Monographs Dimitris Zianis, Petteri Muukkonen, Raisa Mäkipää and Maurizio Mencuccini - PDF

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SILVA FENNICA Monographs Dimitris Zianis, Petteri Muukkonen, Raisa Mäkipää and Maurizio Mencuccini Biomass and Stem Volume Equations for Tree Species in Europe The Finnish Society of Forest Science

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SILVA FENNICA Monographs Dimitris Zianis, Petteri Muukkonen, Raisa Mäkipää and Maurizio Mencuccini Biomass and Stem Volume Equations for Tree Species in Europe The Finnish Society of Forest Science The Finnish Forest Research Institute Abstract Zianis, D., Muukkonen, P., Mäkipää, R. & Mencuccini, M Biomass and stem volume equations for tree species in Europe. Silva Fennica Monographs p. A review of stem volume and biomass equations for tree species growing in Europe is presented. The mathematical forms of the empirical models, the associated statistical parameters and information about the size of the trees and the country of origin were collated from scientific articles and from technical reports. The total number of the compiled equations for biomass estimation was 607 and for stem volume prediction it was 230. The analysis indicated that most of the biomass equations were developed for aboveground tree components. A relatively small number of equations were developed for southern Europe. Most of the biomass equations were based on a few sampled sites with a very limited number of sampled trees. The volume equations were, in general, based on more representative data covering larger geographical regions. The volume equations were available for major tree species in Europe. The collected information provides a basic tool for estimation of carbon stocks and nutrient balance of forest ecosystems across Europe as well as for validation of theoretical models of biomass allocation. Keywords aboveground biomass, allometry, belowground biomass, biomass function, dbh, tree diameter, tree height Authors addresses Mäkipää & Muukkonen: Finnish Forest Research Institute, Unioninkatu 40A, FI-00170, Helsinki, Finland; Zianis: Department of Forestry, TEI Kavalas, Drama 66050, Greece; Mencuccini: Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Darwin Building, Mayfield Road, EH9 3JU Edinburgh, UK (corresponding author) Received 23 March 2004 Revised 6 September 2005 Accepted 7 September 2005 Available at ISBN (paperback), ISBN (PDF) ISSN Printed by Tammer-Paino Oy, Tampere, Finland, 2005 Contents 1 Introduction Material and Methods Results Biomass Equations Stem Volume Equations Discussion References Appendix A. Biomass equations for different biomass components by tree species Appendix B. General descriptions of volume equations Appendix C. Volume equations for different tree species Acknowledgments The authors wish to express their thanks to the participants of the European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST) E21 Action Contribution of forests and forestry to mitigate greenhouse effects and other scientists for submitting equations for the presented database. The study was carried out with the financial support of the Finnish Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, and the EU-funded research consortium Multi-source inventory methods for quantifying carbon stocks and stock changes in European forests (CarboInvent EKV2-CT ). In addition, Dr. Dimitris Zianis was partially supported by the I.K.Y (Scholarship State Foundation of Greece), and prof. M. Mencuccini by the EU-funded Carbo-Age project (EVK CT-00045). 4 1 Introduction The estimation of stem volume and tree biomass is needed for both sustainable planning of forest resources and for studies on the energy and nutrients flows in ecosystems. Planners at the strategic and operational levels have strongly emphasised the need for accurate estimates of stem volume, while Hall (1997) reviewed the potential role of biomass as an energy source in the 21st century. In addition, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and in particular the Kyoto Protocol recognise the importance of forest carbon sink and the need to monitor, preserve and enhance terrestrial carbon stocks, since changes in the forest carbon stock influence the atmospheric CO 2 concentration. Terrestrial biotic carbon stocks and stock changes are difficult to assess (IPCC 2003) and most current estimates are subject to considerable uncertainty (Löwe et al. 2000, Clark et al. 2001, Jenkins et al. 2003). The reliability of the current estimates of the forest carbon stock and the understanding of ecosystem carbon dynamics can be improved by applying existing knowledge on the allometry of trees that is available in the form of biomass and volume equations (Jenkins et al. 2003, Zianis and Mencuccini 2003, Lehtonen et al. 2004). The biomass equations can be applied directly to tree level inventory data (the measured dimensions of trees; diameter, height), or biomass expansion factors (BEFs) applicable to stand level inventory data can be developed and tested with the help of representative volume