Міністерство освіти і науки України Національний університет біоресурсів і природокористування Педагогічний факультет імені професора Віктора Сидоренка Кафедра романо-германських мов і перекладу КУРС ЛЕКЦІЙ

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Міністерство освіти і науки України Національний університет біоресурсів і природокористування Педагогічний факультет імені професора Віктора Сидоренка Кафедра романо-германських мов і перекладу КУРС ЛЕКЦІЙ З «ПОРІВНЯЛЬНОЇ ЛЕКСИКОЛОГІЇ АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ ТА УКРАЇНСЬКОЇ МОВ» Навчально-методичний посібник Київ 2014 Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine National University of Life and Environmental Sciences Faculty of Education named after Victor Sydorenko Department of Romance and Germanic Languages and Translation LECTURES ON COMPARATIVE LEXICOLOGY OF THE ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN LANGUAGES Textbook Kiev УДК : Рекомендовано до друку вченою радою природничо-гуманітарного ННІ Протокол 11 від р. К93 Курс лекцій Порівняльної лексикології англійської та української мов : Навчально-методичний посібник / Уклад. Жорнокуй У. В. Київ: НУБіП, с. Укладач: канд. філ. н., асистент Жорнокуй У. В. Рецензенти: Радишевький Р. П. доктор філологічних наук, професор, професор кафедри полоністики, член-кореспондент АН України Циховська Е. Д. доктор філологічних наук, професор кафедри журналістики Національного авіаційного університету Навчально-методичний посібник розрахований для студентів ІІІ курсу філологічних відділень при підготовці до семінарських занять з «Лексикології англійської мови», а також для самостійної та індивідуальної роботи, при підготовці до семестрових та контрольних форм перевірки знань. Вибір лекційних тем мотивований типовою програмою курсу «Лексикології англійської мови» і цілком відповідає її вимогам. Видання здійснено за авторським редагуванням Жорнокуй У. В. НУБіП України CONTENT Introduction 3 Lecture 1 (Part 1) 4 Lecture 1 (Part 2) 13 Lecture 2 25 Lecture 3 63 Lecture 4 73 Lecture 5 84 Lecture 6 92 Lecture Lecture Lecture Keywords and main theses 127 Bibliography 137 INTRODUCTION The book is intended for English language students at Pedagogical Universities taking the course of English lexicology and fully meets the requirements of the programme in the subject. It may also be of interest to all readers, whose command of English is sufficient to enable them to read texts of average difficulty and who would like to gain some information about the vocabulary resources of Modern English (for example, about synonyms and antonyms), about the stylistic peculiarities of English vocabulary, about the complex nature of the word's meaning and the modern methods of its investigation, about English idioms, about those changes that English vocabulary underwent in its historical development and about some other aspects of English lexicology. One can hardly acquire a perfect command of English without having knowledge of all these things, for a perfect command of a language implies the conscious approach to the language's resources and at least a partial understanding of the inner mechanism which makes the huge language system work. In this book the reader will find the fundamentals of the word theory and of the main problems associated with English vocabulary, its characteristics and subdivisions. The aim of the course is to teach students to be word-conscious, to be able to guess the meaning of words they come across from the meanings of morphemes, to be able to recognise the origin of this or that lexical unit. Lecture 1 (Part 1) LEXICOLOGY AS A BRANCH OF LINGUISTICS 1. Definition of the Term. Aims and Types of Lexicology. 2. The Relation of Lexicology with Other Linguistic Sciences. 3. Characteristic of the Word as a Basic Unit of the Language. The term Lexicology is composed of two Greek morphemes (from Gr. lexis word and logos learning). Lexicology is a linguistic science which studies the word, its morphemic structure, history and meaning. The word is the basic unit of a language, it is an association of a particular meaning with a particular group of sounds capable of a particular grammatical employment. A word, therefore, is simultaneously a semantic, grammatical and phonological unit. For example, a group of sounds boy is associated with the meaning a male child to the age of 17 or 18 (it may be associated with some other meaning, but this is the most frequent) and with the definite grammatical employment, i.e. it is a noun and has a plural form boys, it has the Genitive form boy s (the boy s mother) and it may be used in certain syntactical functions ( Oh, boy, do you remember me? ). Lexicology as a branch of linguistics has its own aims and methods of scientific research, its basic tasks are to study, describe