Nutritional Guidelines. Fédération européenne de l industrie des aliments pour animaux familiers - PDF

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Fédération européenne de l industrie des aliments pour animaux familiers The European Pet Food Industry Federation Nutritional Guidelines For Complete and Complementary Pet Food for Cats and Dogs 1/100

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Fédération européenne de l industrie des aliments pour animaux familiers The European Pet Food Industry Federation Nutritional Guidelines For Complete and Complementary Pet Food for Cats and Dogs 1/100 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Glossary 1. Definitions...05 II. III. IV. Introduction 1. Objectives Scope...09 Complete pet food 1. Guidance Minimum recommended nutrient levels in cat and dog foods 1.2 Energy contents of pet foods 1.3 Maximum levels of certain substances in pet food for cats and dogs 1.4 Product validation 1.5 Repeat analyses 1.6 Directions for use/ feeding instructions 2. Tables with nutrient recommendations How to read the tables 2.2 Recommended nutrient levels for dogs 2.3 Recommended nutrient levels for cats 3. Substantiation of nutrient recommendations tables Substantiation of nutrient recommendations for dogs 3.2 Substantiation of nutrient recommendations for cats Complementary pet food 1. Recommended allowances Validation procedure Repeat analyses...37 V. Analytical methods 1. Non-exhaustive list of analytical methods...38 VI. Feeding test protocols 1. Indicator method Introduction 1.2. Protocol Animals Feeding procedures Food Food allowances Times of feeding Pre-trial termination Collection Sample preparation Analytical determination Calculation of digestible energy and digestible nutrients Calculation of metabolizable energy 2. Quantitative collection method Introduction 2.2. Protocol Animals Feeding procedures Food Food allowances Times of feeding Pre-trial termination Feaces collection Sample preparation Analytical determination Calculation of digestible energy and... digestible nutrients Calculation of metabolizable energy 3. References /100 VII. Annexes 1. Body Condition Score Introduction 1.2 Validated Body Condition Score 1.3 Practical use and interpretation 1.4 Conclusion 1.5 References 2. Energy Introduction 2.2 Energy density of the food Gross energy Metabolizable energy 2.3 Literature Maintenance Energy Requirements (MER) of adult dogs Activity Age Breed & type Thermoregulation and housing 2.4 Practical recommendations for daily energy intake by dogs and cats in different physiological states Dogs Cats 2.5 Impact of energy requirement on product formulation 2.6 References 3. Taurine Introduction 3.2 Cat 3.3 Dog 3.4 Conclusion 3.5 References 4. Arginine Vitamins Chemical compounds 5.2 References 6. Adverse Reactions to Food Introduction 6.2 Definitions Adverse reactions to food Food allergy Non-allergic food hypersensitivity All individuals susceptible if sufficient quantity eaten 6.3 Food allergy in humans 6.4 Adverse reactions to food in cats and dogs 6.5 Conclusions 6.6 References 7. Risk of some human foods regularly given to pets Grape and raisin toxicity in dogs Background Clinical signs and pathology Toxic agent Treatment References 7.2 Chocolate toxicity Background Toxic agent Clinical signs Treatment References 7.3 Toxicity of onions and garlic in cats & dogs Background Clinical signs and pathology Toxic agent Treatment References 8. Product families Recommended nutrient levels by lifestage and maintenance energy requirement...88 VIII. Changes versus previous versions 1. Adaptions in the Nutritional Guidelines Adaptions in the Nutritional Guidelines Adaptions in the Nutritional Guidelines Adaptions in the Nutritional Guidelines Adaptions in the Nutritional Guidelines Disclaimer: The official document is written in English and the English version of the Web Site is the only version endorsed by FEDIAF. The information contained in this document may be translated to other languages for the convenience of member associations. FEDIAF shall not be responsible for any errors or omissions contained in the translations. 3/100 Preface Nutrition of dogs and cats is central for health and wellbeing. Scientific knowledge about nutrient requirements, digestion of feed and metabolism of nutrients are the guidelines for formulating appropriate diets for dogs and cats. It is therefore important that the composition and nutrient profiles of pet food corresponds to the specific nutritional requirements of dogs and cats in the different life cycles. The European pet food industry has taken up the task of adapting the recommendations for nutrient levels in pet food in close cooperation with independent scientists. A significant step was initiated in the year 2010, when a Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) with scientists from European countries was installed. The SAB will ensure to maintain the scientific standards of the recommended nutrient levels and it will advise FEDIAF so that latest research results are transferred into the guidelines and the current feeding practice. Proper nutrition ensuring