and biomass equations (Lehtonen et al. 2004). Recently, remote sensing data have been used to assess standing volume and forest biomass (Montes et al. 2000, Drake et al. 2002). However, the estimation of biomass depends on ground truth data with measured dimensions of trees, and the empirical biomass equations are therefore needed to predict biomass as a function of recorded variables. The wealth of allometric equations that relate stem volume as well as the biomass of several tree components to diameter at breast height and/or to tree height has never been summarised for European tree species, although this has been for American (Tritton and Hornbeck 1982, Ter- Mikaelian and Korzukhin 1997, Jenkins et al. 2004) and Australian trees (Eamus et al. 2000, Keith et al. 2000). Since the development of stem volume and biomass equations is laborious and time consuming process especially the destructive harvesting of large trees existing equations need to be compiled and evaluated to facilitate identification of the gaps in the coverage of the equations. The compiled equations can also be used to test and compare existing equations with new ones as well as to validate process-based models. The aim of this study was to develop a database on tree-level stem volume and biomass equations for various tree species growing in Europe. Equations for both whole tree biomass and the biomass of different components were considered. The compiled database is a guide to the original publications of these equations. In ecological studies on forest carbon and nutrient cycling, forest and greenhouse gas inventories as well as in the validation of process-based models, this database facilitates effective exploitation of existing information on the allometry of trees. 5 2 Material and Methods The development of the presented compilation of equations was based on published equations for different tree species growing on the European continent. We restricted the compilation to the relationships published on the European continent since similar kinds of information have already been presented for different biomes (Zianis and Mencuccini 2004), for North American tree species (Ter-Mikaelian and Korzukhin 1997, Jenkins et al. 2004), and for Australian ecosystems (see reports by Eamus et al. 2000, Keith et al. 2000, Snowdon et al. 2000). In order to compile the available information we conducted a literature survey on forestry and forest-related journals. However, part of the equations, particularly for stem volume relationships, have been published in the technical reports of research institutes or research programmes across Europe. In many cases, the original papers had not been written in the English language. To obtain these equations, researchers throughout Europe were asked to provide any allometric equation published in their country and readily available to them. For all the empirical relationships included in the database, the explanatory variables were always the diameter at breast height (D), the tree height (H) or a combination of the two. For latest decades, standardized reference point for breast height and height measurements has been ground level and, in the European countries, the stem diameter at breast height have been measured at 1.3 above ground (Bruce and Schumacher 1950, Köhl et al. 1997). These two variables (D and H) are the most commonly used independent variables, but equations with several other independent variables (e.g. site fertility, elevation, soil type) have been also widely developed. Those equations were not, however, included in this database, since selection of variables is highly dependent on local conditions and intended local use of equations. Some empirical relationships reported in the original articles were excluded from this review and database since the equations with reported values of the parameters generated estimates that were not realistic (e.g. negative values, or shape of equation indicate impossible allometry of trees). In addition, equations with notably low r 2 -values were excluded. In the original publications, there might occur several other equations besides the one compiled in the present study. No selection criteria were applied with regard to the species, age, size, site conditions, or sampling method. The compiled biomass equations were presented according to different tree components (Table 1). The measurement units for the regressed and the explanatory variables, the number of the sampled trees (n), the coefficient of determination (r 2 ), and the range of diameter and height were also included in this review whenever this information was available in the original article. Additionally, the basal area of the stand and the stand density from which the sampled trees originated, the location (longitude and latitude) of the sampled trees as well as the standard error of the parameters of the regressions, the type and corresponding value of the statistical error, and the correction factor (Sprugel 1983) were also collected for the compiled equations. However, information on these parameters is not shown in the Appendix of the present study since it was reported only in a very limited number of original articles. 