Högskolan i Halmstad. Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen. Electric vehicles - PDF

Högskolan i Halmstad School of Business and Engineering Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen Campus Geel Departement Industriële en Biowetenschappen Electric vehicles Market study and simulations Master in Applied

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Högskolan i Halmstad School of Business and Engineering Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen Campus Geel Departement Industriële en Biowetenschappen Electric vehicles Market study and simulations Master in Applied Engineering: Electrotechnics Master in de Industriële wetenschappen: Elektrotechniek (Industrieel Ingenieur) Christof Van Bael Academic year PREFACE After successfully ended my studies in Electrotechnics at bachelor level, I decided to do a further study to become a Master in applied engineering in the field of Electrotechnics. My master thesis are prepared at the Halmstad University, Sweden as part of a project with an electric vehicle. This is a subject with several different interesting points that are very useful in the future. I had the possibility to study abroad thanks to an Erasmus placement of the European Life Long Learning programme. The foreign experience give me a unique change to improve my technical, social and language skills. In first place I would thank my parents that they made it possible to do all this years of study and especially the foreign experience. I thank also Jonny Hylander en Göran Sidén from the Halmstad University, who guided me trough this thesis. Finnaly, I thank all my family, friends and teachers for their support during this project and my studies. Christof Van Bael Halmstad, December 2010 Electric vehicles: Market study and simulations 3 SUMMARY This text as a part of the master thesis, describes the propulsion of electric vehicles. In the context of this thesis, there is a study made that gives an overview of the market of electric and hybrid electric vehicles in Europe. One of the facts of this study is that the most manufacturers launch their first electric vehicle in the next following years. Technological is there a key difference between vehicles on the market and vehicles that are launched in the next years. The upcoming electrical vehicles use mostly a high power lithium-ion battery and an induction motor. The second part of this thesis describes the different technologies that are used to propel an electric vehicle. The third and last part of this thesis are a few simulations of an electric vehicle. Here in is a power simulation based on a drive cycle. The power curve is calculated with several losses of an electric vehicle. Based on this power curve is it possible to simulate the maximum range of an electric vehicle on one battery cycle. Electric vehicles: Market study and simulations 4 SAMENVATTING Deze thesis als onderdeel van de masterproef behandelt de aandrijving van elektrische voertuigen. In het kader hiervan is een onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de beschikbaarheid van zuiver elektrische en hybride voertuigen op de Europese markt. Uit dit onderzoek is gebleken dat de meeste producenten hun eerste elektrische wagen in de loop van de volgende jaren zullen lanceren. Op technologisch vlak is er een duidelijk onderscheid tussen reeds beschikbare voertuigen en voertuigen die de komende jaren op de markt verschijnen. De toekomstige voertuigen zullen veelal gebruik maken van hoog vermogen lithium-ion batterijen en inductie motoren. Het tweede deel van deze thesis geeft een theoretisch overzicht van de gebruikte technologieën met betrekking op de aandrijving van elektrische voertuigen. Het derde en laatste deel van deze thesis behandelt enkele simulaties van een elektrische wagen. Hierin is het vermogen gebruik nagegaan gebaseerd op een snelheidscyclus. De vermogen curve houdt hierbij rekening met tal van verliezen die optreden bij een elektrische wagen. Op basis van deze vermogen curve kan er nagegaan worden hoe ver een elektrische wagen kan rijden op één laadbeurt van de batterij. Electric vehicles: Market study and simulations 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS... 5 LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES... 7 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS... 9 INTRODUCTION DIFFERENT ELECTRIC VEHICLES Battery driven electric vehicle Hybrid electric vehicle Architecture of HEV Series HEV Parallel HEV Series-parallel HEV Complex HEV Classification of HEV based on motor power Micro hybrid Mild hybrid Full hybrid Fuel cell electric vehicle Solar electric vehicle AVAILABILITY OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES BATTERIES AND RECHARGING Battery Lead acid Nickel metal hydride Lithium-ion Lithium-ion polymer Molten salt Electric double layer capacitor Recharging Recharging levels Connectors Electric grid DRIVE PWM Field oriented control Direct torque control MOTOR Induction motor Construction Power Torque Permanent magnet synchronous motor SIMULATION SOFTWARE Basic mathematics Variables Graphics... 