and systematize vocabulary in respect to its origin, development and current use. So, to be more exact, lexicology studies words, word-forming morphemes and word groups, which form vocabulary of a particular language. Vocabulary a system, formed by all the words and word equivalents (phraseological units). The term system as used in present-day Lexicology denotes a set of elements associated and functioning together according to certain laws. The lexical system of every speech contains productive elements typical of this particular period, others that are archaic and are dropping out of usage, and, finally, some new phenomena, neologisms. The elements of lexical system are characterized by their combinatorial and contrastive properties determining their syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships. Syntagmatic (combinatorial) relations define the meaning of the word when it is used in combination with other words in the flow of speech. E.g., compare the meaning of the verb to get in the sentences: He got a letter. He got tired. He got to London. He could not get the piano through the door. Paradigmatic (contrastive) relations exist between words belonging to one subgroup of vocabulary items (e.g., verbs of motion, of sense perception, sets of synonyms, etc.) that can occur in the same context and be contrasted to one another. Paradigmatic relations are observed in the system of language. e.g. to go a mile run walk stroll There are two principal approaches in linguistic science to the study of language material, namely the synchronic (Gr. syn together, with and chronos time ) and the diachronic (Gr. dia through ) approach. The synchronic approach is concerned with the vocabulary of a language as it exists at a given time, for instance, at the present time. While the diachronic approach deals with the changes and the development of vocabulary in the course of time: the origin of English vocabulary units, their change and development, the linguistic and extralinguistic factors modifying their structure, meaning and usage within the history of the English language. Consequently, there are two types of Lexicology Historical and Descriptive. Historical Lexicology discusses the origin of various words, their change and development, the linguistic and extra linguistic forces modifying their structure, meaning and usage. Descriptive Lexicology deals with the vocabulary of a given language at a given stage of its development. It studies the functions of words and their specific structure. The general study of vocabulary, irrespective of the specific features of any particular language, is called General Lexicology. Special Lexicology devotes its attention to the description of the characteristic features of a given language. However, it goes without saying that every Special Lexicology is based on the principles of general lexicology (development of the vocabulary by way of wordbuilding, semantic change and borrowing from other languages; categories of synonyms, antonyms, archaisms, neologisms, etc.). Vocabulary studies include such aspects of research as etymology, semasiology and onomasiology. Etymology is the branch of linguistics that studies the origin of the word. Semasiology is the branch of linguistics which studies word meaning and its changes. Onomasiology is the study of the principles and regularities of the signification of things and notions by words of a given language. 2. As a linguistic science, lexicology is inseparably interlinked with other branches of linguistics. Furthermore, as it was mentioned above, every word presents a unity of semantic, phonetic and grammatical elements, that s why it is closely connected with Phonetics, Grammar, Stylistics etc. Lexicology and Phonetics Words consist of phonemes which have no meaning of their own, but forming morphemes they serve to distinguish between meanings. The meaning of words is conditioned by several phonological features, such as: 1.1. qualitative and quantitative character of the phonemes: e.g. dog dock, rob robe, pot port 1.2. fixed sequence of phonemes: e.g. dog god. pot top, name mane mean, nest sent tens 1.3. the position of stress: e.g. 