Die Zauberflöte. The Magic Flute STUDY GUIDE - PDF

Die Zauberflöte The Magic Flute STUDY GUIDE 1 Introduction Opera is a unique and exciting art form that combines the disciplines of music, drama, literature, dance, visual, and technical arts like no other.

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Die Zauberflöte The Magic Flute STUDY GUIDE 1 Introduction Opera is a unique and exciting art form that combines the disciplines of music, drama, literature, dance, visual, and technical arts like no other. This guide will give you a backstage tour of all that is opera - terminology, inside information on the production, the history behind the opera and the composer. We hope that this guide will assist you in making opera connections in fun and interesting ways as well as to use The Magic Flute as a point of departure for learning. Exposure to performing and fine arts helps develop critical analysis and problem solving skills, perseverance, and a drive for excellence. The creative skills developed through the arts carry us toward new ideas, new experiences and new challenges. Plus, there s nothing like the excitement and magic of a live professional performance! Emily Forrest Education and Outreach Coordinator Calgary Opera Phone (403) , direct line (403) Education Sponsor Community Outreach Sponsor Emerging Artist Development Program Emerging Artist Development Program is funded in part through the Arts Training Fund 2 The Magic Flute Resource Information What in the World? About the time The eighteenth century was a time of rapid change, development and enlightenment. Patents and copyright laws were created, the Bill of Rights in the United States was ratified and made legal, the French Revolution was beginning and the constitutional act was passed creating Upper and Lower Canada. In Europe, science and mathematics were becoming a central piece of public discourse, and a greater emphasis was placed on the pursuit of academia and greater knowledge of the world. Organized Freemasonry was believed to have been founded in 1717 in London, and was an organization that put emphasis on achieving an enlightened mind though strengthening of character, spirituality, and broadened mental horizons. The Premiere of Die Zauberflöte Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute), a singspiel* in two acts, premiered on September 30 th, 1791 at the Freihaustheater auf der Wieden in Vienna. The opera went on to become one of the most popular and most performed works in history. * Singspiel - a form of German light opera, typically with spoken dialogue. Popular especially in the 18th century. 3 Mozart, synopsis, characters, and cast biographies WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART - composer His early life Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (pronounced: Vohlfgahng Ah-mah-day-us Moht-sahrt), Christened Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was born in Salzburg. His father, Leopold Mozart, was a famous musician and composer in his own right, but he came to realize that even at a tender age, Wolfgang was uniquely musically gifted. Wolfgang was definitely a child prodigy. At the age of three, he already sat in front of the harpsichord attempting to find harmonic successions of thirds, and his voice cried out joyfully when he succeeded. Soon he began producing minuets and sonatas for violin and harpsichord. Wolgang s older sister, Maria Anna (called Nannerl) was also greatly talented and Leopold presented them in an extensive tour of the concert halls and royal courts of Europe. Whenever he performed, the charm of his personality and his incredible genius conquered the hearts of music lovers. His musical gifts The Frankfurt newspaper announced: He will play a concerto for the violin, and will accompany symphonies on the clavier, the manual or keyboard being covered with a cloth, with as much facility as if he could see the keys: he will instantly name all the notes played at a distance, whether singly or in chords as on the clavier or any other instrument. He will finally, both on the harpsichord and the organ, improvise as long as may be desired and in any key. In 1773, at the age of 17, Mozart commenced his employment as court musician of Prince- Archbishop Hieronymus Colloredo of Salzburg. Mozart worked in this position for four years and composed a great number of concerti, symphonies, sonatas, string quartets and even some operas, which marked the beginning of Mozart s love of operatic composition. 