49 Electric vehicles: Market study and simulations 6 7 SIMULATIONS The simulated vehicle Drive cycle Basic formulas Force Output torque Output angular velocity Input torque Input angular velocity Power Motor & converter Battery Energy consumption to the battery Battery voltage Battery current Range CONCLUSION REFERENCES APPENDIX... 68 Electric vehicles: Market study and simulations 7 LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES Figure I.1 Electric cart from Stratingh Figure I.2 La Jamais Contente Figure I.3 Lohner-Porsche Mixte Hybrid Figure 1.1 Architecture of a BEV Figure 1.2 Architecture of a series HEV Figure 1.3 Architecture of a parallel HEV Figure 1.4 Architecture of series-parallel HEV Figure 1.5 Architecture of a complex HEV Figure 1.6 Power flow of a series-parallel & complex HEV Figure 1.7 Solar vehicle from the Umicore Solar Team (Groep-T, Leuven) Figure 3.1 Plot for traction batteries (IEA, 2009) Figure 3.2 Plot of batteries, supercapacitors and flywheels (Larmine & Lowry,2003).. 22 Figure 3.3 Lead acid battery Figure 3.4 High power NiMH battery of a Toyota Prius Figure 3.5 Lithium-ion battery Figure 3.6 Na-NiCl 2 battery Figure 3.7 Structure of a molten salt battery (Turconi, s.a.) Figure 3.8 Standardized plugs Figure 4.1 Scheme of a drive in an electric vehicle Figure 4.2 Example of a three phase inverter bridge Figure 4.3 Example of sinusoidal PWM principle (Pollefliet, 2009) Figure 4.4 Block scheme of field oriented control Figure 4.5 Vector diagram of the Clarke transformation (Texas Instruments, 1998) Figure 4.6 Vector diagram of the Park transformation (Texas Instruments, 1998) Figure 4.7 Block scheme of direct torque control (ABB, 2002) Figure 5.1 Simplified construction of an IM stator (Pollefliet, 2009) Figure 5.2 Three phase system (Pollefliet, 2009) Figure 5.3 Rotating magnetic field from the stator (Pollefliet, 2009) Figure 5.4 Configuration of the three phase windings (Pollefliet, 2009) Figure 5.5 Simplified construction of a squirrel cage induction motor Figure 5.6 Distribution of stator windings of an induction motor (Pollefliet, 2009) Figure 5.7 Power flow of an induction motor Figure 5.8 Equivalent circuit of an induction motor Figure 5.9 Torque-speed characteristic of an IM (Pollefliet, 2009) Figure 5.10 Three phase voltage Figure 5.11 Simplified construction of a PMSM with 2 poles Figure 5.12 Distribution of the windings of a BLDC motor (Pollefliet, 2009) Figure 5.13 Plot of the specific energy of electric motors (Larminie & Lowry, 2003) Figure 6.1 Scilab logo Figure 6.2 Scilab console screen and 2D plot Figure 6.3 Axes properties Figure 7.1 Block scheme of the proposed vehicle Figure 7.2 Drive cycle Figure 7.3 Flow chart of the main simulations Figure 7.4 Plot of the simulated force Figure 7.5 Plot of the simulated output torque Figure 7.6 Plot of the simulated output angular velocity Figure 7.7 Plot of the simulated input Torque Figure 7.8 Plot of the simulated input angular velocity Figure 7.9 Plot of the simulated power in one cycle Figure 7.10 Efficiency curve of an induction motor as a function of the load Figure 7.11 Plot of the efficiency curve based on the load efficiency Figure 7.12 Efficiency curve of an induction motor in function of the frequency Figure 7.13 Plot of the efficiency curve based on the frequency efficiency... 59 Electric vehicles: Market study and simulations 8 Figure 7.14 Plot of the simulated power in one cycle Figure 7.15 Comparison of the two simulated powers Figure 7.16 Voltage curve of a lithium-ion cell (Zimmer, 2009) Figure 7.17 Plot of the battery power in 1 cycle Figure 7.18 Plot of the simulated power for a discharge of 90% Figure 7.19 Plot of the simulated battery voltage Figure 7.20 Plot of the simulated battery current Table I.1 Emissions and energy of different vehicle types (Bauen & Hart, 2003) Table 2.1 Vehicle registrations in Belgium (FOD mobiliteit en vervoer, ) Table 3.1 Specifications of different battery types Table 6.1 Basic commando's Table 6.2 Predefined variable names in Scilab Table 6.3 Additinal commando's for variables with two or more numbers Table 7.1 Specifications of the proposed vehicle Table 7.2 General specifications Table 7.3 Average distance with a car in one day (Mobielvlaanderen, s.a.)... 64 Electric vehicles: Market study and simulations 9 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AC BEV BLDC CCGT CEN CENELEC CNG CREG DC DIV DOD DTC EMF ETSI EV FEV FOC FOD HEV ICE IEA IEC IM JEVS OEM PAM PHEV PM Alternating Current Battery driven Electric Vehicle Brushless DC motor Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Comité Européen de Normalisation Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique Compressed Natural Gas Commissie voor de Regulering van de Elektriciteit en het Gas Direct Current Dienst Inschrijvingen Voertuigen Depth Of Discharge Direct Torque Control Electromagnetic Force European Telecommunication Standards Institute Electric Vehicle Fuel cell Electric Vehicle Field Oriented Control Federale Overheidsdienst Hybrid Electric Vehicle Internal Combustion Engine International Energy Agency International Electrotechnical