'object, n. ob'ject, v.; 'present, adj. pre'sent, v.: 'black 'board 'blackboard. Lexicology and Grammar Interaction between vocabulary and grammar is evident both in the sphere of morphology and in syntax. Plural forms, for example, can serve to form special lexical meaning, e.g. advice (counsel) advices (information), damage (injury) damages (compensation), arm (human upper limb) arms (weapon). Sometimes, when two kinds of pluralisation have produced two plurals of word, different uses and meanings have resulted. e.g. brother brothers, brethren; cloth cloths, clothes; fish. fish, fishes; penny pennies, pence Lexicalisation of numeric meaning is rather common. e.g. ice-cream two ice-creams, Picasso two Picassos, two a two Some prefixes make intransitive verbs transitive: e.g. shine outshine run outrun little belittle Interactions between vocabulary and grammar have their own peculiarities in syntax. Lexical meaning of the word depends on its environment. e.g. He ran quickly. He ran the factory with efficiency. He breathed freely. He breathed a new life into our activities. Instances are not few when the syntactic position of the word does not only change its function but its lexical meaning as well: e.g. library school school library town market market town It may happen that the same verb changes its meaning when used with persons and with names of objects: e.g. The new girl gave him a strange smile. (She smiled at him) The new teeth gave him a strange smile. (He looked strange) Lexicology and Stylistics Lexicology is also connected with stylistics since it deals with stylistic grouping and colouring of words (literary, colloquial, slang, etc.), which is the object of special study of stylistics. Lexicology is closely connected with sociolinguistics. It is the branch of linguistics, dealing with relations between the way the language works and develops, on the one hand, and the facts of social life, on the other hand. Language is the reality of thought, and thought develops with the development of society. Every new phenomenon in human society finds a reflection in vocabulary, e.g., computer, cyclotron, psycholinguistics. 3. Words are the central elements of language system. They are the biggest units of morphology and the smallest units of syntax and at the same time it is the main object of lexicological study. Morphemes are also meaningful units but they can not be used independently, they are always parts of words whereas words can be used as a complete utterance (e.g., Listen!). The definition of a word is one of the most difficult in linguistics because the word functions on the different levels of language. That s why the word has been defined semantically, syntactically, phonologically and by combining various approaches. L. Bloomfield defines the word as the minimal independent unit of utterance. In this way, the word is differentiated from morphemes, on one hand, and from phrases, on the other. E. Sapir defines the word as the smallest bit of isolated meaning, into which the sentence may be split. He takes into consideration the syntactic and semantic aspects. He also underlines one more important characteristic of the word: its indivisibility. The word is a unity of a given group of sounds (sometimes one sound, e.g. I ). with a given meaning in a given grammatical form. Thus every word has its outer aspect (phonetic and grammatical form) and its inner semantic aspect meaning. It is through this meaning that a word refers to a certain element of the objective reality (extra-linguistic reality) and serves as the name (sign) of that element. As a result most linguists underline the organic relationship between language and thought. The relationship between the word, the concept and the world of things is represented in die semantic triangle worked out by C. K. Ogden and I. A. Richards in their book The Meaning of sound-form. Judging from this scheme we may define the word as the basic linguistic unit which refers to (denotes) an object of reality and reflects (signifies) its concept in the speaker s and listener s mind. It is clear that the scheme is simplified, for the word also comprises the form (phonetical and grammatical) and meaning. Many eminent scholars of the former USSR, such as V. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Smirnitsky, O. S. Akhmanova, M. D. Stepanova, A. A. Ufimtseva, greatly contributed to creating a word theory based upon the materialistic understanding of the relationship between word and thought, on the one hand, and language and society, on the other. The main points may be summarized in the following definition. So, a word is the smallest unit of a given language capable of functioning alone and characterized by positional mobility within a sentence, morphological indivisibility and semantic integrity. All these criteria are necessary because they create a basis for the oppositions between the word and the phrase, the word and the phoneme and the morpheme; their common feature is that they are all units of the language, their difference lies in the fact that the phoneme is not significant, and a morpheme cannot be used as a complete utterance. Questions for Self-Control 1. What are the main characteristics of native words? 2. What is the classification of loan words according to the degree of assimilation? 3. What are translation loans? What are the main sources of translation loans? 