adequate intakes of energy, protein, minerals and vitamins is essential for dogs and cats to ensure health and longevity. By now these revised nutrient recommendations take the current state of knowledge into account. The recommended values are based on scientific principles and take into account the requirements for practical feeding. This enables the pet food industry to adjust the quality of complete diets for dogs and cats according to the scientific state of the art. Through ongoing communication, research and critical evaluation of new findings FEDIAF and the SAB work on the adaptation of these recommendations in a continuous process. The scientific SAB has set itself the task to accompany this development and to assist FEDIAF in its commitment to safe and healthy pet food. Prof. Jürgen Zentek, Chairman of the SAB Acknowledgement FEDIAF thanks everyone who has contributed to the quality of these Nutritional Guidelines, especially the Scientific Advisory Board members for reviewing the Guidelines and for the continuing scientific support to the group. Scientific Advisory Board: Prof. Ahlstrøm, Øystein...Oslo (NO) Prof. Biagi, Giacomo...Bologna (IT) Dr. Dobenecker, Britta...München (DE) Prof. Hendriks, Wouter...Wageningen/Utrecht (NL) Prof. Hesta, Myriam...Gent (BE) Prof. Iben, Christine...Wien (AT) Prof. Nguyen, Patrick...Nantes (FR) Prof. Paragon, Bernard...Maisons-Alfort (FR) Dr. Villaverde, Cecilia...Barcelona (ES) Prof. Zentek, Jürgen...Berlin (DE) 4/100 I Glossary Definitions The glossary contains definitions of key words used in this Guideline followed by the source of the definition. Whenever appropriate, definitions are adapted to pet food. A Allowance An Allowance or Recommendation for daily intake (RDI) is the level of intake of a nutrient or food component that appears to be adequate to meet the known nutritional needs of practically all healthy individuals. It reflects the minimum requirement plus a safety margin for differences in availability between individual animals and for nutrient interactions. In practice this would be translated as the levels of essential nutrients that healthy individuals should consume over time to ensure adequate and safe nutrition. a, b Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an acute lifethreatening multi-system allergic reaction resulting from exposure to an offending agent. In people, foods, insect stings, and medication are the most common causes. a, b, c a Food and Nutrition Board How should the Recommended Dietary Allowances be Revised? A concept paper from the Food and Nutrition Board Nutrition Reviews 1994; b Uauy-Dagach R, Hertrampf E. Chapter 56 Food-based dietary recommendations: possibilities and limitations. In: Present Knowledge in Nutrition 8th Edit. Bowman BA, Russell RM edits. ILSI Press Washington, DC a Tang AW. A practical guide to anaphylaxis. Am Fam Physician 2003; 68 (7): b Oswalt M, Kemp SF. Anaphylaxis: office management and prevention Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2007; 27 (2): c Wang J, Sampson HA. Food Anaphylaxis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007; 37 (5): B Basal metabolic rate (BMR) Is the energy required to maintain homeostasis in an animal in a postabsorptive state (ideally after an overnight fast) that is lying down but awake in a thermo-neutral environment to which it has been acclimatised Bioavailability The degree to which a nutrient is absorbed and becomes available at the site of action in the body. Blaxter KL, The minimal metabolism. In: Energy metabolism in animals and man. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK. 1989; Adapted from: Hoag SW, Hussain AS. The impact of formulation on bioavailability: Summary of workshop discussion. J. Nutr. 2001; 131: 1389S-1391S. C Complementary pet food Pet food which has a high content of certain substances but which, by Regulation (EU) No 767/2009 on the placing on the market and use of feed (art. 3 (2.j)) adapted to pet food. 5/100 reason of its composition, is sufficient for a daily ration only if used in combination with other pet foods. See also FEDIAF explanation (see chapter IV) Complete pet food Pet food which, by reason of its composition, is sufficient for a daily ration. Regulation (EU) No 767/2009 on the placing on the market and use of feed (art. 3 (2.i)) adapted to pet food. D Daily ration The average total quantity of feedingstuffs, calculated on a moisture content of 12%, required daily by an animal of a given species, age category and yield, to satisfy all its needs. Regulation (EU) No 1831/2003 (art. 2 (2.f)). FEDIAF Explanation The above-mentioned legal definition means the average total quantity of a specific pet food that is needed daily by a pet of a given species, age category and life style or activity to satisfy all its energy and nutrient requirements Dietary indiscretion An adverse reaction resulting from such behaviour as gluttony, pica, or ingestion of various indigestible materials or garbage. Digestible energy (DE) Is the gross energy less the gross energy of faeces resulting from the consumption of that pet food DM Dry Matter Dry pet food Pet food with a moisture content of less then 14%. Guilford WG. Adverse reactions to foods: A gastrointestinal perspective Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1994; 16 (8): McDonald P, Edwards RA, Greenhalgh JFD, et al. Digestible energy (DE). In: Animal Nutrition. 