble of my ambton. Thank you for havng always beleved n me and for me s an honor beng your son. I hope and I know that ths my new goal helps your happness. Then at the end there s ROSSELLA, despte the dstance she s able to make me a happy man agan. Moreover she makes me want be a better man. Ncola Serba SUMMARY Ths work was performed n the frame of collaboraton between the Laboratory on Plasma and Energy Converson (LAPLACE, Unversty of Toulouse, and the Second Unversty of Naples (SUN. Ths work was supported by Rongxn Power Electronc Company (Chna and concerns the use of multlevel converters n Hgh Voltage Drect Current (HVDC transmsson. For more than one hundred years, the generaton, the transmsson, dstrbuton and uses of electrcal energy were prncpally based on AC systems. HVDC systems were consdered some 5 years ago for techncal and economc reasons. Nowadays, t s well known that HVDC s more convenent than AC for overhead transmsson lnes from 8 - km long. Ths break-even dstance decreases up to 5 km for underground or submarne cables. Over the twenty-frst century, HVDC transmssons wll be a key pont n green electrc energy development. Due to the lmtaton n current capablty of semconductors and electrcal cables, hgh power applcatons requre hgh voltage converters. Thanks to the development of hgh voltage semconductor devces, t s now possble to acheve hgh power converters for AC/DC converson n the GW power range. For several years, multlevel voltage source converters allow workng at hgh voltage level and draw a quas-snusodal voltage waveform. Classcal multlevel topologes such as NPC and Flyng Capactor VSIs were ntroduced twenty years ago and are nowadays wdely used n Medum Power applcatons such as tracton drves. In the scope of Hgh Voltage AC/DC converters, the Modular Multlevel Converter (MMC, proposed ten years ago by Professor R. Marquardt from the Unversty of Munch (Germany, appeared partcularly nterestng for HVDC transmssons. On the base of the MMC prncple, ths thess consders dfferent topologes of elementary cells whch make the Hgh Voltage AC/DC converter more flexble and easy sutable respect to dfferent voltage and current levels. The document s organzed as follow. Frstly, HVDC power systems are ntroduced. Conventonal confguratons of Current Source Converters (CSCs and Voltage Source Converters (VSCs are shown. The most attractve topologes for VSC-HVDC systems are analyzed. The operatng prncple of the MMC s presented and the szng of reactve devces s developed by consderng an open loop and a closed loop control. Dfferent topologes of elementary cells offer varous propertes n current or voltage reversblty on the DC sde. To compare the dfferent topologes, an analytcal approach on the power losses evaluaton s acheved whch made the calculaton very fast and drect. A HVDC lnk to connect an off-shore wnd farm platform s consdered as a case study. The nomnal power level s MW wth a DC voltage of 6 kv. The MMC s rated consderng press-packed IGBT and IGCT devces. Smulatons valdate the calculatons and v MODULAR MULTILEVEL CONVERTERS FOR HVDC POWER STATIONS also allow analyzng fault condtons. The study s carred out by consderng a classcal PWM control wth an nterleavng of the cells. In order to valdate calculaton and the smulaton results, a kw three-phase prototype was bult. It ncludes 8 commutaton cells and ts control system s based on a DSP-FGPA platform. v Ncola Serba RESUME Les travaux présentés dans ce mémore ont été réalsés dans le cadre d une collaboraton entre le LAboratore PLAsma et Converson d Énerge (LAPLACE, Unversté de Toulouse, et la Seconde Unversté de Naples (SUN. Ce traval a reçu le souten de la socété Rongxn Power Electroncs (Chne et trate de l utlsaton des convertsseurs mult-nveaux pour le transport d énerge électrque en courant contnu Haute Tenson (HVDC. Depus plus d un sècle, la génératon, la transmsson, la dstrbuton et l utlsaton de l énerge électrque sont prncpalement basées sur des systèmes alternatfs. Les systèmes HVDC ont été envsagés pour des rasons technques et économques dès les années 6. Aujourd hu l est unanmement reconnu que ces systèmes de transport d électrcté sont plus approprés pour les lgnes aérennes au-delà de 8 km de long. Cette dstance lmte de rentablté dmnue à 5 km pour les lasons enterrées ou sous-marnes. Les lasons HVDC consttuent un élément clé