I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í THERMOCHEMISTRY - PDF

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Enthalpy = Indication of a total... of a substance, it is not possible to be measured but we can measure enthalpy... Enthalpy change = Energy change of a reaction, which occurs at constant..., reactants

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Enthalpy = Indication of a total... of a substance, it is not possible to be measured but we can measure enthalpy... Enthalpy change = Energy change of a reaction, which occurs at constant..., reactants and products, are of the same... (energy accepted by the reacting system) kj mol 1 reaction needs energy, heat energy is converted to... energy ENDOTERMIC/EXOTERMIC reaction... 0 kj mol 1 energy is evolved during a reaction,... energy is converted to... energy ENDOTERMIC/EXOTERMIC reaction. Released energy... the temperature of the system and then it is transferred to the surroundings as the temperature returns to normal. Standard enthalpy change = Enthalpy change for a reaction which occurs at a pressure of Pa and a temperature of 298 K (25 C). 1. Classify the following changes as exothermic or endothermic: a. Water vapour condenses to liquid water in clouds. b. 2 SO 4 dissolves in water and the temperature of the solution rises c. Dry ice (solid CO 2 ) sublimates spontaneously at room temperature. d. NaCl is mixed with ice in the mass ratio 1:3 and the temperature of the surrounding drops to 20 C. e. Oxygen and hydrogen combine explosively to form water Thermochemical equations Equations summarising all the information needed in the study of energetics Amounts of reactants and products (moles) Phases of reactants and products: s =... l =... g =... aq = Quantity of energy involved E.g.: 2 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 2 O(l) = 572 kj mol 1 2 (g) + 1/2 O 2 (g) 2 O (l) =... kj mol (g) + O 2 (g) 2 2 O(g) =... kj mol 1 1 2. Use the equations above to calculate the enthalpy change when: a. 4 moles of liquid water are formed from its elements b. 5 moles of hydrogen burn with oxygen to form liquid water c. 64 grams of oxygen react with hydrogen to form water vapour 3. 2 Al (s) + 3 Cl 2 (l) 2 AlCl 3 (s) = kj mol 1 Calculate the enthalpy change when 270 g of aluminium react with chlorine to form solid aluminium chloride according to the equation above. 4. Write a thermochemical equation showing that when 1 mole of carbon burns completely in oxygen, 394 kj of heat are liberated. 5. Calculate the enthalpy change on complete combustion of: a. 3 mol of carbon b. 0.1 mol of carbon c. 6 g of carbon d. 50 g of carbon 6. What mass of carbon would have to be burnt to produce: a. 788 kj b kj Labelling enthalpy changes: Certain types of reactions and their enthalpy changes are tabulated (they may be found in a book of data) Standard enthalpy change of formation f (teplo...) The heat absorbed when one mole of a substance is formed from its elements under standard conditions, e.g. enthalpy change of formation of toluene: f [C 6 5 C 3 (l)] = 12 kj mol 1 response to a reaction described by the equation: 7 C(s) (g) C 6 5 C 3 (l) f [element(its standard state)] =... kj mol 1 7. The value of the enthalpy change of formation of barium hydrogen carbonate is 1922 kj mol 1. Write down the complete thermochemical equation for this enthalpy change. 8. Write down thermochemical equations for the following enthalpy changes of formation, find their values in the books of data. a. f [CuSO O(s)] b. f [C 6 6 (l)] c. f [KClO 3 (s)] 2 Standard enthalpy change of combustion c (teplo...) = The enthalpy change when 1 mole of the substance is completely burnt in oxygen under standard conditions Mainly for organic substances (substances containing carbon, hydrogen (and oxygen) burn to produce carbon dioxide and water (liquid). 