7th Edition Pearson Education Ltd. Harlow, England. 2011: Hygienische productie en handel Huisdiervoeders E Extrusion The process by which feed materials are transformed in a tube by a combination of moisture, pressure, heat, and mechanical shear, and which is widely used to produce dry pet food. Adapted from: Hauck B, Rokey G, Smith O, et al. Extrusion cooking systems. In: Feed Manufacturing Technology IV. McEllhiney edit. American Feed Industry Association, Inc. 1994: F Food allergy Immune-mediated reaction caused by the ingestion of a food or food additive and resulting in one or more of the clinical signs described in ANNEX 5 Adverse reactions to food. Halliwell REW Comparative aspects of food intolerance Veterinary Medicine 1992; 87: /100 G Gross energy Is the total energy arising from complete combustion of a food in a bomb calorimeter. McDonald P, Edwards RA, Greenhalgh JFD, et al. Gross energy (GE). In: Animal Nutrition. 7th Edition Pearson Education Ltd. Harlow, England. 2011: M Maintenance energy requirement (MER) Is the energy required to support energy equilibrium, (where ME equals heat production), over a long period of time. Metabolizable energy (ME) Is the digestible energy less the energy lost in urine and combustible gases. Minimum recommended level See allowance for definition Blaxter k. L., Energy Metabolism in Animals and Man. Cambridge University Press. McDonald P, Edwards RA, Greenhalgh JFD, et al. Metabolisable energy (ME). In: Animal Nutrition. 7th Edition Pearson Education Ltd. Harlow, England. 2011: N NRC National Research Council (USA) is a council organised by the US National Academy of Sciences. The NRC ad hoc Committee on dog and cat nutrition has compiled the nutritional requirements for dogs and cats Nutrient requirement Is the quantity of a nutrient that must be supplied to an animal in order to satisfy its metabolic needs. It reflects the minimum average level of intake of a nutrient, which, over time, is sufficient to maintain the desired biochemical or physiological functions in a population. Nutritional maximum limit This is the maximum level of a nutrient in a complete pet food that, based on scientific data, has not been associated with adverse effects in healthy dogs and cats. Levels exceeding the nutritional maximum may still be safe, however, no scientific data are currently known to FEDIAF. Food and Nutrition Board USA How should the Recommended Dietary Allowances be Revised? A concept paper from the Food and Nutrition Board. Nutrition Reviews, 1994; 52: FEDIAF 2011 P Pet food Any product produced by a pet food manufacturer, whether processed, partially processed or unprocessed, intended to be ingested by pet animals after placing on the market. Adapted from Regulation (EC) No. 767/ /100 Pet food safety Is the assurance that, when eaten according to its intended use, the pet food will not cause harm to the pet animal. Pharmacologic reaction An adverse reaction to food as a result of a naturally derived or added chemical that produces a drug-like or pharmacological effect in the host; e.g. methylxanthines in chocolate or a pseudoallergic reaction caused by high histamine levels in not well-preserved scromboid fish such as tuna. EN ISO 22000:2005(E) adapted to pet food. Guilford WG. Adverse reactions to foods: A gastrointestinal perspective Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1994; 16 (8): Halliwell REW Comparative aspects of food intolerance Veterinary Medicine 1992; 87: R RA Recommended Allowance. See allowance for definition - S Semi-moist pet food Pet food with a moisture content of 14% or more and less than 60%. Arnaud P. Actualités technologiques dans l industrie des aliments pour chiens. Rec. Méd. Vét. 1989; 165 (6-7): W Wet pet food Pet food with a moisture content of 60% or more. Hygiënische productie en handel Huisdiervoeders /100 II Introduction FEDIAF represents the national pet food industry associations in the EU and from Bosnia-Herzegovina, Norway, Russia, Serbia and Switzerland, representing in the region of 650 pet food factories across Europe. One of FEDIAF s main objectives is to ascertain the well-being of pets by providing well balanced and nutritionally sound pet food through its member companies. Therefore FEDIAF has compiled the present Nutritional Guidelines for Complete and Complementary Pet Food for Cats and Dogs, which is based on the state of the art knowledge on cat and dog nutrition, providing pet food manufacturers with nutritional recommendations to ensure the production of well balanced and nutritionally sound pet food. This document is reviewed yearly and updated whenever there are new relevant technological, scientific or legislative developments in pet nutrition. 