Introduction to a preliminary draft for a catalogue of Dutch Drawings / Börje Magnusson - PDF

SID 1/5 Introduction to a preliminary draft for a catalogue of Dutch Drawings / Börje Magnusson The material presented here will make up the tenth volume of Drawings in Swedish Public Collections,

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SID 1/5 Introduction to a preliminary draft for a catalogue of Dutch Drawings / Börje Magnusson The material presented here will make up the tenth volume of Drawings in Swedish Public Collections, comprising Dutch drawings of 17 th century and later. Volume nine will deal with the Netherlandish drawings of the 14 th and 16 th century, and Flemish drawings after c. 1600; it is in preparation and will soon be finished,. Then the planned series of catalogues begun in 1972 with German drawings will be complete. The research for the two volumes has been made possible by a grant from the J. Paul Getty Foundation. While the Nationalmuseum collection makes up the bulk of the material, drawings from ten other museums, libraries and archives are included. As in the previous volumes the drawings are ordered by century. The majority are 17 th century drawings. Only some twenty drawings belong to the 18 th century, and only two are by 19 th century artists. Many artist, of course, live and work across such artificial borders. Artist born after 1570 are included here if the main part of their work fall within 17 th century; even Abraham Bloemaert, born as early as 1564 but active till 1651, is found here since almost all the drawings included are dated after Artist born late in the 16 th century, but dead by c. 1600, will be included in the catalogue of 16 th century drawings. Over the years a number of drawings in the collection of architectural and decorative drawings have been identified and moved to the main collection. Per Bjurström singled out drawings for the catalogues of German, French and Italian drawings. Some more are offered here as Dutch. The principle established for the earlier catalogues are followed also here: Documentary evidence for attributions is lacking for the greater part of this material. The attempt to put it in order on purely stylistic grounds would be hazardous at the present stage of research, which is why this volume only contain a few of these, works that are satisfactorily authenticated. It is perhaps somewhat incosistant to divorce these sheets from their proper context but it is surely right that researchers should know that at least these landmarks exist. 1 In the French material thus selected consist mainly of figurative and decorative compositions, while in our case mainly landscape drawings have been extracted. The drawings inherited by Nationalmuseum from the Royal Museum in the 1860s the collections of C. G. Tessin, M. G. Anckarsvärd, etc. began to be integrated and the old mounts replaced in 1901, when John Kruse and Osvald Sirén started exploring these collections. They were followed by Olof Granberg, who was aided by visiting scholars like A. Bredius and J. O. Kronig in Of the Dutch drawings, the extensive Rembrandt school, over a hundred drawings, attracted particular attention. As early as 1898 the then curator Gustaf Upmark catalogued them. His successor John Kruse retired for health reasons in 1911 to devote himselt exclusively to their study. In the annual report of 1914 the director proudly announced than the museum owned 65 drawings in Rembrandt s own hand, whereas the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam only has some 50. Kruse died in 1914 and his groud-breaking work was published posthumously by Carl Neumann in The first major survey of the holdings of Dutch and Flemish drawings in the museum and other collections was made in the exhibition of 1953, curated by Nils Lindhagen assisted Per Bjurström. I t was seen as a first step towerds a catalogue 1 P. Bjurström, French Drawings. Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (Drawings in Swedish Public Collections, 2), Stockholm 1976, p. vii. The drawings have inventory numbers beginning with THC (Tessin-Hårleman Collection), CC (Cronstedt Collection), Cels (Celsing Collection) or Eich (Eichhorn Collection). 2 L. Dietrichson, in his memoires mention visits by W. Bode, Ph. Van der Kellen och J. Lange around Cf. B. Magnusson, The Tessin Drawings Collection and its early history, Art Bulletin of Nationalmuseum, 16 (2010), pp. 68 and 72. SID 2/5 raissonné of the collection. Preparing the exhibition, scholars from the Netherlands were consulted, but comments in the catalogue are scarse. 