9. The value of the enthalpy change of combustion of toluene is 3910 kj mol 1. Write down the complete thermochemical equation for this process. 10. Write down thermochemical equations for the following enthalpy changes of combustion; find their values in the books of data. a. c [COO(l)] (formic acid) b. c [C 6 6 (l)] (benzene) c. c [C 3 O(l)] (methanol) d. c [Ca(s)] e. c [C 6 5 NO 2 (l)](nitrobenzene) 11. Select the specific terms which describe the enthalpy changes of the following reactions: a. C 2 5 O(l) + 3 O 2 (g) 2 CO 2 (g) O(l) b. 2 (g) + 1/2 O 2 (g) 2 O(l) c. P(red) + 5/4 O 2 (g) 1/4 P 4 O 10 (s) Using your book of data, list the numerical value of the enthalpy change in each of these reactions. 12. Write complete thermochemical equations showing: a. the standard heat of combustion of ethane, C 2 4 b. the standard heat of formation of magnesium chloride, MgCl 2 c. the standard heat of formation of ethanoic acid, C 3 COO 13. Write thermochemical equations (including the values of ) to represent the following rections at standard conditions: a. the combustion of 2 moles of sulphur b. the formation of 1 mole of AlCl 3 (s) from its elements c. the combustion of 1 mol of pentane,c 5 12 (g) First law of thermochemistry 14. Use the book of data to write down the thermochemical equation for: a. the formation of I(g) b. the decomposition of I(g) to hydrogen and solid iodine. 3 c. the enthalpy change of combustion of glucose. d. the photosynthesis. The values of an enthalpy change of a reaction and a reaction which takes place at the same conditions in the opposite direction, are... and they differ in the... Second law of thermochemistry C(s) + 1/2 O 2 (g) CO(g) CO (g) + 1/2 O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) 1 = kj mol 1 2 = kj mol 1 C(s) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) =... kj mol 1 ess law: The standard reaction enthalpy is the sum of the standard reaction enthalpies of each step into which the reaction can be formally divided. A Δ C A Δ 1 B Δ 2 C = The heat of reaction doesn t depend on the way the reaction occurs but only on the initial and final states of reactants and products. C(s) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) 1 2 ENERGY CYCLE CO (g) + 1/2 O 2 (g) 15. Use the second law of thermochemistry and the energy cycle to calculate the standard enthalpy change for the reaction 2 NO 2 (g) N 2 O 4 (g) given the thermochemical equations: N 2 (g) +2 O 2 (g) 2 NO 2 (g) 1 = 33.2 kj mol 1 N 2 (g) +2 O 2 (g) 2 N 2 O 4 (g) 2 = 9.2 kj mol 1 ( 24 kj mol 1 ) 16. Use the second law of thermochemistry and the energy cycle to calculate the standard enthalpy change for the reaction PbO(s) + 1/2 O 2 (g) PbO 2 (s) given f [PbO(s)] = 219 kj mol 1 f [PbO 2 (s)] = kj mol 1 ( 58.4 kj mol 1 ) 4 Calculating the standard enthalpy changes 1. from standard heats of formation, f A + B (reactants) C + D (products). of.. of. elements in their standard state = f (..) f (..) 17. Calculate the standard enthalpy change of the following reactions using f. a. 2 2 S (g) + SO 2 (g) 3 S (rombic) O (l) (Δ f ( 2 S(g) = kj mol 1 ) ( 233 kj mol 1 ) b. C 3 O(l) + 3/2 O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) O(l) ( kj mol 1 ) c. ZnCO 3 (s) ZnO(s) + CO 2 (g) ( 71 kj mol 1 ) d. 2 Al(s) + Fe 2 O 3 (s) 2 Fe(s) + Al 2 O 3 (s) ( 851 kj mol 1 ) e. MgO(s) + CO 2 (g) MgCO 3 (s) (Δ f (MgO(s) = kj mol 1, Δ f (MgCO 3 (s) = kj mol 1 ) (974 kj mol 1 ) f. C 4 (g) + 2 O(l) CO(g) (g) (250.5 kj mol 1 ) g. 1/2 N 2 (g) + 3/2 2 O(l) N 3 (g) + 3/4 O 2 (g) (383 kj mol 1 ) h. Cl(g) + C 2 4 (g) C 3 C 2 Cl(g) ( f [C 3 C 2 Cl(g)] = kj mol 1 ) ( 66.7 kj mol 1 ) i. N 3 (g) + Cl(g) N 4 Cl(s) ( 176 kj mol 1 ) 18. Classify each of the reactions as endothermic or exothermic. 2. from standard heats of combustion, c A + B (reactants) C + D (products) + O 2 + O 2. of.. of. CO 2 (g) + 2 O (l) = c (..) c (..) 