Commission Induction Motor Japan Electric Vehicle Standard Original Equipment Manufacturer Puls Amplitude Modulation Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Particulate Matter Electric vehicles: Market study and simulations 10 PMSM PWM SAE SR UN/ECE VDE VREG VVC ZEBRA Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Puls Width Modulation Society of Automotive Engineers Switched Reluctance United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker Vlaamse Reguleringsinstantie van de Elektriciteits- en Gasmarkt Voltage Vector Control Zeolite Battery Research Africa Project group Electric vehicles: Market study and simulations 11 INTRODUCTION Drive the change, the slogan from car manufacturer Renault to promote its electric vehicles. It says something over the next step in the automobile history. The automotive industry is evolving from cars with a large pollution to zero emission vehicles. The electric vehicle is seen as a part of the solution to maintain the natural balance. But is the electric vehicle the next step in the automobile evolution? Philosophically it is, but the electric vehicle is just a part of the automobile history. The invention of the first electric vehicle can be attributed to more than one person. In 1828, a Hungarian inventor, Ányos Jedlik, created a small electric car powered by the electric motor that he invented. Blacksmith Thomas Davenport, the inventor of the first American DC motor, installed his motor on a small model car. He operated this car on a small circular electrified track in In 1835, the Dutch professor Sibrandus Stratingh and his instrument maker Christopher Becker constructed a electric cart. This scale model was based on calculations of Michael Faraday and still exist today. The Scotsman Robert Davidson built in 1838, an electric locomotive that attained a speed of 6.4 km/h. Between 1832 and 1839, another Scotsman, Robert Anderson invented a crude electrical carriage. All those cars can be seen as one of the first electric vehicles. Figure I.1 Electric cart from Stratingh It happened until the 1840s before rechargeable batteries were used in electric vehicles. This batteries provided viable means to store electricity on board. The improvement of this technology paved the road for the electric car market in Europe. France and the United Kingdom were the first countries to support the widespread development of electric vehicles. The English inventor Thomas Parker claimed to perfected an electric car in He was also responsible for several innovations such as the electrification of the London Underground and the overhead tramways in Birmingham and Liverpool. (HISTORY OF THE ELECTRIC VEHICLE, S.A.; RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT GRONINGEN, 2008) With the improved battery technology, the electric vehicle was a valuable option for the automotive industry for more than a century. The Belgian race car driver Camille Jenatzy reached in 1899 the land speed record with the electric car La Jamais Contente ( The Never Satisfied ). With a speed of km/h, it was the first car in history that reached the 100 km/h barrier. It was a tough competition between electric Electric vehicles: Market study and simulations 12 vehicles and vehicles with another concept like gasoline, steam or compressed air at the end of the 19 th century. Figure I.2 La Jamais Contente The electric car dominated the vehicle registration with 3:1 comparing with gasoline vehicles in the late 1920s to 1930s. The improved technology for internal combustion engines, the higher specific energy of gasoil and the possibility for mass production, decreased the cost for gasoline driven vehicles. With the production of the Model T of Ford, vehicles became available to general public. In the third decade of the 20 th century was the leadership of the electric car overtaken by cars with an internal combustion engine. The electric car never reclaimed the leadership for several reasons. The improved infrastructure and the demand of intercity traffic required a longer travel distance than was possible with electric vehicles. The gasoline vehicle outclassed the electric car in performance and cost and the electric vehicle was no longer demanded. The oil crises from the 1970s, forced the industrialized countries to have energy saving programs. Some governments and environmentalists introduced stronger energy regulations for the industry and reintroduced the idée of the electric car. A few manufacturers followed the idée and introduced a car, but there was no take-off for the market of electric vehicles. (BEAUME & MIDLER, 2010; LA JAMAIS CONTENTE, S.A.; SITU, 2009) Harmony between Man, Nature and Machine is the slogan for the Toyota Prius. Mankind is now becoming concerned over the damage that it is causing to the environment. Due to environmental reasons is it necessary that there is a decreased emission of greenhouse gasses. Because traffic is responsible for a part of those emissions, the idée raised to search a solution in the automotive industry. This solution can be found in the electric car. Another reason to develop