du développement de l énerge électrque verte pour le XXIème sècle. En rason des lmtatons en courant des sem-conducteurs et des câbles électrques, les applcatons à forte pussance nécesstent l utlsaton de convertsseurs haute tenson (jusqu à 5 kv. Grâce au développement de composants sem-conducteurs haute tenson et aux archtectures multcellulares, l est désormas possble de réalser des convertsseurs AC/DC d une pussance allant jusqu au GW. Les convertsseurs mult-nveaux permettent de travaller en haute tenson tout en délvrant une tenson quas-snusoïdale. Les topologes mult-nveaux classques de type NPC ou «Flyng Capactor» ont été ntrodutes dans les années 99 et sont aujourd hu couramment utlsées dans les applcatons de moyenne pussance comme les systèmes de tracton. Dans le domane des convertsseurs AC/DC haute tenson, la topologe MMC (Modular Multlevel Converter, proposée par le professeur R. Marquardt (Unversté de Munch, Allemagne l y a dx ans, semble partculèrement ntéressante pour les lasons HVDC. Sur le prncpe d une archtecture de type MMC, le traval de cette thèse propose dfférentes topologes de blocs élémentares permettant de rendre le convertsseur AC/DC haute tenson plus flexble du pont de vue des réversbltés en courant et en tenson. Ce document est organsé de la manère suvante. Les systèmes HVDC actuellement utlsés sont tout d abord présentés. Les confguratons conventonnelles des convertsseurs de type onduleur de tenson (VSCs ou de type onduleur de courant (CSCs sont ntrodutes et les topologes pour les systèmes VSC sont ensute plus partculèrement analysées. Le prncpe de fonctonnement de la topologe MMC est ensute présenté et le dmensonnement des éléments réactfs est développé en consdérant une commande en boucle ouverte pus une commande en boucle fermée. Pluseurs topologes de cellules élémentares sont proposées afn d offrr dfférentes possbltés de réversblté du courant ou de la tenson du côté contnu. Afn de comparer ces structures, une approche analytque de v MODULAR MULTILEVEL CONVERTERS FOR HVDC POWER STATIONS l estmaton des pertes est développée. Elle permet de réalser un calcul rapde et drect du rendement du système. Une étude de cas est réalsée en consdérant la connexon HVDC d une plateforme éolenne off-shore. La pussance nomnale du système étudé est de MW avec une tenson de bus contnu égale à 6 kv. Les dfférentes topologes MMC sont évaluées en utlsant des IGBT ou des IGCT en boter pressé. Les smulatons réalsées valdent l approche analytque fate précédemment et permettent également d analyser les modes de défallance. L étude est menée dans le cas d une commande MLI classque avec entrelacement des porteuses. Enfn, un prototype trphasé de kw est ms en place afn de valder les résultats obtenus par smulaton. Le système expérmental comporte 8 cellules de commutatons et utlse une plate-forme DSP-FPGA pour l mplantaton des algorthmes de commande. v Ncola Serba RIASSUNTO Durante tre ann del corso d Dottorato d Rcerca n Conversone dell Energa, l attvtà s è svluppata nel quadro d una collaborazone tra la Seconda Unverstà degl Stud d Napol, l laboratoro LAPLACE (Laboratore Plasma et Converson d'energe dell Unverstà d Toulouse. Il lavoro d tes è stato noltre supportato dalla Rongxn Power Electronc (Cna e concerne l mpego del converttore multlvello per le trasmsson n corrente contnua ad alta tensone comunemente conoscute n letteratura come Hgh Voltage Drect Currents (HVDC. Nell ultmo secolo, la generazone, la trasmssone, la dstrbuzone ed l consumo d energa è stato prncpalmente basato su sstem n corrente alternata (AC. I sstem d tpo HVDC s sono res attrattv negl ultm 5 ann per una sere d ragon d natura tecnca ed economca. Ogg, è ben noto che le connesson HVDC sono pù convenent rspetto a quelle AC per dstanze superor a lnee comprese tra 8 km. Questa dstanza d sogla s rduce quando s parla d trasmsson sottomarne. Nel ventunesmo secolo, le trasmsson HVDC saranno un punto chave anche per lo svluppo e l ntegrazone con l preesstente sstema elettrco delle energe rnnovabl. A causa della lmtazone n corrente de dspostv semconduttor e de cav d trasmssone, l mpego d alte potenze s traduce nell mpego d converttor ad alte tenson. Graze alo svluppo d dspostv semconduttor, è ogg possble ottenere converson AC/DC per alte potenze dell ordne de GW. Per dvers ann, converttor Multlvello d tpo sorgente