6 3 Results 3.1 Biomass Equations We found biomass equations for various aboveground and belowground components (Table 1), but most of the biomass equations were for aboveground parts, particularly for branches and foliage (Table 2). Very few equations were available for the biomass of dead branches, coarse, small and fine roots, and only four to estimate the biomass of cones (Table 2). The total number of the compiled biomass equations for different tree components was 607 (Appendix A). The compiled biomass equations refer to 39 different tree species growing in Europe (Table 3). The vast majority of the compiled empirical equations developed for different tree components was reported for northern and central European countries (Table 3). Totally 82 equations referred to data recorded in southern European countries, particularly Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain. Table 1. Abbreviations for tree biomass components. AB ABW BR CO CR DB FL FL(i) RC RF RS RT SB SR ST SU SW TB TW Total aboveground biomass Total aboveground woody biomass Branch biomass Biomass of cones Crown biomass (BR+FL) Biomass of dead branches Total foliage biomass Biomass of i-year-old needles Biomass of coarse roots a Biomass of fine roots a Biomass of small roots a Biomass of roots (RC+RF+RS) Biomass of stem bark Biomass of the stump-root system a Total stem biomass (SW+SB) Stump biomass a Stem wood biomass Total tree biomass (AB+RT) Total woody biomass a Defined differently in each study For the some biomass equations of Abies balsamea (L.) Mill., Fagus crenata Bl., Picea rubens Sarg., Pinus banksiana Lamb., Pinus contorta Doug. ex Loud., and Pinus taeda L., the location of the sampled trees was not reported. Only one equation was available for each of the following components: branch biomass within the crown, the biomass of epicormic branches, stem biomass within the crown, woody biomass in the crown, foliage biomass in crown, foliage biomass of epicormic branches (reported by Zianis and Mencuccini 2003). Thus, they were not included in the database. The vast majority of the reviewed biomass equations (127 in total) took the simple linear form Log (M) = A + B Log(D) (1) where Log(M) is either the natural or the 10-base logarithmic transformation of the biomass data for different tree components, Log(D) is the diameter at breast height (either in natural or 10-base logarithmic transformation) and A and B the estimated parameters. In 200 regressions tree height was entered as the second independent variable or was used in combination with D. In the 280 empirical regressions, D was the only independent variable and the mathematical relationship between tree biomass and D fell into several formulae (see Appendix A). The compiled equations do not refer to the same spatial scale; some of them were built on data obtained from a single stand, whereas others (e.g. Marklund s (1987, 1988) equations for the main tree species of Sweden) are based on data from large geographical areas. There are no such equations for temperate or Mediterranean conditions. The amount of sampled trees varied from 3 to 1503; The most usual amount was between 6 and 40 (Fig. 1a). Only Marklund s (1987, 1988) equations are consistently based on a sample size of several hundred felled trees. In 175 equations 7 Silva Fennica Monographs Table 2. Number of compiled biomass equations according to tree species and tree component. For the abbreviations see Table 1. AB ABW BR CO CR DB FL FL(i) RC RF RS RT SB SR ST SU SW TB TW Total Abies balsamea 4 4 Abies spp. 2 2 Acer pseudoplatanus 2 2 Alnus glutinosa Alnus incana Arbutus unedo Betula pendula Betula pubescens Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii Betula spp Eucalyptus spp. 1 1 Fagus crenata 1 1 Fagus moesiaca Fagus sylvatica Fraxinus excelsior 2 2 Larix sibirica Larix spp. 1 1 Picea abies Picea engelmannii Picea rubens 1 1 Picea sitchenis 1 1 Picea spp Pinus banksiana 1 1 Pinus contorta Pinus nigra var maritima Pinus pinaster 1 1 Pinus radiata Pinus sylvestris Pinus taeda 1 1 Populus tremula Populus trichocarpa Pseudotsuga menziesii Pseudotsuga spp. 1 1 Quercus conferta Quercus ilex Quercus petraea 1 1 Quercus pyrenaica 1 1 Quercus spp Tilia cordata 1 1 Total AB=Aboveground, ABW=Aboveground woody, BR=Branches, CO=Cones, CR=Crown (BR+FL), DB=Dead branches, FL=Foliage, FL(i)=i-year old needles, RC=Coarse roots, RF=Fine roots, RS=Small roots, RT=All roots, SB=Stem bark, SR=Stump-root system, ST=Stem (SW+SB), SU=Stump, SW=Stem wood, TB=Whole tree, TW=Total woody biomass 8 Zianis, Muukkonen, Mäkipää and Mencuccini Biomass and Stem Volume Equations for Tree Species in Europe Table 3. Geographical distribution of the compiled biomass equations. The numbers indicate the total number of equations for all tree components and for each country. Studies for which the region was not specified are indicated by n/a. AT BE CZ DK FI FR DE GR IS IT NL NO PL PO ES SE GB Eur n/a Total Abies balsamea 4 4 