INSTITUT FÜR BAUBIOLOGIE ROSENHEIM GMBH. Expert Report No - PDF

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INSTITUT FÜR BAUBIOLOGIE ROSENHEIM GMBH Expert Report No with reference to the seal of approval Tested and Recommended by the IBR For the test item Heat-Retaining Fireplaces Applicant: Tulikivi

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INSTITUT FÜR BAUBIOLOGIE ROSENHEIM GMBH Expert Report No with reference to the seal of approval Tested and Recommended by the IBR For the test item Heat-Retaining Fireplaces Applicant: Tulikivi Oyj FIN Juuka Phone: +358 (0) Samples: Taken under official supervision on February 17, 2010 on the ordering party's premises and confirmed by the official stamp of the local authorities of Juuka. The sampling protocols were available to us in their original version. Executing tester: Staff members of the aforementioned body Term of validity: July 2012 This expert report may only be reproduced and published in unabridged and unaltered form. Any other use, even of excerpts or quotations, must be explicitly approved by the IBR. IBR Institut für Baubiologie GmbH D Rosenheim Heilig-Geist-Str. 54 Fon +49(0) Fax Managing Director: Reimut Hentschel Commercial Register: HRB Traunstein 5362 VAT ID: DE Website: Page 2 of 18 of the Expert Report no by the IBR It is the objective of the IBR to identify non-polluting building products for healthy living for the consumer by awarding the seal of approval TESTED AND APPROVED BY THE IBR . The seal of approval was created by the Institut für Baubiologie Rosenheim GmbH in 1982 to enable consumers with an awareness for health and ecological matters to protect themselves against health hazards caused by building materials and furniture in their residential environment. The seal of approval is awarded to products which ensure healthy living with respect to building biology and at the same time protect the environment. When awarding the seal of approval, we only use scientific and technical analysis methods which are based on normative regulations as well as the current state-of-the-art of laboratory analytics so that they should be understood both by third-party experts and by end consumers. The aim of awarding the seal of approval TESTED AND RECOMMENDED BY THE IBR to as many products as possible is to enable an increasing number of consumers and end users to make criteria related to building biology a critical part of their decision when purchasing products for building and furnishing their homes. The tests listed in our expert reports are not supposed to supersede the requirements in terms of building physics, supervision, legal regulations, or safety. They are merely a complementary set of tests related to health, physiology, building biology, and ecology aspects which have been neglected. The seal of approval TESTED AND APPROVED BY THE IBR is based on a holistic perspective. Besides its focus on the tests that determine the potential physiological impact of the products on human beings and/or the environment, the expert report associated with granting the seal also honours any product whose production, processing, use, and ecological recycling have no or only a limited, tolerable adverse effect on the environment. The emission of harmful substances, e.g. with a carcinogenic and/or mutagenic potential, is always to be considered as a criterion for exclusion. The seal of approval will under no circumstances be awarded to such products. Any names of companies, products or brands mentioned in our expert reports are protected by copyright. The fact that we mention them is neither to be construed as a valuation nor as a recommendation. Page 3 of 18 of the Expert Report no by the IBR Table of Contents 1. Product description Test Results Radioactivity Biocides, PCB, Pyrethroids, Phtalates Biocides Polychlorinated biphenyls Pyrethroides Phtalates Solvents and odiferous substances (VOC) Alkanes Aromatics Alkenes Chlorinated hydrocarbons Terpenes Monovalent alcohols Polyvalent alcohols and their ethers Esters of polyvalent alcohols and their ethers Esters of carboxylic acids Ketons Aldehydes Carboxylic acids Heavy metals Determination in the original substance Determination in the eluate Fine dusts Notice on awarding and using the seal of approval...18 Page 4 of 18 of the Expert Report no by the IBR 1. Product description We were charged by the company to examine their products for harmlessness with respect to building biology. The products submitted for testing include the various components of heat-retaining fireplaces made of Finnish soapstone (geological name: steatite). Steatite consists of 40 to 50% talc and magnesite each, and of 5 to 10% chlorite. The technical properties of this natural stone are clearly better than those of industrially produced chamotte and therefore it is well-suited as a fireplace construction material. The functional principle of these soapstone fireplaces is based on the masonry stove construction. It uses a brick-lined firebox and a flue system. The flue system works according to the counterflow principle. Thus, the energy generated in the combustion process is