3 In comprised more than 300 drawings (290 nos.). Two thirds came from the museum (the large Rembrandt group was not included), no less that 97 from Einar Perman s collections and smaller numbers from other collection. Rembrandt got his own exhibition, inkluding paintings, and with loans from major collections outside the country in More drawings were brought into focus in an exhibition of Dutch paintings and drawings in Bjurström curated the section on drawings (121 nos.). A few years later Bjurström started to compile a catalogue, but he then chose to procede first with German, French and Italian drawings. The project was eventually inherited by Magnusson, but it was interrupted in 1992 and reassumed only in The present catalogue comprises roughly 525 drawings attributed to 85 artists, and some sixty anonymous drawings. Numerically the Rembrandt school dominates. The autograph drawings by the artist are now down to 30, some 40 drawings have been attributed to other artist, and nearly 50 are still anonymous school drawings. The work of Otto Benesch, Werner Sumowski and others are at the base of this assesment. Another big group of over 40 drawings are associated with Abraham Bloemaert, almost half of them autograph. In this case, the huge material on the artist presented by Jaap Bolten and Marcel Roethlisberger has facilitated the work. Some 130 have not beeen published before, a fourth of them probably copies. A number of drawings were published with new attributions in the 1953 catalogue, but have not received renewed attention from scholars. Many are undistinguished, and given the small number of drawings by each proposed artist, usually one or two, an attribution is hazardous. In some cases the traditional attributions have been retained, even when open to doubt, but about 50 new attributions have been advanced. Collections of Dutch and Flemish drawings in Sweden 4 During the 17 th century contacts between Sweden and Holland were lively, ranging from commerce and industrial enterprices to art. A number of Dutch painters visited Sweden and a few stayed, and works of art were comissioned from Holland. There are few drawings preserved to witness these contacts, among them a water-colour by Everdingen of mills outside Gothenburg, or the the designs for tapestries by Bramer, comissioned by Carl Gustaf Wrangel. Greater in number are the drawings by Willem Swidde and Johannes van den Aveele, Dutch artists who settled in Sweden to work for the quartermaster general Erik Dahlbergh as engravers towards the end of the century. Collecting drawings by artists from the Netherlands seems to have begun with the architect Nicodemus Tessin the Younger ( ). On his study tour to Paris and Rome in the spring of 1687 he visited the Low Coutries and made contact with a number of artists, collectors and dealers, as he notes in his travel diary. 5 In Amsterdam, he met Gerard de Lairesse and Johannes Glauber, and described their collaboration. He also saw Melchior d Hondecoter, Bartolomeus Eggers and Ludolf de Jong. M:r de Witt an old man, sold the best drawings and prints, but no purchase from him is mentioned. In the Hague he visited Rombout Verhulst, who s work he did not like, and he mentions 3 In the foreword Lindhagen expressed his gratitude to O. Benesch, W. Bernt, K- G. Boon, A. J. J. Fren, H. Gerson, E. Greindl, S. Gudlaugsson, J. S. Held, G. J. Hoogewerff, F. Lugt, M. Musses, E. Panosky, E. Pelinck, A. E. Popham, L. Van Puyvelde, J. Q. Van Regteren Altena, I. B. Renckens, Y. Thiéry, H. Van de Waal, W. R Valentiner. 4 This is an amended version of a lecture held at the CODART congress in Haarlem 6-8March The lecture was published in the Codart Courant, 10 (June 2005), pp , and in the Art Bulletin of Nationalmuseum, 12 (2005), pp B. Magnusson & M. Laine (Eds.), Travel Notes and (Nicodemus Tessin the Younger. Sources, Works, Collections), Stockholm 2002, pp. 140ff. SID 3/5 Robbert Duval. In Antwerp he was received by Artus Quellinus the Younger and Jan Erasmus Quellinus, Lodewijk Willemsen and Jan Eykens. Eykens he characterized as a good draughtsman. He also inspected the studio of the recently deceased sculptor Peter Verbruggen. In that city Tessin bought drawings for 128 Riksdaler from the estate of Antonis van Leyen, and had them evaluated by Eykens. He visited several collection and made a couple of other acquisitions. From Alexander Voet he bought a print. A priest, named De Vos, had several volumes of exellent drawings, and there he bought a drawing of a man on horseback by van Dyck for 6 Riksdaler. Finally in Brussels he met Eglon van der Neer. As he travelled on, he visited Adam van der Meulen in Paris twice, he met with Lieven Mehus in Florence and was given two drawings, and in Rome he was in touch with two painters from Brabant, Adriaen van Bloemen and Gaspar van Vrites. Among the drawings inherited by Nikodemus son, Carl Gustaf Tessin ( ), were 55 Dutch and Flemish drawings. Most numerous are theose attributed to Rubens (6), van Dyck (4), and Bloemaert (8). There is also a group of landscapes by Glauber, Pieter van Bloemen and Dalens (9). Most of them were probably acquired during the journey of On his grand tour, in 1715, Carl Gustaf Tessin was sent to Antwerp by his father to make purchases, and he got hold of two volumes with 300 drawings, but apart from Rubens and van Dyck, only drawings by Italian and French drawings are reported in Tessins catalogue. 