IMPACT OF ATATÜRK DAM ON SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA PROJECT - PDF

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IMPACT OF ATATÜRK DAM ON SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA PROJECT A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES OF MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

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IMPACT OF ATATÜRK DAM ON SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA PROJECT A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES OF MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY BY GÖKÇE AKYÜREK IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING DECEMBER 2005 Approval of the Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences Prof. Dr. Canan ÖZGEN Director I certify that this thesis satisfies all the requirements as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science. Prof. Dr. Erdal ÇOKCA Head of Department This is to certify that we have read this thesis and that in our opinion it is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science. Prof. Dr. Doğan ALTINBİLEK Supervisor Examining Committee Members Prof. Dr. Melih YANMAZ (METU,CE) Prof. Dr. Doğan ALTINBİLEK (METU,CE) Assist. Prof. Dr. Şahnaz TİĞREK (METU,CE) Dr. Hande AKÇAKOCA (GAP Administration) Faruk VOLKAN, M.Sc. (DSI) I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct. I also declare that, as required by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and referenced all material and results that are not original to this work. Name, Last name : Gökçe AKYÜREK Signature : iii ABSTRACT IMPACT OF ATATÜRK DAM ON SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA PROJECT Akyürek, Gökçe M.Sc., Department of Civil Engineering Supervisor : Prof. Dr. Doğan ALTINBİLEK December 2005, 127 pages In this thesis the impact of the Atatürk Dam on social and environmental aspects of the Southeastern Anatolia Project has been discussed in terms of planning and policy making, institutional arrangements, infrastuctural development and human resources development. In order to analyse the impacts of Atatürk Dam data related to several components are collected. These components can be listed as resettlement, land acquisition and land consolidation, education, health, gender issues. The results show that the Atatürk Resettlement has been done involuntarily. The people mostly have their compensation. However the management abilities of the resettlers for the compensations were poor. Generally the Southeastern Anatolia Project as a large scale multi sectoral projects have positive impacts on the literacy ratio and health standards. Actually the social and environmental aspects of this kind of large scale projects are difficult to predict and measure. Therefore reasonable studies on prediciting the problems related to the environemental and social issues and producing sufficient solutions become more and more important day by day. The Southeastern Anatolia Project becomes an important example for similar projects by considering its both positive and negative impacts. Keywords: Southeastern Anatolia Project, Atatürk Dam, Resettlement, Social and Environmental Impacts iv ÖZ ATATÜRK BARAJININ GÜNEYDOĞU ANADOLU PROJESİNİN SOSYAL VE ÇEVRESEL YÖNLERİNE ETKİSİ Akyürek, Gökçe Yüksek Lisans, İnşaat Mühendisliği Bölümü Tez Yöneticisi : Prof. Dr. Doğan Altınbilek Aralık 2005, 127 sayfa Bu tezde Atatürk Barajının Güneydoğu Anadolu Projesinin sosyal ve çevresel yönlerine etkisi planlama, politika oluşturma, kurumsal düzenlemeler, alt yapı ve insan kaynakları açısından tartışılmışıtr. Atatürk Barajının etkilerini analiz edebilmek için birçok konuda veri toplanmıştır. Bu konular yeniden yerleşim, arazi kamulaştırması ve arazi toplulaştırması, eğitim, sağlık, kadın erkek eşitliği olarak listelenebilir. Sonuçlar Atatürk Barajının yeniden yerleşiminin istemsiz olarak yapıldığını göstermektedir. Yeniden yerleştirilen insanlar çoğunlukla ödemelerini almışlardır. Fakat yeniden yerleştirilen insanların yapılan ödemeleri değerlendirme kapasiteleri zayıftır. Byük ölçekli ve çok sektörlü bir proje olan Güneydoğu Anadolu Projesinin genel olarak okur yazarlık oranında ve sağlık koşullarında olumlu etkisi bulunmaktadır. Aslında bu büyüklükteki projelerin sosyal ve çevresel yönlerinin tahmin edilmesi zordur. Bu nedenle çevresel ve sosyal konularla ile ilgili problemlerin tahmini için iyi düşünülmüş çalışmaların yapılması ve yeterli çözümlerin üretilmesi günden güne daha önemli hale gelmektedir. Güneydoğu Anadolu Projesi olumlu ve olumsuz yönleri düşünüldüğünde Güneydoğu Anadolu Projesi benzer projeler için önemli bir örnek haline gelmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Güneydoğu Anadolu Projesi, Atatürk Barajı, Yeniden Yerleşim, Sosyal ve Çevresel Etkiler v To my lovely family, vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor Prof. Dr. Doğan Altınbilek for his guidance, advice, criticism, encouragements and insight throughout the research. I would also like to thank