d tensone, n letteratura not come voltage source converters (VSC, consentono d lavorare ad alt lvell d tensone e d mporre una forma d onda d tensone al lato AC pressoché snusodale. Le classche topologe come NPC e Flyng Capactors t tpo VSI sono state ntrodotte crca vent ann addetro ed ogg sono generalmente utlzzate n applcazon d meda potenza come gl azonament delle macchne elettrche. Per la conversone AC/DC ad alta tensone, l converttore modulare multlvello (MMC, proposto crca dec ann fa dal professore R. Marquardt della Unverstà d Monaco (Germana, è sembrato partcolarmente attrattvo ed nteressante per le trasmsson HVDC. Partendo dalla struttura HVDC, s sono consderate all nterno del lavoro d dfferent topologe d celle elementar che rendono l converttore pù flessble e pù faclmente adattable rspetto a dfferent lvell d tensone e corrente. Il lavoro d tes s è svolto secondo l seguente ordne: n prms, sstem HVDC sono stat ntrodott. Le confgurazon convenzonal basate su converttor a sorgente d corrente (CSC e quelle basate su converttor a sorgente d tensone (VSC sono state descrtte. In entramb cas l prncpo d funzonamento sul quale s basa l trasfermento d potenza è stato descrtto. Parallelamente è stato effettuato uno studo sullo stato dell arte de semconduttor mpegat nella elettronca d potenza e sono state tratte v MODULAR MULTILEVEL CONVERTERS FOR HVDC POWER STATIONS valutazon su meglo adattabl alle connesson HVDC. S è evnto dedotto che l orentamento delle trasmsson HVDC è basato sulla conversone VSC. Per tale motvo ha analzzato le topologe multlvello pù attrattve. I prncp d funzonamento dell MMC sono stat studat e l dmensonamento de component reattv è stato proposto consderando due dfferent approcc a seconda del controllo potzzato per l sstema. Nel corso del suo studo s è noltre evnto che dfferent topologe d celle elementar offrono vare propretà reversbltà d corrente o d tensone sul lato DC. Al fne d comparare le dfferent topologe, s è proposto un nuovo approcco analtco per lo studo delle perdte ha reso l calcolo veloce e dretto. In tale ambto una nuova struttura multlvello è stata ntrodotta. Tale topologa è stata pensata per sstem AC/DC basata su raddrzzator a ponte d dod. Tal sstem nfatt sono compost da trasformator d rete d tpo ZgZag confgurat n tal modo da compensare le component contnue della corrente ntrodotte dal raddrzzatore a ponte lato AC. La topologa proposta nel lavoro d tes è pensata per rmpazzare vecch raddrzzator obsolet e poco versatl con una struttura multlvello capace d avere un mpatto armonco rdotto ed un funzonamento a quattro quadrant n termn d potenza. In una fase successva gl stud sono stat valdat attraverso una campagna d smulazon. Il caso consderato è quello d un sstema HVDC-VSC multtermnal chamato ad nterfaccare un parco eolco off-shore sto n Cna. La potenza del sstema è d MW con una tensone DC d 6 kv. Il converttore MMC è stato dmensonato consderando de dspostv IGBT d tpo press-pack e de dspostv IGCT. Le smulazon hanno valdato le smulazon anche n condzon d fault. Lo studo del controllo per l sstema è stato effettuato n prma battuta consderando la classca modulazone PWM. Tale modulazone è stata mplementata sfasando le portant tra le celle che compongono la struttura. Al fne d valdare lo studo e rsultat d smulazone, un prototpo trfase da kw è stato realzzato. Tale prototpo è formato da 8 celle d commutazone d tpo semplc. Il sstema d controllo è stato mplementato graze una pattaforma basata su logca DSP-FPGA. x Ncola Serba RESUME DE LA THESE EN LANGUE FRANÇAISE Chaptre I : Les systèmes HVDC Ce chaptre présente les systèmes pour le transport d énerge électrque en courant contnu à haute tenson (HVDC et soulgne leur rôle clé dans le développement des énerges renouvelables. Ces 4 dernères années, les systèmes HVDC ont été développés pour le transport de l électrcté compte tenu des consdératons technques et économques suvantes : Par rapport aux systèmes en courant alternatf, la transmsson en courant contnu, malgré le coût addtonnel des sous-statons de converson, est économquement ntéressante pour des dstances supéreures à 8 km dans le cas des lgnes aérennes et 5 km pour les lgnes enterrées ou sous-marnes (Fgure I-. Les systèmes en courant contnu permettent les nterconnexons entre des réseaux hétérogènes q
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