Lifeline vulnerability at mass events. Ivar Svare Holand Nord Trøndelag University College (HiNT) - PDF

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Lifeline vulnerability at mass events Ivar Svare Holand Nord Trøndelag University College (HiNT) Background Collaboration with MIUN on cross border security. PhD thesis on Adaptation of social vulnerability

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Lifeline vulnerability at mass events Ivar Svare Holand Nord Trøndelag University College (HiNT) Background Collaboration with MIUN on cross border security. PhD thesis on Adaptation of social vulnerability indicators to context. Two articles on lifelines: Holand, I. S The lifeline issue in social vulnerability indexing: A review of indicators and discussion on their application. Accepted for publication in Natural Hazards Review. Holand, I. S. & Rød, J. K Kartlegging av infrastruktursårbarhet (Mapping of Infrastructure Vulnerability). In L. M. Bye, H. Lein & J. K. Rød, 2013, Mot en farligere fremtid? Om klimaendringer, sårbarhet og tilpasning i Norge (Towards a more dangerous future? Climate change, vulnerability and adaptation in Norway). 2 Lifeline vulnerability Social vulnerability: The characteristics of a person or group and their situation that influence their capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of a natural hazard, we term social vulnerability (Wisner et al. 2004). I find the concept lifeline vulnerability useful as a means to distinguish those aspects of social vulnerability to natural hazards that are influenced by lifeline failure from social vulnerability in general. 3 Lifelines «networks which provide for the circulation of people, goods, services, and information upon which health, safety, comfort, and economic activity depend» water and sewer systems transportation facilities communication facilities electrical power facilities gas and liquid fuel lines Platt 1991 One of many elements that contributes to the vulnerability or resilience of people and places. 4 Risk Focus on external threats and possible consequences Likelihood x consequence 5 6 Infrastructure vulnerability Focus on factors that are internal to infrastructure systems Vulnerability of the infrastructure Infrastructure vulerability = likelihood that infrastructure fails 7 Factors influencing reliability of infrastructure Fragility, robustness People and places depending on functioning lifelines for safety, comfort and livelihood Geographic distribution Risk External threats and possible consequences Degree of centralization Ease of modernization Vulnerability of the infrastructure Lifeline Vulnerability Institutional characteristics 8 Lifeline vulnerability Reference to people and places who are vulnerable to lifeline failure Lifeline vulerability = dependency on circulation provided by infrastructure that may fail 9 Roan, June inh. Municipal adm. Hellfjorden Tourism Roan Fishfarming Farming Ortofoto: norgeibilder.no 10 1km Flatanger, January Loss of 66 buildings Evacuate before road cut off by fire Småværet Grønvika Hasvåg Åkvika Håstad Uran Ortofoto: norgeibilder.no 1km 11 In the Norwegian context, distance and redundancy important. The high rate of prehospital deaths and deaths within one hour are likely the result from long travel distances and hence prolonged response and transport times (Bakke & Wisborg 2011, p 1619). 12 Lifeline vulnerability and mass events Some issues: Access to safety, routes by which to evacuate, safe transportation Access to facilities e.g. medical assistance and other necessities such as water, food, toilets Access to information in case of an emergency 13 Ortofoto: norgeibilder.no 14 Usefulness of the lifeline vulnerability concept Lifeline vulnerability Risk Lifeline vulnerability Infrastructure vulnerability Aims focus on vulnerabilities associated with infrastructure failure: Who are dependent and who are not. Develop methodology that can be used to identify populations that have high levels of vulnerability to infrastructure failure Appliction in risk and vulnerability analyses Mitigation Identify issues that otherwise remain unnoticed 15 Influencing factors Distance Visibility S o c i a l V u l n e r a b i l i t y Information Lifeline vulnerability Time Capacity Redundancy Hindrances 16 References Bakke, H. K. & Wisborg T Rural High North: A High Rate of Fatal Injury and Prehospital Death. World Journal of Surgery, 35, Holand, I. S. & Rød, J. K Kartlegging av infrastruktursårbarhet (Mapping of Infrastructure Vulnerability). In L. M. Bye, H. Lein & J. K. Rød, 2013, Mot en farligere fremtid? Om klimaendringer, sårbarhet og tilpasning i Norge (Towards a more dangerous future? Climate change, vulnerability and adaptation in Norway). Holand, I. S The lifeline issue in social vulnerability indexing: A review of indicators and discussion on their application. Accepted for publication in Natural Hazards Review. Platt, R. H. (1991). Lifelines: An Emergency Management Priority for the United States in the 1990s. Disasters, 15, Wisner, B., Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., and Davis, I. (2004). At risk: Natural hazards, people s vulnerability and disasters, 2nd Ed., Routledge, New York. 17 Thanks for listening Ivar Svare Holand 18
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