Assoc. Prof. Dr. Şahnaz TİĞREK for her suggestions, comments, encouragements and guidance. I am grateful to A. Ertuğ ERÇİN, for supplying several data to me. Help of several branches of DSI and KHGM is appreciated. vii TABLE OF CONTENTS PLAGIARISM...iii ABSTRACT...iv ÖZ...v DEDICATION...vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... vii TABLE OF CONTENTS... viii LIST OF TABLES... xi LIST OF FIGURES... xii LIST OF ABBREVATIONS... xiii CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION General Literature Review Scope of the Thesis SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA PROJECT Introduction History of The Region Characteristics of The Eupharates-Tigris Basin Definition of The Region Comparison with Country by All Aspects Institutions Related to GAP The State Hydraulic Works (DSI)...14 viii 2.2.2 The Southeastern Anatolia Project Regional Development Administration (GAP Administartion) DSI and GAP Administartion Coordination Historical Development of GAP Technical Development of GAP Conceptual Developmant of GAP The Master Plan The Social Action Plan The Regional Development Plan The Achievement of the Targets and Outcomes of the Project SOCIAL IMPACTS INCLUDING ENVIRONMENTAL AND CULTURAL ISSUES Introduction Land Acquisition and Resettlement The Reasons of Resettlement Present and Past Status of Land Acquisition and Resettlement in Turkey Expropriaiton Process Resettlement Process Governmental Resettlement Urban Resettlement Rural Resettlement Village Transfer With Credit Support Comparison of the Methods of Resettlement The Resettlement Action Plans...66 ix 3.2.4 The Atatürk Dam Land Acquisition and Resettlement The Birecik Dam Land Acquisition and Resettlement Seeking Proper and Accepted Resettlement Process Land Consolidation Population Change Urbanization Employment Generation Education Health Gender Issues Environmental Issues Cultural Heritage Hasankeyf The Research of Cultural Assets at Risk Due to the Waters of Birecik and Karkamış Dams Zeugma CRITISIMS REGARDING SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA PROJECT AND THE ATATURK DAM DISCUSSION OF THE ISSUES CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES x LIST OF TABLES TABLES Table 2.1 Comparison of GAP Parameters with Turkey Table 2.2 Sub-Projects under GAP Table 2.3 Characteristics of Atatürk dam, Birecik dam and Karkamış dam Table 2.4 Hydropower Development in GAP and Turkey Table 2.5 Total energy generation in GAP Table 2.6 Irrigation in operation in the GAP Table 2.7 The status of GAP Table 3.1 The Number of Affected People in Atatürk Dam Table 3.2 The Number of Affected People in Birecik Dam Table 3.3 Migration Rates Table 3.4 Population Growth Rates in Turkey Table 3.5 Literacy percentages in the GAP Region for man and women Table 3.6 Literacy percentages of GAP provinces and the totals for the Region and Turkey Table 3.7 The GAP and Turkey Ratio school, teacher and student numbers xi LIST OF FIGURES FIGURES Figure 2.1 GAP Provinces Figure 2.2 GAP Water Resources Projects Figure 2.3 Dams of the Euphrates Figure 2.4 Energy production in GAP Figure 2.5 Irrigation in GAP Figure 3.1 Land Acquisition and Resettlement Schema Figure 3.2 Land Acquisition and Resettlement Process Summary Figure 3.3 The schematic view Resettlement Action Plans Figure 3.4 Yearly Total Paid Compensation for Atatürk dam xii LIST OF ABBREVATIONS ABBREVIATIONS GAP: The Southeastern Anatolia Project DSI: State Hydraulic Works CATOM: Multi Purpose Community Centers NGO: Non-Governmental Organization EIE:Electricity Survey Agency MW: Megawatts KWh: kilowatthour KHGM: General Directorate of Rural Services xiii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. GENERAL Being source of the beginning and continuity of the life in the world, water has a preliminary importance in the human survival from ancient times up to today s world. By the time, the (long) way along the human development for increasing the quality of life, the need for the water has increased day by day. Because of being essential for not only basic needs of human beings such as drinking and hygiene, but also the qualified needs of people like agricultural and industrial development, hydropower generation, navigation and ecosystem conservation; water has an important role in the daily life of each person living on the earth. Another reason for its increasing importance is being a scarce resource in the world. Although the amount of water resources seems to be enough for the entire world, the qualified resources for the specific use of water are not sufficient. Moreover, the water is distributed in time and space unevenly in the world. Also the rapid population growth in recent decades is another direct risk for the water from the scarcity standpoint. Therefore, the importance and the scarcity, in other words the quality and quantity respectively, become the significant constraints for the use of water by domestic, economic, technological and environmental reasons. The aggressive competition on economic growth at