4. What criteria of borrowings do you know? 5. What are etymological doublets? Lecture 1 (Part 2) ETYMOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN ENGLISH VOCABULARY 1. The Definition of Etymology. Its Fundamentals. 2. Words of Native Origin and Their Characteristics. 3. Assimilation of Borrowings. 4. Causes and Ways of Borrowings. 5. Foreign Elements in Modern English: a) Celtic Borrowings; b) Greek Borrowings; c) Latin Borrowings; d) Scandinavian Borrowings; e) French Borrowings; f) German Borrowings; g) Borrowings from Other Languages. 6. Etymological Doublets and International Words. 1. The important task of lexicology is the study of the origin, of words making up the vocabulary of a language. The branch of lexicology which studies the origin of words and their genetic ties with words in the same and other languages is called etymology. The vocabulary of Modern English (MnE) is extremely heterogeneous from the etymological point of view. It can be subdivided into two main parts the native stock of words, which is the historical basis of the English vocabulary, and the borrowed strata (up to 70%). A native word is a word which belongs to the original English stock of the old English period (up to 7th cent.). The term is often applied to words the origin of which cannot be traced to any other language. A borrowed word (or borrowing) is a word taken from another language and modified in phonetic shape, spelling and meaning according to the standards of the English language. Not only words but also word-building affixes were borrowed into English. Loans changed in their sound form, spelling, paradigm and meaning according to the standards of English. Translation loans or calques are words and expressions formed by the material available in the language, but under the influence of some foreign words and expressions. e.g. mother-tongue (from Lat. lingua materna), wall newspaper (from Russian) by heart (from Fr. par coeur). Most of the given words are international in character, e.g., Sword of Damocles дамоклів меч, Heel of Achilles ахіллесова п ята. Semantic borrowing is the appearance in an English word of a new meaning due to the influence of a related word in another language. E.g., the word pioneer meant explorer, now it means a member of the Young Pioneers Organization. 2. Despite the great number of borrowed words native words are still at the core of the language. The native word-stock in MnE incorporates words which were brought to Britain in the 5th century by the German tribes and it was not quite homogenous etymologically. Most native words are short, often monosyllabic. Those, which are not, for the most part have stress on the first syllable, e.g. father, brother, winter. It consisted of Common Indo-European (e.g. father, mother, tree, moon, star, wind, I, who, one, two, etc.) and Common Germanic words (e.g. summer, winter, life, ice, house, room, etc.). The native element stock includes: everyday objects: food, meat, milk, water; natural phenomena: land, sun, moon, summer, wind; common actions: see, go, come, sit, stand, love, hunt; common qualities: long, short, warm, hard, quick, red, white; terms of kinship: father, son, daughter, brother; names of common animals and birds: bull, cat, goose, wolf; parts of the human body: arm, ear, foot, heart; modal and auxiliary verbs; pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions; numerals. Peculiarities of the words belonging to the native elements are: Great stability; Vital importance; Plurality of meaning ( head ); Great word-building power (the stem head can be found in the following derived and compound words: headache, headed, header, heading, headless, headline, headquarters, headmaster, headstrong, level-headed); Great combinative power in phraseology (e.g. above someone's head, an old head on young shoulders, to talk one's head off have one's head in the clouds, bury one s head in the sand, head over heels). Words of the native stock are stylistically neutral 3. Lexical borrowings, however numerous, do not radically change the structure of the borrowing language. Rather, the borrowed words, themselves change in accordance with the structural peculiarities of the language they are brought into. Thus through phonetic, spelling and morphological changes borrowed words become similar to native words, in other words are assimilated. e.g. portus (Lat.) port exaggerare (Fr.) exaggerate Oral borrowings are assimilated more completely and more rapidly than literary borrowings. Assimilation the process of changing of the adopted word. Phonetical assimilation includes changes in the sounds, form, stress of the loan words (e.g. waltz (German), psychology (Greek), cafe (French)). Grammatical assimilation comprises the change of grammatical categories and paradigms by analogy of other
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