used efficiently. In terms of materials, the construction of such a fireplace essentially consists of the following components: - The actual soapstone slab material - Water glass as a binding agent (glassy potassium and sodium silicates solidified from the melt flow) - Mineral wool for thermal insulation - Stove gaskets for sealing moveable parts The following test results apply to all components mentioned above. According to our seal of approval guidelines, the seal of approval is only awarded for products where all components meet the requirements. The need to use personal protective equipment when processing the material within the scope of the standards stipulated by the employer s liability insurance associations is pointed out explicitly. A variety of aids is provided to persons charged with processing these materials. For instance, comprehensive product information and processing regulations can be viewed on the manufacturer s Internet site or can be found in the product-specific printed documentation. The production is subject to continuous internal and external monitoring. Any further examinations exclusively refer to the materials mentioned above and the products manufactured therefrom. The local application of additives or coating which might be necessary is not part of the examination. The safety data sheets were available for reference. There are no issues with respect to safe disposal. There are no hazardous components to be disclosed. Furthermore, a complete declaration of the component materials was available. For more detailed specifications, please contact the manufacturer. In the next part of the expert report, the products are examined for harmlessness with respect to building biology. The results disclosed below are valid for all products mentioned above, if not explicitly stated otherwise. Page 5 of 18 of the Expert Report no by the IBR 2. Test Results 2.1 Radioactivity In the discussion about the risks of nuclear energy, the public s interest focuses almost exclusively on the population's radiation exposure caused by nuclear plants. Due to this fact, the problem of radiation exposure inside buildings is being neglected. In many cases, there are uncertainties about the level of radiation to which the population is exposed and about the contributions of the individual natural and man-made sources of radiation. The main part of the natural radiation exposure comes from ambient radiation and the absorption of natural radioactive substances by the body. It must also be considered that the radioactive gas radon may be emitted from building materials into the ambient air. Breathing it in over a long period of time may expose the lungs to radioactive radiation. Human beings absorb this gas and its decay products together with the inhaled air. While most radon particles are exhaled again, its radioactive decay products can be deposited in the lungs. The German Strahlenschutzverordnung (radiation protection ordinance) from 2001 lowered the admissible additional radiation exposure of the population from 1.5 msv per year to 1 msv per year. In 1999, the Radiation Protection 112 document issued by the European Commission proposed an Activity Concentration Index (ACI) for building materials. The ACI value for building materials is calculated using a total formula which is based on a dose criterion of 1 msv per year. Therefore, using the ACI for the evaluation is more stringent than using the previously applied Leningrad formula which is based on a dose criterion of 1.5 msv per year. The following formula is used to determine the ACI value: ACI = A(K-40)/ A(Ra-226)/300 + A(Th-232)/200 1 where A(K-40) is the activity of potassium-40, A(Ra-226) the activity of radium-226 and A(Th- 232) the activity of thorium-232, all given in Bq/kg. Adding the 3 measured values A(K-40), A(Ra-226) and A(Th-232) will yield the total ACI. The following table lists the measured activities of the individual nuclides: Nuclide Activity [Bq/kg] Statistical error [%] Lead 212 Lead 214 Potassium 40 I o d i n e 131 C a e s i u m 134 C a e s i u m 137 Test result: For the tested product, an ACI value of 0.00 was determined. Artificial radioactivity from Chernobyl or from the above-ground atomic bomb tests carried out in the 1960s could not be identified in the examined sample. Limit or reference values Requirement Activity Concentration Index (ACI) for building materials stipulated by the ACI 1.00 European Commission Reference value stipulated by the Institut für Baubiologie Rosenheim GmbH ACI 0.75 Reference value stipulated by the Munich Environmental Institute (Umweltinstitut München) ACI 0.50 Page 6 of 18 of the Expert Report no by the IBR Evaluation: The tested product complies with the official reference value of ACI 1 and with the test requirement ACI 0.75 stipulated by the Institut für Baubiologie as well as with the stringent reference value of ACI 0.5 stipulated by the Munich Environmental Institute. Page 7 of 18 of the Expert Report no by the IBR 2.2 Biocides, PCB, Pyrethroids, Phtalates With an increasing presence of chemical substances at our workplaces and in everyday life, the