Bakalářská práce 2013 Ondřej Josíf - PDF

Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Palackého Bakalářská práce 2013 Ondřej Josíf Filosofická fakulta Univerzity Palackého Katerdra anglistiky a amerikanistiky Figurativní jazyk v politickém diskursu a strategie

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Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Palackého Bakalářská práce 2013 Ondřej Josíf Filosofická fakulta Univerzity Palackého Katerdra anglistiky a amerikanistiky Figurativní jazyk v politickém diskursu a strategie jeho tlumočení Figurative language in political discourse and strategies for its interpreting Autor: Ondřej Josíf, Angličtina se zaměřením na aplikovanou ekonomii Vedoucí práce: PhDr. Veronika Prágerová Olomouc 2013 Prohlašuji, že jsem tuto bakalářskou práci vypracoval samostatně a uvedl úplný seznam citované a použité literatury. V Olomouci dne 26.dubna 2013 Děkuji PhDr. Veronice Prágerové za odborné vedení při zpracování mé bakalářské práce a za užitečné rady, které mi v průběhu psaní práce poskytla. Dále bych rád poděkoval studentům tlumočnického semináře, kteří mi poskytli své přetlumočené nahrávky a umožnili tak vznik této práce. Table of contents 1 Introduction Theoretical Part Political discourse Nature of political speech Figurative expressions in political discourse First Inaugural Address of George W. Bush Inaugural Address passages The techniques of interpreting in general Reformulation The salami technique Simplification Generalization Explanation Summarizing Rhetoric and types of rhetorical devices Rhetoric Some rhetorical devices Figure Phrase Metaphor Idiom Proverb Strategies of interpreting Replacement by similar expression Replacement by equivalent expression Explanation, rephrasing, paraphrasing Explanation Paraphrasing Rephrasing Omission... 25 3 Practical Part Introduction to the practical part Corpus Tables with students interpretations Statistics The summary of techniques and strategies used: The summary of strategies used with rhetorical devices: Conclusion Resumé Appendix Appendix 1 Transcription of the original speech Bibliography Work cited Internet sources Anotace... 54 1 INTRODUCTION Metaphors, idioms, proverbs or as we can collectively call them figurative or rhetorical language are often a common problem for interpreters and translators. The main issue is that sometimes interpreters simply cannot find an adequate translation for such rhetorical device and therefore they have to improvise. While in translation this can be easier since translators usually have the required time to do the necessary research in order to find the best equivalent for the target language 1, in interpreting they do not. For this reason I have decided to focus mainly on the interpreting theory and practice in this thesis, although in certain cases the translating part will be described as well. An interpreter has to translate given expressions as quickly as possible and at the same time he or she has to faithfully convey the meaning of it. There are a few factors that an interpreter has to take into consideration in this process. The aim of this thesis is to focus on such factors like for example strategies and techniques of interpretation. The thesis is separated into two parts, the first part, which is theoretical and the second part, which is practical. Both parts are then divided into another chapters and subchapters. Political discourse will serve as a source of figurative expressions; specifically it will be the first inaugural speech of George W. Bush from the 11 th of January Brief description of political discourse as well as the events around the inauguration of George W. Bush will be described in the first chapter of the thesis. This will be followed by analysis of chosen expressions from Bush s Inaugural Address. Each expression will be explained and translated into Czech language, which will serve as a base for other parts of the thesis. In chapters 2.3 and 2.5 I will take a closer look at different kinds of techniques and strategies of interpreting both in general and with focus on rhetorical language; afterwards I will point out the advantages and disadvantages of their use for translating figurative expressions. The practical part is an experiment, where a group of students listened to this inaugural address and they interpreted it into the Czech language. Following transcripts were rewritten and afterwards ten figurative expressions were extracted from their 1 Target language is a language to which a source text is being interpreted 1 interpretations. These translated expressions were analyzed and compared with the translation proposed by me. Focus was also put on the appropriateness of individual technique and strategy for each rhetorical device and on interpreter s understanding of the context. On the base of the frequency of techniques and strategies used in the extracts the evaluation and conclusion were made. 2 2 THEORETICAL PART 2.1 Political discourse It is not the main topic of this thesis to deal with political discourse analysis and go into details of political speeches, debates or hearings, it should be however mentioned what are the basic elements and aims of such discourse since all the figurative expression analyzed in this thesis were used in speech that is in its essence political Nature of political speech Political speeches, as a form of political discourse, are a specific form of speech; they must be effective and persuasive in order to fulfill their purpose. In every democratic country citizens have the right to elect their favorite person or party in government and in some countries they can even directly elect presidents. This is the cornerstone of why political rallies are delivered. In them politicians want to accomplish a goal convince the public to vote their way. Such speech cannot be too difficult and must be understandable to people, that are meant to be in addressed by it. What is important for analysts of political discourse is that the language is closely bound up in practice with culture, and that culture is in turn closely bound up with the practice of politics in a particular society (Chilton and Schäffner 2002, 8). This means that the person giving the speech has to be familiar with the culture of the respective country and situation of the particular area that he is referring to and adjust it based on this fact. For example if a politician wants to win a vote of the population in a rural part of a country where 90% of production is done by agriculture, he should state the benefits and contributions that his government will provide for agricultural sector. One of the main characteristic of political speech which distinguishes it from other types of speeches is that it is often written by a group of professional speech writers that specialize in this area. These writers are educated to make the speech meet the intended goal and it is also the reason why such speech is often sophisticated and full of rhetorical language. In this case rhetorical language can be almost a crucial way of reaching a public. This concerns especially presidential speeches and inaugural addresses, for this reason these are full of rhetorical language. It is also important to add that politicians must very much focus on the way of delivering their speech. We need to 3 realize that people do not always understand everything that is said in the politician s speech so sometimes his style of speaking and his ability to make the speech interesting can play an important role for a listener. 