Abies spp. 2 2 Acer pseudoplatanus 2 2 Alnus glutinosa Alnus incana 8 8 Arbutus unedo 3 3 Betula pendula Betula pubescens Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii 4 4 Betula spp Eucalyptus spp. 1 1 Fagus crenata 1 1 Fagus moesiaca 5 5 Fagus sylvatica Fraxinus excelsior 2 2 Larix sibirica 2 2 Larix spp. 1 1 Picea abies Picea engelmannii 2 2 Picea rubens 1 1 Picea sitchenis 1 1 Picea spp Pinus banksiana 1 1 Pinus contorta Pinus nigra var maritima 2 2 Pinus pinaster 1 1 Pinus radiata Pinus sylvestris Pinus taeda 1 1 Populus tremula Populus trichocarpa 3 3 Pseudotsuga menziesii Pseudotsuga spp. 1 1 Quercus conferta Quercus ilex Quercus petraea 1 1 Quercus pyrenaica 1 1 Quercus spp Tilia cordata 1 1 Total AT=Austria, BE=Belgium, CZ=Czech republic, DK=Denmark, FI=Finland, FR=France, DE=Germany, GR=Greece, IS=Iceland, IT=Italy, NL=Netherlands, NO=Norway, PL=Poland, PO=Portugal, ES=Spain, SE=Sweden, GB= United Kingdom, Eur=Europe 9 Silva Fennica Monographs a) Frequency n/a b) Number of sample trees (n) 75 Frequency n/a 5000 Number of sample trees (n) Fig. 1. Frequencies of a) the biomass and b) the volume equations according to the number of sampled trees used for the development of the equation. the number of sampled trees upon which the estimation of the empirical parametric values had been based was not reported. The range of size of the sampled trees varied for each equation (Appendix A), implying that diameter and height range should be taken into account when applicability of the equations is evaluated. Our analysis also indicated that different equations generate different biomass predictions for trees of the same size (Fig. 2). The difference between predicted values of foliage biomasses was large, whereas the predicted total aboveground biomass values of Picea abies was relatively consistent (Figs. 2a b). The number of biomass equations available for roots was small and the differences between predicted root biomass values were high (Fig 2c). The value of the coefficient of determination (r 2 ) was reported in most of the regressions and varied from to Especially, the biomass of dead branches of Norway spruce seemed to be difficult to estimate accurately. In general, equations with notably low r 2 -values are excluded, but those obtained for dead branched were kept to show overall difficulties in prediction of the biomass of this component. Only in about 1/10 10 Zianis, Muukkonen, Mäkipää and Mencuccini Biomass and Stem Volume Equations for Tree Species in Europe 150 a) Picea abies Foliage biomass (kg) Aboveground biomass (kg) Total root biomass (kg) D (cm) b) Picea abies D (cm) 400 c) Pinus sylvestris D (cm) Fig. 2. Predicted foliage biomass a) and total aboveground biomass of Picea abies b), and root biomass of Pinus sylvestris c) as a function of tree diameters (D). The biomass equations were retrieved from Appendix A. The range of diameter of the illustrated equations indicates the range of observations in the original data on which the equation is based on. When the range of original observation was not reported a minimum of 10 cm and a maximum of 40 cm for diameter was used in this figure. of the papers concerning biomass equations are some kind of error estimates for the equations presented. The forms of the error estimates are diverse and vary from article to article. 3.2 Stem Volume Equations The total number of the compiled stem volume equations was 230 (App. B and C), and they covered 55 tree species altogether (Table 4). Most of the European countries have already developed stem volume equations mainly for the planning of the use of forest resources. However, there is no straightforward, commonly accepted definition for stem volume in Europe. In general, the volume of stemwood extending from root collar up to the top of the stems is accounted in the equations developed in the Nordic countries. For some of the reviewed regressions, the stem is the part of the main trunk up to a minimum diameter of 7 cm (it is usually called the merchantable volume) while some authors have not reported definition of the stem related to their equations. 11 Silva Fennica Monographs Table 4. Geographical distribution of the compiled stem volume equations. The numbers indicate the total number of equations for each country. Scientific name AT BE CR CZ FI DE IS IT NL NO PL R0 SE GB Total Abies alba 1 1 Abies grandis Abies sibirica 1 1 Abies spp. 1 3 Acacia spp. 1 1 Acer pseudoplatanus Alnus alba 1 1 Alnus glutinosa Alnus incana 1 1 Alnus nigra 1 1 Alnus spp. 1 1 Arbutus unedo 1 1 Betula pendula 1 1 Betula spp Carpinus spp. 3 3 Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 1 1 Corylus avellana 1 1 Fagus spp Fagus sylvatica Fraxinus exselsior Fraxinus spp Larix decidua Larix hybrid 1 1 Larix kaempferi Larix sibirica Larix spp Picea abies Picea engelmannii 1 1 Picea sitchensis Picea spp Pinus contorta Pinus nigra var maritima 1 1 Pinus nigra var nigra Pinus spp Pinus sylvestris Populus spp Populus tremula Populus trichocarpa 1 1 Prunus avium 1 1 Pseudotsuga menzie
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