global level has been forcing the balance of the nature in terms of quality and quantity at local, regional 1 and national levels by exhausting the limited natural resources. And the water is the most affected scarce resource from this exhaustive demand. Consequently, the existing water resources should be managed properly so that the increasing need for rapid industrial, agricultural requirements can be achieved qualitatively and quantitatively. Owing to increasing demand for different kinds of natural resources, it has begun to be realized that man can no longer follow a use and discard philosophy (Altinbilek, 2001). Therefore proficient and long term management systems, especially for the water related development projects due to their direct effect on human life, should be established by realizing the rapidly increasing economic growth rates, socio-cultural changes and environmental developments. In other words, as it is used since the mid of 1980s, the sustainability of the water projects is an important issue. In 1987, the World Commission on Environment and Development defined the concept of sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs and recommended it. (Tortajada, 2001). The trend of the 70s and the 80s was only the construction of infrastructures. Then in the 90s the importance was given to water management in sectoral basis. After the end of the 90s, the trend was changed to integrated water management with the inclusion of multi sectoral perspective, social and environmental issues as well. Stakeholder participation became as a significant point in respect of this approach. Moreover, it is realized that the management of the integrated water based systems should be based on sound planning and implementation with proper institutions having sufficient managerial capabilities and expertise on the issues. Also those institutions should have necessary financial potential. (Tortajada, 2001) 2 The concept of sustainable development in the water based development projects includes determination and planning of the demands for the water through the project region, rational water use, participation of the stakeholders, equitable development for human development, achievement of the environmental and social protection by a sensible economic growth, comprehensive observation and assessment, effective supervision and provision of the necessary conditions for the protection of water related structures. (Tortajada, 2001) Increasing need for water creates the need for the large water related projects which covers basically the dams. A dam is a retaining structure which is built across a river. It aims to meet water demand for domestic, irrigational and industrial purposes; to reduce the negative effects related to the peak discharge of flood water, to generate hydroelectric power; to increase the depth of water to improve navigation. The dams providing water from reservoirs regularly according to demand patterns are a vital part of the civilization. Since the third millennium BC dams have played a key role in the development. The first great civilizations evolved on major rivers, such as Tigris-Euphrates, the Nile, and the Indus. Early civilization dams were built for flood control, water supply, irrigation and navigation. Dams had received a new role of producing power after industrial revolution (Altinbilek, 2001). Dams become the most functional water harvesting systems. Although there is certain need for these structures, some of the groups insist that the expected benefits are not being derived from these kinds of projects, and also major environmental, economic and social costs are not being taken into account. Even tough there being some resisting ideas, the dams are still considered as an important issue in the sustainable management of the finite water resources. Actually, the environmental constraints should be considered during the project selection, planning and 3 design periods and environmental consequences should be recognized in the dam s project realization. One of the important issues underlined by dam s critics is the displacement of people. Any kind of human development project, based on the transformation of natural environment due to the construction of large-scale infrastructures, requires land and other immovable assets and so displacement of people who are living in the project areas. Therefore a resettlement action plan should be prepared well before the realization of the project. Moreover, these plans should include applicable and realistic rehabilitation programs for those whose lives have been affected directly from the inundation due to the projects. There is no guarantee that every engineering solution will bring significant development. If the project is economically viable, socially equitable and environmentally sustainable, meaning that it is an excellent project, then extensive human development can be achieved not only regionally but also nationally. Nevertheless, there can be a number of people who are not satisfied