2.2 Figurative expressions in political discourse In this chapter I will analyze the presidential inaugural address and some of the figurative expressions that it contains. The inaugural address is a speech given during the inaugural ceremony that informs people of presidents intentions as of leaders of a country and figurative expressions are often used to illustrate this. For this thesis I have chosen the first inaugural address of George W. Bush which was delivered on the 20 th of January 2001 at United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. Bush was running for president as a Republican candidate, just like his father George H. W. Bush, and he was the 43 th elected president in the history of United States of America. His victory in elections was the commencement of the first of his two four-year terms as a President. According to BBC this inauguration was attended by almost people. G. W. Bush entered his presidential function after Bill Clinton who was in his office for 8 years from the year 1993 (BBC News, 2001). Although G. W. Bush has been often criticized for a bad pronunciation and even malapropism and mangled statements while giving speeches during his presidential activities, that has later been recognized as Bushism, 2 he has also became very popular for his use of unconventional phrases, words and figurative language. Especially his inaugural addresses will provide a outstanding source of rhetorical expressions that can be used for further analysis First Inaugural Address of George W. Bush The first inaugural address of G. W. Bush is a proof of how good Bush s speechwriters were. This speech could almost be considered as an artwork due to well used rhetorical language consisting of a large amount of metaphors and other means of rhetoric such as alliteration. It meets the goals of a good inaugural address; audience gets the image of the president being the right and trustworthy person that will serve his country the way a president should. 2 The Huffington Post, 2009, Bushism over the years. Last modified January 3. 4 Apart from other characteristics of this speech, Bush puts a big emphasis on religious issues in the address. He talks about God in multiple parts of his speech, not only he says God bless you all, and God bless America in the end as it a custom for inaugural addresses in United States, but he also mentions churches, synagogues and mosques as places lending humanity to communities. This means that G. W. Bush does not only proclaim to Christianity but also other religions represented in the United States. This is an important reference for American citizen since we have to take into consideration that almost 80% of US population is religious. 3 I will summarize the brief content of the speech: President Bush reminds the American people of the rare authority in history and that they can easily affirm old traditions and make new beginnings. He begins with the story of the United States and gives several examples such as slavery or the immigrants coming to America. After that he describes the ideals everyone has got, the promise that everybody deserves a chance. Furthermore Bush requests Americans to enact this promise and to follow that course. Moreover he states, they still have a long way to go to strengthen the trust in the country. Then Bush mentions all people are God s children, but there is still social injustice. He reminds the audience of the importance of ideals and principles, leading them onwards. (Study mode 2012) The full transcript and audio file is available in the attached files Inaugural Address passages Although there is more rhetorical language to be found in this address I have chosen ten passages that contains various figurative expression. I am going to analyze them and translate into the Czech language. Each expression is put into broader contexts in order for the reader to understand it better. Passages will be written in italics in the order as they are mentioned in the speech. Analyzed expressions will then be highlighted. 1. Conducted with spirit and ended with grace. As I begin, I thank President Clinton for his service to our nation. And I thank Vice President Gore for a contest conducted with spirit and ended with grace. 3 The PEW forum on religion and public service U.S. religious landcape surfy. Accessed April To explain why George W. Bush decided to use this metaphor, we need to look at the circumstances of the presidential elections in The result of these elections were one of closest in the history of United States. The difference between the two candidates, Al Gore representing Democratic Party and George Bush for Republican Party, was only 5 electoral votes with total 271 votes for Bush and 266 for Gore. Al Gore however received more popular votes than Bush did. Results in Florida were in fact so close that was required their recount. In the end the difference between candidates was less than 0, 01%. Al Gore did not continue to challenge the results in Florida and by the decision of U. S. Supreme Court George W. Bush was elected a President. 4 Al Gore later said: Almost a century and a half ago, Senator Stephen Douglas told Abraham Lincoln, who had just defeated him for the presidency, 'Partisan feeling must yield to patriotism. I'm with you, Mr. President, and God bless.' Well, in that same spirit, I say to President-elect Bush that what remains of partisan rancor must now be put aside, and may God bless his stewardship of this country. 