19. Calculate the standard enthalpy change of the following reactions using c a. C 2 2 (g) (g) C 2 6 (g) c [ 2 (g)] = f [ 2 O(l)] ( 311 kj mol 1 ) b. C 2 4 (g) + 2 (g) C 2 6 (g) ( 137 kj mol 1 ) 5 c. C 2 4 (g) + 2 O(l) C 2 5 O(l) c [ 2 O(l)] = 0 kj mol 1 water doesn`t burn ( 44 kj mol 1 ) d. C 2 5 O(l) C 3 CO(l) + 2 (g) (99 kj mol 1 ) e. C 2 5 O(l) + O 2 (g) C 3 COO(l) + 2 O(l) ( 492 kj mol 1 ) f. 2 C 3 O(l) 2 O(l) + C 3 OC 3 (g) ( c [C 3 OC 3 (g)] = 1460 kj mol 1 ( 18 kj mol 1 ) 3. from bond enthalpies, D Bond enthalpy = the energy needed to break a particular bond in a particular compound A chemical reaction = breaking the bonds of reactants (energy needed) + forming new bonds in products (energy liberated) Worked example: Calculate the standard enthalpy change of the following reaction using bond enthalpies C 4 (g) + Cl 2 (g) C 3 Cl(g) + Cl(g) C + Cl Cl C Cl + Cl Bonds broken: Bonds made: (energy..) (energy ) r = D (bonds in..) D (bonds.. in ) 20. Calculate the standard enthalpy change of the following reactions using D. Use the values from the books of data and the following: D (C=C) in C38 = 598 kj mol 1, D (C C) in C38 = 356 kj mol 1, D (C Br)= 284 kj mol 1, D (C Cl) in C25Cl = 340 kj mol 1 (it is about the same in all halogenoalkanes), D (C O) = 427 kj mol 1, D (C I) = 238 kj mol 1, D (C=C) in C24 = = 682 kj mol 1. For D (C ) and D (C C) in ethanol (C 2 5 O) and iodoethane (C 2 5 I) use the values for corresponding D (C ) and D (C C) in ethane (C 2 6 ) (in books of data). a. 2 (g) + Cl 2 (g) 2 Cl(g) ( 184 kj mol 1 ) b. C 2 =C C 3 (g) + Br 2 (g) C 2 BrCBrC 3 (g) ( 132 kj mol 1 ) c. C 2 6 (g) + Cl 2 (g) C 2 5 Cl(g) + Cl(g) ( kj mol 1 ) d. C 2 4 (g) + 2 O(g) C 2 5 O(g) ( 24 kj mol 1 ) e. C 2 4 (g) + I(g) C 2 5 I(g) ( 35.6 kj mol 1 ) Further questions: 1. C 3 8 (g) + 5 O 2 (g) 3 CO 2 (g) O(l) = 2.19 MJ mol 1, calculate: a. heat liberated by burning 1g of propane (49.77 kj) b. Δ for making 5 moles of CO 2 by burning propane ( 3.65 MJ) 6 2. 2 Fe(s) +3/2 O 2 (g) Fe 2 O 3 (s) = kj mol 1 M r (Fe 2 O 3 ) = 160 Calculate the heat liberated when: a. 0.1 mol of iron reacts ( kj) b. 0.5 mol of iron reacts ( kj) c. 320 g of the product is made ( kj) d. 400 g of the product is made ( kj) 3. What is the heat liberated when 50 dm 3 of ethane are burnt? c [C 2 6 (g)] = 1560 kj mol 1, V m (C 2 6 (g)) = 22.4 dm 3 mol 1 (3482 kj) 4. Calculate the heat of the hydrogenation of ethene: C 2 4 (g) + 2 (g) C 2 6 (g) from the following data: i) C 2 4 (g) + 3 O 2 (g) 2 CO 2 (g) O(l) = kj mol 1 ii) 2 C 2 6 (g) + 7 O 2 (g) 4 CO 2 (g) O(l) = kj mol 1 iii) 2 (g) + 1/2 O 2 (g) 2 O(l) = kj mol 1 ( kj mol 1 ) (s) 5. Use the equations (i) and (ii) to determine the enthalpy changes of formation of FeO(s) and Fe 2 O 3 (s) and use them to calculate the enthalpy change of iron(ii) oxide oxidation: 2 FeO(s) + 1/2 O 2 (g) Fe 2 O 3 (s) and decide whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic. i) Fe(s) + 1/2 O 2 (g) FeO(s) = kj mol 1 ii) 2 Fe(s) + 3/2 O 2 (g) Fe 2 O 3 = kj mol 1 ( kj mol 1 ) (g) + O 2 (g) 2 2 O(l) = kj mol 1 What is the heat evolved, if there are a. 7 moles of hydrogen and 3 moles of oxygen in the reacting mixture at the beginning of the reaction? (17154 kj) b. 1 moles of 2 and 0.5 moles of O 2? (285.9 kj) c. 5 moles of water are made? ( kj) 7. SO 2 + 1/2 O 2 SO 3 = 97.7 kj mol 1 a. What is of a decomposition of 2 moles of sulphur trioxide to oxygen and sulphur dioxide? (195.4 kj) b. What is of a reaction of 2 moles of sulphur dioxide with oxygen? ( kj) 8. C 4 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) O(l), = 804 kj mol 1 What is the heat liberated when: a. 0.5 mol of methane is burnt? (402 kj) b. 2.5 mol of methane is burnt? (2010 kj) c. 11 g of carbon dioxide is made this way? (201 kj) 7
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