ambient air quality in indoor environment has deteriorated continually. For workplaces, TLV values (threshold limit values) reflecting the concentration of harmful substances have been defined. For habitable rooms, however, where people spend much more time, no legally stipulated maximum quantities or limit values for harmful substances in the indoor air have been defined yet, apart from very few exceptions. The quality of the air in homes and other habitable rooms is essentially influenced by the type of the building materials and furniture and by the types of household chemicals used Biocides Test method: Addition of internal standards (alpha-hch, 2,4,6-tribromophenole, PCB 209) to validate the test procedure. Extraction using n-hexane/acetone and a carbonate solution. Acetylation of the phenols. Fractionation of extracts using silica gel for each specific category of substances. Analysis using capillary gas chromatography and flame ionisation/electron capture detectors (GC/FID/ECD) or mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Calibration and assay using external standards. Pentachlorophenol PCP ,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol ,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol beta-hch gamma-hch (lindane) Dichlofluanid Tolylfluanid Chlorthalonil alpha-endosulfan beta-endosulfan Endosulfan-sulfate Furmecyclox Hexachlorobenzene Methylparathion Ethylparathion Chlorpyrifos Heptachlor Aldrin cis-heptachlor epoxide trans-heptachlor epoxide cis-chlordane trans-chlordane Endrin Dieldrin Bromophos Mirex Malathion Hexachlorophene o,p-ddt o,p -DDT o,p-ddd p,p -DDD o,p-dde p,p -DDE Eulan Page 8 of 18 of the Expert Report no by the IBR Polychlorinated biphenyls Test method: Addition of internal standards (PCB 209) to validate the test procedure. Extraction using n-hexane. Fractionation of extracts using silica gel for each specific category of substances. Concentration. Analysis using capillary gas chromatography and electron capture detectors (GC/ECD). Calibration and assay using external standards. Determination according to the German PCB-Abfallverordnung (ordinance on the ban of PCB) from Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) no.: 28 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) no.: 52 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) no.: 101 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) no.: 138 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) no.: 153 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) no.: 180 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) total: Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCT) total: Polychlorinated diphenylmethanes PCDM total: Polybrominated diphenylmethanes PBDM total Pyrethroides Resmethrin Deltamethrin Tetramethrin Cypermethrin Cyfluthrin cis-trans-permethrin Allethrin Phenothrin Cyhalothrin Phtalates Phthalic acid anhydride 5 5 Dimethyl phthalate 5 5 Diethyl phthalate 5 5 Bis-2-methylpropyl phthalate DiBP 5 5 Dibutyl phthalate DBP 5 5 Benzyl butyl phthalate BBP 5 5 Dioctyl phthalate DOB 5 5 Diethylhexyl phthalate DEHP 5 5 Diisononyl phthalate DNOP 5 5 Didecyl phthalate 5 5 Diundecyl phthalate 5 5 Note: Due to their frequency of occurrence, concentrations of phthalic acid esters below 20 mg/kg are assumed to be unspecific secondary contaminations. Evaluation: For none of the tested substances, a measurable concentration was detected. All measured values are below the specific limit of detection set for each analysis. The tested substances are not expected to have a harmful effect. Page 9 of 18 of the Expert Report no by the IBR 2.3 Solvents and odiferous substances (VOC) With an increasing presence of chemical substances at our workplaces and in everyday life, the ambient air quality in indoor environment has deteriorated continually. For workplaces, TLV values (threshold limit values) reflecting the concentration of harmful substances have been defined. For habitable rooms, however, where people spend much more time, there are, apart from very few exceptions, no legally stipulated maximum quantities or limit values for harmful substances in the indoor air. It is the declared objective of the new federal building codes in Germany and the European Construction Products Directive to protect the health of building users. The corresponding board which is responsible for finding and establishing VOC limit values is called ECA (European Collaborative Action). As early as in 1997, this board recommended the use of the so-called LCI (Lowest Concentration of Interest) as an evaluation scheme, i.e. concentrations that are just of interest from a toxicological point of view. With the exception of pesticides, volatile organic substances were classified according to the WHO definitions with respect to their boiling ranges or the volatility resulting from it. The following tested substances are in the boiling range from 50 to 260 C. Description Boiling range 0 to C to C to C 380 C Test method: The material samples were prepared using headspace technology at 90 C as well as liquid extraction by means of acetone. Derivative preparation of