5 Therefore when G. W. Bush said ended with grace; he is referring to Gore s decision not to insist on recounting the votes. Conducted with spirit is a rhetorical phrase reffering to his initial determination to enter the elections. Considering given circumstances of the translation this metaphor cannot be translated literally, but will have to change according to what it relates. Especially the word grace could cause confusion if for instance translated from a religious point of view. The Czech translation would be: Započatou kuráží a zakončenou velkorysostí Story of flawed and fallible people. It is the American story--a story of flawed and fallible people, united across the generations by grand and enduring ideals 4 Encyclopædia Britannica Online, s. v. United States presidential election of 2000 , accessed April 14, The Guardian Gore: It s time for me to go. Last modified December 14, My translations of figurative expressions are of the descriptive kind of character and it is perfectly acceptable that other variants of translations are possible, as it will be seen in practical part. 6 Flawed and fallible is a well used figurative expression in connection to people. When flawed and fallible is mentioned by Bush in his speech he is referring to the American nation having flaws and fallacies over the years of its existence. He points out that nobody is perfect and everybody can make mistakes with which the audience can identify. By saying in the next line: The grandest of these ideals is an unfolding American promise that everyone belongs, that everyone deserves a chance, that no insignificant person was ever born. He proves that even flawed and fallible people deserve chance. Translation of this metaphor does not require any specific knowledge connected with American history and could be translated word by word. The Czech translation of this expression would be: Příběh o chybujících a omylných lidech. 3. rock in a raging sea 4. seed upon the wind, taking root in many nations Through much of the last century, America's faith in freedom and democracy was a rock in a raging sea. Now it is a seed upon the wind, taking root in many nations. This sentence, located in the first third of the inaugural speech, is literally filled with rhetoric language that makes it sound very poetic. In the first part we have an metaphoric expression rock in a raging sea, where rock stands for faith, freedom and democracy, being strong and stable in the United States and raging sea stands for situation in other countries in the world during where non-democratic regimes often took place during last century. This is followed by the metaphor seed upon the wind, taking root in many nations. Seed symbolizes America s involvement in other countries in recent years that is constantly being spread by wind to many other nations. Taking root here creates an image of a seed that will grow into a strong plant. 7 Although there is lot of rhetorical meaning in these two sentences as mentioned above, the translation of these expressions is not dependent on their meaning, since English language does not differ here from other target languages including Czech. My translation of the first simile rock in a raging sea would be: skála v rozbouřeném moři The second metaphor seed upon the wind, taking root in many nations could be translated like: semínko ve větru, zapouštějící kořeny v mnoha zemích 5. live up to the calling we share We must live up to the calling we share. Civility is not a tactic or a sentiment. It is the determined choice of trust over cynicism, of community over chaos. And this commitment, if we keep it, is a way to shared accomplishment. This metaphor refers to the preceding paragraph of the speech, where Bush mentions a few characteristics that American nation should have. Civility, courage, compassion and character are mentioned as means how to live out nation s promise. Furthermore good will, respect, fair dealing and forgiveness is something that every American citizen should have in order to guarantee good civil society. By calling that Americans should live up to, Bush means these values that everyone should share and have them present in their lives. Analyzed metaphor begins with idiom live up to that according to Oxford English Dictionary have three meanings; therefore we should know the context of it in order to make a proper translation. The meanings are following: - To live or act in accordance with - To live at a high moral or intellectual level - To live extravagantly; to have a good time Since the bottom line here is to make citizens to live according to certain values and characteristics, the translation comes out quite obviously and it would be the first meaning to act in accordance with. 8 My translation into Czech is: žít v souladu s povoláním, které sdílíme 7 6. lest weakness invite challenge We will build our defenses beyond challenge, lest weakness invite challenge. We will confront weapons of mass destruction, so that a new century is spared new horrors. The first reference to national security and defense appears in the beginning of second half of the speech. Here G. W. Bush talks about defenses, which America should build in order to avoid being attacked. Here rhetorical language is used in the second part of first sentence specifically the part lest weakness invite challenge. Lest is an old English term, which according to Oxford Concise dictionary has following meanings: with the intention of preventing, to avoid the risk of because of the possibility of By weakness inviting challenge Bush tries to say that if a nation is weak, it becomes an easy target to other nations and in a fear of becoming an easy target, they should make sure their defense is strong. Whole statement could be then interpreted subsequently; no matter what the challenge is, America should build its defense to such level where no risk of challenge from outside of the nation would be a threat for it. For an interpreter this sentence might be more difficult to translate. Mainly because the word lest is an old fashioned word, that in no longer being used in modern English and the interpreter must have the knowledge of it. The other difficulty is the expression beyond challenge, must be understood correctly in order to successfully interpret the rest of the sentence to which it is connected. After this analysis and time spend over this sentence, my translation would be: Vybudujeme naší obranu navzdory všemu, protože možná slabost vzbuzuje výzvy. 7. compassion is the work of a nation Government has great responsibilities for public safety and public health, for civil rights and common schools. Yet compassion is the work of a nation, not just a government. 7 Slovo povolání je myšleno ve smyslu cíle, jenž je společný pro všechny občany. 9 Compassion is the work of nation; this is another metaphorical expression in George W. Bush s speech. In the preceding sentence public safety, public health, civil rights and schools as something that government is responsible for. But there is something above responsibility that should b
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