4 His operas In 1780 he was commissioned to write an opera, Idomeneo, which was a great success. He followed with The Abduction from the Seraglio and went on to write Don Giovanni, Cosi fan Tutte, La Clemenza di Tito and The Magic Flute, as well as a Requiem. His operas have always been among the most popular in the repertoire. Musically this was a time of change and exploration. Composer Franz Joseph Haydn first met Mozart in 1781 and they became life long friends. That same year, an 11 year old boy was growing up in a little house in Bonn-and six years later came to Vienna to study with Mozart and Haydn-his name was Ludwig van Beethoven. Mozart the Mason Freemasonry is the activity of closely united men who, employing symbolic forms, work for the welfare of mankind. It expanded in the 1700s and the most distinguished and learned men belonged to the society. Mozart joined in 1785, the last year of the golden age of masonry. In 1791 there was news that the Imperial Court would suppress it. That the opera is a barely veiled Masonic allegory cannot be doubted. There is much evidence of Masonic symbolism in The Magic Flute: the trials and tests of Pamina and Tamino are similar to the rituals for entry into the Masonic order; the Masonic rule of three: the triple chords, the three ladies, the three spirits etc. the main themes of good vs. evil; enlightenment vs ignorance; evocation of the four elements: earth, air, fire, and water. Mozart also wrote a great deal of music for the Masons, some of which is still used in their ceremonies. However, although this is a fascinating study, it may only have meaning for the Masons, as they view the opera. Mozart s Death Mozart died on December 5 th, three short months after the premiere of Die Zauberflöte in Vienna at the young age of 35. Since there was no autopsy performed at the time, his cause of death is still unknown. In his brief life, Mozart wrote over 600 musical works, including 22 operas. Emanuel Schikaneder Librettist Emanuel Johann Joseph Schikaneder was born on September 1, 1751 in Straubing, Germany. Although little is known of his life in Germany, Schikaneder was very well known in Vienna (especially among the middle class audiences that he endeavored to attract to the theatre). Today, Schikaneder remains a rather obscure character. Schikaneder was a dramatist, singer, composer, dancer, and actor. He was famous for his Shakespearian roles (known best for his excellent portrayal of Hamlet), yet he was also adept at performing the lowest of comedy and often did. To pull in crowds, he did not hesitate to make use of spectacular special effects. The term Schikanederei was coined to describe those impressive productions. 5 In Schikaneder directed a traveling theatre troupe (the troupe visited Salzburg in 1780), for which he also wrote plays and librettos. After directing several other companies, he finally settled at the Freihaus-Theater auf der Wieden where he assembled one of the most talented groups of singers ever to perform in Vienna. At this theatre he produced his own plays and commissioned settings of his operas and Singspiel librettos (such as The Magic Flute.) Synopsis for The Magic Flute The opera opens to Prince Tamino attempting to escape from a serpent. He trips in running and falls unconscious. Hearing his cries for help, Three Ladies suddenly appear and defeat the serpent. They leave the handsome youth, who, on recovering consciousness, sees dancing towards him an odd-looking man, Papageno, a bird-catcher. He tells the astonished Tamino that this is the realm of the Queen of the Night. Seeing that the serpent is dead, he boasts that it was he who killed the monster. For this lie he is immediately punished. The Three Ladies, attendants on the Queen of the Night, reappear and place a padlock on his mouth. Then they show Tamino the miniature portrait of a maiden, whose magical beauty at once fills his heart with ardent love. The Queen of the Night enters and tells Tamino the portrait is that of her daughter, Pamina, who has been taken from her by a wicked sorcerer, Sarastro. She tells Tamino to deliver the maiden and as a reward he will receive her hand in marriage. The Three Ladies return and, removing the padlock from Papageno s mouth, give him a set of bells and Tamino a flute. These magical instruments will help them escape any perils they encounter on their quest. In what appears to be Sarastro s palace a servant, Monastatos, is pursuing Pamina with unwelcome attentions. The appearance of Papageno puts him to flight. The bird-catcher recognizes Pamina as the daughter of the Queen of the Night, and assures her that she will soon be rescued. In the meantime in another part of the palace, Tamino discovers that Sarastro is no tyrant or sorcerer, as the Queen had warned him, but a man of wisdom and of noble character. The sound of Papageno s voice leads Tamino forth as he hastens to call his companion by playing on his flute. Papageno is trying to escape with Pamina, but is prevented by the appearance of Monostatos. Papageno sets Monastatos dancing by playing on his magic chimes and Pamina explains to Sarastro that she was trying to escape the unwelcome attentions of Monastatos. Tamino, Pamina, and Papageno are told that they must prove themselves worthy of higher happiness with a series of tests of their virtue. In the succeeding scenes we see these fabulous ordeals, which Tamino, with the assistance of his magic flute and his own purity of purpose, finally overcomes in company with Pamina. Although he cannot measure up to the nobility of purpose of Tamino and Pamina, Papageno is rewarded in his own way and finally discovers his Papagena. Darkness is banished, all is set right with the young couple. 