completely. The reason of the dissatisfaction can be sentimental, thus people do not want to have a change in their traditional surroundings where they have ties with their ancestral lands. As a rapidly developing country Turkey, needs sufficient amount of irrigated agricultural products for growing population; cheap, continuous and high quality renewable energy for the industry; qualified water for domestic uses especially for the regions that are having low level of life standards with respect to the national average standards. For developing countries where the semi arid climate is highly dominated like Turkey, dams which are built efficiently can be used for the economic development purposes. Specifically, the energy generation is an important issue for the economic growth. For making use of energy resources available in Turkey, necessary investments are required. The local energy resources in Turkey are mainly hydro and lignite. Faithfully, Turkey has a considerable potential for 4 renewable energy resources with respect to the regional conditions compared to our neighborhoods. Also dam projects are important for the regions on which their economies are mostly related on the agriculture. The long and severe summer drought negatively affects the agriculture production and product variety. The burden of these regions to the national economy can be reduced by increasing agricultural production. An appropriate contribution to economy can be obtained by producing power. Land and water resources of potential regions can be managed for these purposes by construction of dams. The Southeastern Anatolia Project (with its Turkish acronym GAP) is the largest of so-called projects realized in Turkey LITERATURE REVIEW Southeastern Anatolia Project is the biggest development project ever undertaken by the Republic of Turkey, it has a great importance in the development history of the Southeastern Anatolia Region and Turkey. GAP has been transformed from being a series of engineering project into a multi sectoral integrated development project and then to sustainable human development project since 1960 up to now. In this thesis, the technical information related to GAP and the present status of the implementation level has been from the information of State Hydraulic Works (DSI). The articles of Sustainable Human Development in the Southeastern Anatolia Project by Altinbilek and Tigrek; Water and Land Resources Development in Southeastern Turkey by Altinbilek; The Role of Dams in Development and Development and Management of the Euphrates-Tigris Basin by Altinbilek are reviewed in the thesis for general view of GAP in consideration the history of the Region and Project. The institutions related to GAP and the development history of GAP by technical, historical and conceptual respects are discussed in the thesis by reviewing 5 the information in Master Plan, Development Plan and information on web pages of DSI and GAP Administration.. Although having many sub titles and details, the social impacts including environmental and cultural issues are limited to the expropriation, resettlement concept in Turkey and GAP, land consolidation, population change, education, health, gender issues, some of the environmental issues and cultural heritage. The land acquisition and resettlement processes are discussed in the light of the Expropriation Law, Resettlement Law and their revisions. The executive details and problems have been discussed with the governmental execution units of DSI and KHGM. The data regarding to the resettlement were taken from the different governmental institutions because they have been kept by different institutions. also the studies of DSI and KHGM are reviewed about past expropriation and resettlement implementation including problems, suggestions. General information on global resettlement concept is reviewed with the help of the doctoral thesis Environmental Sustainability of Water Projects by Tortajada The social aspects of the GAP are organized by GAP Administration in respect of sustainable human development in the region. The social projects as CATOMs and the environmental projects, discussed in the thesis according to the information obtained from GAP Administration. The rescue operations for cultural inheritance, Hasankeyf and Zeugma, are discussed in the thesis according to the information obtained from GAP Administration and the Ministry of Tourism and Culture web pages. several daily publications are reviewed for the Hasankeyf and Zeugma on their being popular nowadays. Also the global criticisms are given in an objective way in respect of the study supported by Nippon Foundation. Some other studies related to Southeastern Anatolia Project in global such 6 1.3. SCOPE OF THE THESIS In this study, the impacts of the Atatürk Dam on social and environmental aspects of the Southeastern Anatolia Project has been discussed in terms of planning and policy making, institutional arrangements, infrastructural deve
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