carboxylic acids. Analysis using capillary gas chromatography, flame ionisation and electron capture detectors (GC/FID/ECD) or mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Calibration and assay using external standards Alkanes Methyl-cyclopentane 1 1 Cyclohexane 1 1 Heptane 1 1 Methylcyclohexane 1 1 Octane 1 1 Nonane 1 1 Decane 1 1 Undecane 1 1 Dodecane 1 1 Tridecane 1 1 Tetradecane 1 1 Pentadecane 1 1 Hexadecane 1 1 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane 1 1 Page 10 of 18 of the Expert Report no by the IBR Aromatics Measured value Limit of detection Benzene 1 1 Toluene 1 1 Ethylbenzene 1 1 m+p-xylene 1 1 o-xylene 1 1 n-propylbenzene 1 1 Styrene ethyltoluene ethyltoluene ethyltoluene 1 1 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene 1 1 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene 1 1 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene 1 1 n-butylbenzene 1 1 1,2 / 1,3-diethylbenzene 1 1 1,4-diethylbenzene 1 1 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene 1 1 1,2,3,5-tetramethylbenzene 1 1 Hexylbenzene 1 1 Octylbenzene Alkenes 2-methylpropene trimer phenylcyclohexene vinylcyclohexene Chlorinated hydrocarbons 1,1,1-trichloroethane 1 1 Carbon tetrachloride 1 1 Trichloroethene 1 1 Tetrachloroethene 1 1 1,4-dichlorobenzene chloronaphthaline 1 1 Page 11 of 18 of the Expert Report no by the IBR Terpenes Measured value Limit of detection Dihydro-myrcenol 1 1 Linalool 1 1 beta-citronellol 1 1 Linalyl acetate 1 1 Geraniol 1 1 Hydroxicitronellal 1 1 Geranyl acetate 1 1 alpha-ionone 1 1 alpha-pinene 1 1 beta-pinene 1 1 delta-3-carene 1 1 Limonene 1 1 1,8-cineole 1 1 alpha-terpinene 1 1 gamma-terpinene 1 1 alpha-terpineol 1 1 Menthol 1 1 Isophorone 1 1 DL-Camphor 1 1 Verbenone 1 1 Bornyl acetate 1 1 endo-borneol 1 1 Longifolene 1 1 Eugenol 1 1 Iso-eugenol Monovalent alcohols Measured value Limit of detection Methanol 1 1 Ethanol propanol propanol 1 1 Tertiary butanol butanol pentanol methyl-1-butanol pentanol hexanol heptanol octanol propyl-1-pentanol ethyl-1-hexanol nonanol nonanol Octen-3-ol 1 1 Decanol 1 1 Texanol 1 1 Cinnamic alcohol 1 1 Page 12 of 18 of the Expert Report no by the IBR Polyvalent alcohols and their ethers Measured value Limit of detection Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGMM) 1 1 Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) 1 1 Ethylene glycol monoisopropyl ether (EGMiP) 1 1 Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGMB) 1 1 Ethylene glycol monophenyl ether (EGMP) 1 1 Ethylene glycol diphenyl ether (EGDP) 1 1 1,2-propylene glycol (1,2 PG) 1 1 1,2-propylene glycol ethylhexyl (PGEH) 1 1 1,2-propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGMM) 1 1 1,2-propylene glycol monobutyl ether (PGMB) 1 1 1,2-propylene glycol mono-t-butyl ether (PGMtB) 1 1 Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DEGMM) 1 1 Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGME) 1 1 Diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DEGMB) 1 1 Dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPGMM) 1 1 Triethylene glycol monobutyl ether (TEGMB) 1 1 Tripropylene glycol monobutyl ether (TPGMB) 1 1 Tripropylene glycol monoallyl ether (TPGMA) Esters of polyvalent alcohols and their ethers Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMMA) 1 1 Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGMEA) Esters of carboxylic acids Ethyl acetate 1 1 Isopropyl acetate 1 1 n-butyl acetate 1 1 i-butyl acetate 1 1 Methyl methacrylate 1 1 Butyl acrylate 1 1 Butyl propionate 1 1 Dimethyl adipate 1 1 Dimethyl pimelat 1 1 Dimethyl caprylate 1 1 Diisobutyl adipate 1 1 Dibutyl maleinate 1 1 Dimethyl phthalate 1 1 Diethyl phthalate 1 1 Dibutyl phthalate 1 1 TXIB 1 1 TxmIB 1 1 Methyl benzoate 1 1 Page 13 of 18 of the Expert Report no by the IBR Ketons Measured value Limit of detection Acetophenone 1 1 Cyclohexanone 1 1 3,3,5-trimethyl cyclohexanone 1 1 Methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone) 1 1 Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) hexanone (MBK) heptanone octanone 1 1 n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone 1 1 Benzophenone Aldehydes Formaldehyde (methanal) 1 1 Ethanal 1 1 Propanal 1 1 Butanal 1 1 Pentanal 1 1 Hexanal 1 1 Heptanal 1 1 Octanal 1 1 Nonanal 1 1 Decanal 1 1 Furfural 1 1 trans-cinnamic aldehyde 1 1 alpha-hexyl-cinnamic aldehyde 1 1 Vanillin 1 1 Benzaldehyde Carboxylic acids Hexanoic acid Heptanoic acid Octanoic acid Nonanoic acid Decanoic acid Undecanoic acid Dodecanoic acid Evaluation: For none of the tested substances, a measurable concentration was detected. All measured values are below the specific limit of detection set for each analysis. The tested substances are not expected to have a harmful effect. Page 14 of 18 of the Expert Report no by the IBR 2.4 Heavy metals Metals are basically subdivided into light metals and heavy metals. Contrary to common opinion that only heavy metals have a toxic potential, and light metals do not, the following should be noted: Not all heavy metals are toxic and not all light metals are non-toxic. About 14 of t
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