6 Carl Gustaf Tessin increased the collection through the acquisition of nearly 3,000 drawings in Paris , two thirds of them at the Crozat sale in Of these, some 560 drawings were Dutch and Flemish. The largest groups were attributed to Rembrandt (106), Rubens (38), van Dyck (23), Goltzius (23), Bloemaert (22), Brouwer (23) and Stradanus (15). Tessin got the Dutch drawings fairly cheap. He spent much more for the Rubens drawings than for the many by Rembrandt, but the latter were also mostly small sketches that went cheeper anyway. The highest prices he paid for the High Renaissance, Roman and Bolognese baroque drawings. In Tessin s selection of desseins d élite only Rubens and van Dyck found place. Economic difficulties forced Tessin to sell his collections to the Royal family. Probably in view of sale a catalogue of the drawings was compiled in It was catalogued again in 1790, when the collection entered the Royal Library; the number of Dutch and Flemish drawings were then c It is clear that Tessin kept a few hundred drawings for himself. Shortly after his death, a few drawings were sold, among them a handful of Dutch and Flemish. The remaining part, som 375 drawings, was sold at an aucton in Of these 152 were Netherlandish, including 27 by Bloemaert, 22 by Goltzius, 22 by Rembrandt, 13 by Stradanus and 7 by Rubens. When the Royal Museum was created in 1794, the Tessin collection was trasferred from the Royal Library. It was catalogued in 1863 in view of the imminent transfer to the Nationalmuseum in 1866, hence the inventory numbers ending with /1863. Many of the drawing sold at the Tessin auction in 1786 later found their way to the Nationalmuseum through gifts and purchases. The largest number came through the purchase in 1896 of the collecction of Michael Gustaf Anckarsvärd ( ), one-time director of the Royal Museum. It comprized c. 650 drawings, 90 of them attributed to Dutch and Flemish artists, another c. 190 were anonymous. 6 P. Bjurström & M. Snickare, Catalogue des livres, estampes & desseins du cabinet des beaux arts, & des sciences appartenant au Baron Tessin, Stockholm 1912, (Nicodemus Tessin the Younger. Sources, Works, Collections), Stockholm 2000, p. 19. SID 4/5 Further acquisitions were made through gifts and puchases from private persons, among them Count Axel Bielke, a generous patron of the museum. Drawings were also acquired fom the estated of king Karl XIII, Oscar I and Karl VX the Rosersberg and Karlberg collections. In 1972 Nationalmuseum received what remained of the De la Gardie collection, some 800 drawings, many of them Durch and Flemish. 7 It had been formed by Count Jacob Gustaf De la Gardie ( ). In 1799 he inherited a few hundred drawings from his father in law, Count Gustaf Adolf Sparre. He had brought together a fairly importand collection of paintings during his grand tour through England, Holland and France around 1770, showing a strong interest in Netherlandish genre paintings. His drawings collection was less distinguished, composed mainly of second rate Italian and French works, with only a handful of Dutch and Flemish drawings but the names of Bueckelaer, Jordaens and Rubens stand out. Sparre seems also to have bought at the Tessin auction in 1786: a certain count Sparre acquired, among other things, a few drawings attributed to Brouwer, Jordaens and Bloemaert. The Bloemaert drawing is now in the Gothenburg Art Museum. However, the major part of De la Gardie s collection was a gift from the Duke Albert of Sachsen- Teschen, which he recieved when he was Swedish ambassador in Vienna The gift comprised some 1,000 drawings, roughly 600 of them came from the collection of Prince Charles de Ligne, but a very lage part of them were anonymous. The founder of the famous Albertina collection did not give away any of his more important and highly priced drawings, such as Raphael, Michelangelo, etc. Instead De la Gardie recieved numerous mannerist drawings, de Momper, van Mander, Wierix, etc, and drawings by late baroque artists, like Verbruggen, de Hooghe, and Scheemackers. They were drawings less appreciated at the time, but they complement the Tessin collection. According to De la Gardies own catalogue of 1831, which included the drawings from Sparre, the total number of drawings amounted to about 1,500. Of these less than 300 were attributed to Dutch and Flemish artists, but more than 500 were listed as anonymous. The collection was split up after De la Gardies death in 1842, and only half of it has reached Nationalmuseum. Perhaps as much as a couple of hundred drawings are in the Gothenburg Art Museum, but surprisingly few by Dutch and Flemish artists. A handful of drawings with a De la Gardie provenance has been identified in the collection of Uppsala University Library. The following public collections in Sweden hold Dutch and Flemish drawings: Nationalmuseum, Stockholm: Some 1,000 drawings, roughly 150 from before 1600, 300 Flemish and 550 Dutch of the 17 th century and later. The Royal Academy of Art, Stockholm: Ca. 20, many of them from the Tessin collection, bought by a Count Wrede at the 1786 sale. Uppsala University Library: Ca. 50 drawings, most of them donated in 1834 by the general Carl Hård ( ). A number of them are from the De la Gardie collection, but it is not clear if they were part of the gift or entered the collection later. 7 For details, see B. Magnusson, The De la Gardie (Borrestad) Collection of Drawings, Nationalmuseum Bulletin, 6:3 (1982), pp Id., SID 5/5 Göteborg Art Museum: No more than a dozen Dutch and Flemish drawings, probably all from the De la Gardie Collection. Furthermore, a few drawings, mostly by artists working in Sweden of for Swedish patrons, are in Royal Library, the National Archives, the National Military Archives, the Maritime Museum, all of them in Stockholm, the City Museum of Gothemburg, and at Kulturen (The museum of cultural history) in Lund.
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