6 Characters/Cast List The Magic Flute, April 16, 20, 22, 2016 Role Name Voice Type Conductor Robert Tweten Stage Director Robert Herriot In order of vocal appearance on stage: Tamino Adam Luther Tenor First Lady Lida Szkwarek Soprano Second Lady Michelle Minke Soprano Third Lady Jennifer Sproule Mezzo-Soprano Papageno Hugh Russell Baritone Queen of the Night Ambur Braid Soprano Coloratura Monostatos Jeffery Boyd Tenor Pamino Shannon Mercer Soprano Spirit 1 Stephanie Hradsky Soprano Spirit 2 Abbey Curzon Soprano Spirit 3 Melissa Peiou Mezzo-Soprano (Emerging Artist) Speaker Aaron Dimoff Bass-Baritone Sarastro Uwe Dambruch Bass 2 nd priest & armed man 1 Jason Ragan Tenor (Emerging Artist) 1 st priest & armed man 2 Nathan Keoughan Baritone (Emerging Artist) Key Cast & Production Biographies Rob Herriot Director Stage director Rob Herriot is pleased to be back with Calgary Opera following his production of L Enfant et les Sortileges for Christmas at the Opera. Previous productions for Calgary Opera include, La Boheme, Barber of Seville, Pirates of Penzance and Candide, as well as numerous productions with the Emerging Artists. Other productions include, Lucia di Lammermoor, Rigoletto, Don Pasquale, Don Giovanni, Marriage of Figaro, Carmen, Daughter of the Regiment, Tosca, Magic Flute, The Mikado, Albert Herring, Gianni Schicci, Suor Angelica and HMS Pinafore for companies across North America including, Manitoba Opera, Edmonton Opera, Opera Lyra Ottawa, Utah Opera, Arizona Opera, Connecticut Opera, Wilfred Laurier Opera, Opera on the Avalon and Opera Nuova. His productions have been nominated for a Betty Mitchell Award, 3 Sterling awards, winning Best Production of a Musical for HMS Pinafore. Future engagements include, La Boheme with Opera Nuova and performing in A little Night Music for Dry Cold Productions in Winnipeg. 7 Robert Tweten Conductor Robert Tweten returns to Calgary Opera after conducting last season s Le nozze di Figaro. The Canadian native has recently led Tosca for Utah Opera, Lucia di Lammermoor for Edmonton Opera, Madama Butterfly for Dayton Opera and Carmen for Tulsa Opera. Head of Music Staff for the Santa Fe Opera, Maestro Tweten has led five productions there as well as other companies including: Lyric Opera of Chicago, Sarasota Opera, Vancouver Opera and Austin Lyric Opera. Also an active collaborative pianist, Robert has performed internationally with many of today s foremost singers and instrumentalists in venues such as Carnegie Hall, Wigmore Hall and the Salzburg Festival. Shannon Mercer Soprano: Pamina Canadian soprano Shannon Mercer enthusiastically embraces a range of repertoire from early to contemporary music, from Francesca Caccini and Monteverdi to John Beckwith and Ana Sokolovic. Highlights of Ms. Mercer s season include Pamina in Die Zauberflöte with Calgary Opera; Purcell s The Fairy Queen and Mozart s Esultate Jubilate with the Naples Philharmonic Orchestra; and Handel s Messiah with the Oregon Symphony and Houston Symphony. Shannon began her operatic career as a member of the Canadian Opera Company Ensemble Studio Program. A prolific recording artist, Ms. Mercer most recently released Trobairitz: Poems of Women Troubadours, which featured the songs of 12th- and 13thcentury female troubadours in the south of France (Analekta). Adam Luther Tenor: Tamino Newfoundland tenor Adam Luther has recently appeared onstage as Pinkerton in Madama Butterfly with Pacific Opera Victoria, Michigan Opera Theatre and Saskatoon Opera as well as Tamino in Die Zauberflöte with Edmonton Opera. Other recent appearances include Froh in Das Rheingold with Pacific Opera Victoria, Don Jose in Carmen with Saskatoon Opera, Alfredo in La traviata with Highlands Opera Festival, Danilo in The Merry Widow with Toronto Operetta Theatre, and the Steersman in The Flying Dutchman and Lysander in A Midsummer Night s Dream with the Canadian Opera Company. Recent concert appearances include Bruckner s Te Deum, Verdi s Requiem, Mahler s Das Lied von der Erde and Alfred in a concert version of Die Fledermaus. Adam looks forward to making company debuts with Calgary Opera (Die Zauberflöte) and Vancouver Opera (Madama Butterfly) this season as well as singing Alfredo in La traviata with FestiVoix de Trois-Rivières. Ambur Braid Soprano: Queen of the Night Canadian soprano Ambur Braid is quickly establishing herself as a rising young artist in dramatic coloratura soprano roles that encompass Donizetti s Lucia di Lammermoor, Massenet s Esclarmonde, and Mozart s Queen of the Night. Ambur Braid debuted at Teatro de São Carlos in Lisbon as Anne Truelove in a new production of The Rake's Progress conducted by Joana Carneiro. In the season she makes her UK debut as the Queen of the Night in The 8 Magic Flute at the English National Opera. She has also debuted Konstanze in Die Entführung aus dem Serail at Opéra Atelier and Violetta in La traviata at Arizona Opera. She covered the role of Elisabetta in Donizetti s Roberto Devereux and the title role in Semele at the Canadian