1. Objectives The objectives of FEDIAF s Guidelines for Complete and Complementary Pet Foods for Cats and Dogs are: a. To contribute to the production of nutritionally balanced pet food, while complying with relevant EU legislation on animal nutrition. To achieve this objective, the guidelines incorporate up-to-date scientific knowledge on cat and dog nutrition to: Provide practical nutrient recommendations for pet food manufacturers when formulating their products for adult maintenance, growth and reproduction. Help pet food manufacturers to assess the nutritional value of practical pet foods for healthy animals. b. To be the reference document on pet nutrition in Europe for EU and local authorities, consumer organisations, professionals, and customers. c. To enhance cooperation between pet food manufacturers, pet care professionals and competent authorities by providing scientifically sound information on the formulation and assessment of pet foods. d. To complement FEDIAF s Guide to Good Practice for the Manufacture of Safe Pet Foods and the FEDIAF s Guide to Good Practice for Communication on Pet Food. 2. Scope FEDIAF s Nutritional Guidelines provide: a. Recommendations for minimum and maximum nutrient levels in commercial pet foods for healthy dogs and cats, to ensure adequate and safe nutrition. b. Guidance for the assessment of the nutritional value of pet foods. c. Recommendations for energy intake. d. Annexes with advice on specific topics: The levels in this guide reflect the amounts of essential nutrients in commercial products that are required to ensure adequate and safe nutrition in healthy individuals when consumed over time. The recommended minimum levels include a safety margin to prevent deficiencies due to animal variations and nutrient interactions. 9/100 These guidelines relate to dog and cat foods manufactured from ingredients with normal digestibility (i.e. 70% DM digestibility; 80% protein digestibility) and average bioavailability. The maximum recommended nutrient levels are based on EU legal limits (L) or levels that are considered nutritionally safe (N) based on research data. in this guide, based on the manufacturer s substantiation of nutritional adequacy and safety. Excluded from the FEDIAF s Nutritional Guidelines are pet foods for particular nutritional purposes and some other specialised foods such as for sporting dogs etc. Therefore specific products may have nutrient levels that are different from those stated in these guidelines. Pet foods can be adequate and safe when nutrient levels are outside the recommendations 10/100 III Complete Pet Food 1. Guidance Complete pet food means pet food which, by reason of its composition, is sufficient for a daily ration (Regulation EU No. 767/2009 adapted). When a complete pet food is fed for an extended period (i.e. covering the whole period of the life stage) as the only source of nutrients, it will provide all the nutritional needs of the particular animals of the given species and physiological state for which it is intended. If a manufacturer labels a product as a complete pet food without specification of a determined life stage, it is assumed to be complete for all life stages, and should be formulated according to the levels recommended for early growth and reproduction. If the product is designed for a specific life stage, then the label must clearly state this. For example Bloggo is a complete pet food for breeding cats, or Bloggo is a complete pet food for growing puppies. FEDIAF recommends to all members of each National Association that before a complete pet food is placed on the market: a. It should be formulated to take account of current nutritional knowledge and using the data compiled in this guide. b. If certain nutrient levels are outside the values stated in this guide, manufacturers should be able to prove that the product provides adequate and safe intakes of all required nutrients. c. Each family of products (ANNEX 8) should be validated by chemical analysis of the finished product. It is recommended to use an officially recognised method (Chapter V). 1.1 Minimum recommended nutrient levels in cat and dog foods The nutrient requirements of cats and dogs are the subject of ongoing research. When formulating pet foods, manufacturers should not use a reference to minimum requirements but minimum recommended levels ensuring adequate nutrient intake as contained in this guide. The nutritional tables are provided in units/100g DM (Tables A1 & B1), units/1000kcal ME (Tables A2 & B2) and units/mj ME (Tables A3 & B3). This FEDIAF Guide is based on published scientific studies (including NRC 2006) and unpublished data from experts in the field. 1.2 Energy contents of pet foods Feeding trials are the most accurate way to measure the energy density of a cat and dog food (see Chapter VI for the different methods). A feeding trial normally measures digestible energy. By subtracting the energy lost in the urine, the same trials allow also for determining the metabolizable energy. The energy lost in the urine can be measured if urine is collected or, if urine is not collected, be calculated using the following correction factors: 1.25kcal (5.23kJ)gˉ1 digestible crud
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