Opera Company. In her final season as a member of the ensemble at the COC, Ms. Braid was seen in a new production of Die Fledermaus as Adele in which the Toronto Star called her sexy, sparky, sensational. and performed the role of Vitellia in the Ensemble Studio performance of La clemenza di Tito. Hugh Russell Baritone: Papageno In the current season, Canadian baritone Hugh Russell joins Calgary Opera as Papageno in The Magic Flute. On the concert stage, he performs Carmina Burana with the Columbus Symphony Orchestra, Faure s Requiem with the Vancouver Symphony and the Houston Symphony Orchestra, and Rachmaninoff s The Bells and with the Cincinnati Symphony. Last season Mr. Russell performed the role of Falke in Die Fledermaus with Vancouver Opera. Orchestral engagements included Faure s Requiem with the Dallas Symphony, opera scenes with the Princeton Symphony, and Carmina Burana with the Rhode Island Philharmonic, the West Michigan Symphony, and the Louisville Orchestra. Uwe Dambruch Bass-Baritone: Sarastro Mr. Dambruch is returning to Calgary Opera after his critically acclaimed role debut as Fasolt in Das Rheingold with Pacific Opera Victoria. German born and Calgary based, he has performed with Deutsche Oper am Rhein Duesseldorf, Frankfurt Opera, the Bayreuth Festival, Zuerich, Hannover, Karlsruhe, and the Taiwan Symphony. North American appearances include Vancouver, Victoria, and Edmonton Opera, Opera Hamilton, North Carolina Opera, Florentine Opera and Alberta Ballet. He sang Wagnerian excerpts in the Cannes-award-winning film Wahnfried. Upcoming are Sarastro in The Magic Flute with Opera Classica Europe, the biggest open air summer opera festival in Germany, Hunding/Act 1 of Die Walkuere in concert, and in 2017 his role debut as Baron Ochs in Der Rosenkavalier. 9 Language and the history of opera The History of Opera Theatrical performances that use music, song and dance to tell a story can be found in many cultures. Opera is just one example of music drama. Have you ever wondered where opera got its start? Back in the late 1500s during the height of the Renaissance, a group of men called the Florentine Camerata got together to create a new and moving theatrical experience. They wanted to recreate what the ancient Greeks did during their legendary dramas. The result was something entirely new opera! Most of the early operas were based on Greek myths. The first opera that we know of was called Dafne by Jacopo Peri in 1598, but the most famous opera of this early period that is still performed today is Claudio Monteverdi s Orfeo (1607). Certain basic ingredients were included in opera: songs, instrumental accompaniments, costumes, dance, and scenery. We still use all of these ingredients today! The early operas were first performed in the grand courts of Italian nobility, but soon opera became popular with the public, too. As it became all the rage, productions became more lavish. Soon, theatres began to be built just to mount operas. These theatres had elaborate stage machinery to create special effects like flying actors or crumbling buildings. Not everyone embraced the new form of theatre. Some critics thought that all of the stage antics in opera detracted from the music and drama. Some people even believed that seeing too much comedy in opera could make you immoral. During the Baroque period (about 1600 to 1750), Italian opera spread all over Europe. The Italian style of opera was so popular that even non-italians wrote in this style. For example Léo Frederic Handel ( ) was a German-born composer who lived and worked in England. His operas, like Julius Caesar (1724), were written in the Italian language and used an Italian style of music. The only nation to create its own national operatic style was France. Ballet played a large role in the Léo Frederic Handel ( ) French culture, and operas often included ballets in the middle of the opera. The most famous French Baroque opera composers were Jean-Baptiste Lully ( ) and Jean-Philippe Rameau ( ). The 18th century was full of change for both Europe and opera. This time period was known as the Age of Enlightenment. People were starting to talk about new forms of government and organization in society, especially the ever-growing middle class. Music displayed this new thinking as composers dropped the Baroque era s complicated musical style for simpler, more 10 emotional music. In less-flashy music, characters could express their thoughts and feelings more believably. One of the first operas to use this new style was Christoph Willibald Gluck s Orfeo ed Euridice (1762). In 1789 the French Revolution changed the world. The first modern democracies were born, and to match the times in which they were created, audiences wanted to see characters like themselves on stage, not gods and goddesses. They also wanted to see issues that were important to them. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart s The Marriage of Figaro (1786) featured a timely story of aristocratic class struggles that had both servants
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