electric cars, is the rising price of fossil fuels and the declining global natural reserves of oil. We also decrease or dependency of foreign nations for our energy supply. It must be said that the emission of green house gasses is not only dependent from traffic. Another source is the production of electricity. A large part of the electricity is produced with thermal power plants which use coal, oil or gas as fuel. A comparison made by Bauen and Hart (2003) gives the emission from well to wheel for a few different types of vehicles. The conclusion based on that comparison is that an electric vehicle can only be zero emission if the electricity is produced with renewable methods like wind energy. Electric vehicles: Market study and simulations 13 On the other hand, the decreasing emissions in large building area s such as towns and cities has a positive effect on the health of the inhabitants. The emissions of an internal combustion engine causes long problems including shortage of breath, worsens cardiovascular disease, damages long tissue and causes cancer. This local decreasing of the emissions, gives a decreasing risk on long time problems. Table I.1 Emissions and energy of different vehicle types (Bauen & Hart, 2003) Vehicle type NOx SOx CO PM CO 2 Energy g/km g/km g/km g/km g/km MJ/km Gasoline ICE Diesel ICE CNG ICE Hydrogen ICE Gasoline fuelled hybrid MeOH fuel cell Hydrogen fuel cell Battery, British electricity Battery, CCGT Bauen and Hart used in their research the electricity production of the United Kingdom. The emissions for the gasoline and diesel internal combustion engine (ICE) are those from the EURO III standard. The car fuelled on compressed natural gas (CNG) has the same energy use as the gasoline vehicle, but with an 10% higher efficiency (16.5% instead of 15%). The hydrogen for the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle is assumed to be generated using medium-scale steam reforming plant based at refilling stations with natural gas as the feedstock. Because there are different forms of hybridization, they set the emission of the hybrid vehicle on 70% of the gasoline vehicle. (LARMINIE & LOWRY, 2003) In the 90 s of last century, some car manufacturers developed a prototype of an electric car and around this time, they begin with the production of electric and hybrid vehicles for the general public. Because of the low range of an electric vehicle, they started with small cars or hybrid vehicles. Thanks to improved battery technology is it also possible to develop larger cars in the next few years. The key problem for the electric car is still the lack of infrastructure to recharge the batteries. This limited the range that an electric vehicle can achieve. In some countries, there is also an administrative difficulty to register an electric car. The registration can only completed with specifications that are typical for a car with an internal combustion engine. (ELEKTRISCHE AUTO INSCHRIJVEN GEEN SINECURE, 2010) The large car manufactures reintroduced the concept of a hybrid vehicle to overcome the limited range of an electric vehicle. A hybrid electric vehicle is a vehicle that Electric vehicles: Market study and simulations 14 combines an electric motor with an internal combustion engine. The advantage of a hybrid electric car is the extended range that you can become with the internal combustion engine. But also the hybrid vehicle is not a new development. In 1899, Ferdinand Porsche developed the first hybrid vehicle. His Lohner-Porsche Mixte Hybrid was using wheel hub motors, mounted in every wheel powered by a 1.8 tonnes heavy battery and an electric generator. NASA studied the Lohner-Porsche s design for his Luna Rover of the Apollo program and many of its design principles are used in the Rover. (LOHNER-PORSCHE MIXTE HYBRID, S.A.) Figure I.3 Lohner-Porsche Mixte Hybrid Today, we are on the beginning of a new time period in the automotive history: the revival of the electric vehicle. The future of the automotive industry is founded in the zero emission vehicles. The used technology in electric vehicles is a renewed technology based on electric motors and modern drives. This thesis gives an overview of the used technologies in modern electric cars. Therefore is it necessary to do a study of the electric vehicle market. On base of this study is it possible to describe the used technologies. A second part of this thesis is a computer simulation of an electric vehicle. The goal of this simulations is the power curve of an electric vehicle. With this curve is it possible to calculate the range of an electric car. Electric vehicles: Market study and simulations 15 1 DIFFERENT ELECTRIC VEHICLES 1.1 Battery driven electric vehicle A battery driven electric vehicle or BEV is a pure electric car. The battery delivers power for the electric motor. This electric motor propels the wheels via the mechanical transmission. The motor is used as generator to store the energy from regenerative breaking in the battery. The battery is charged directly from the electric grid or can be recharged with regenerative breaking. Figure 1.1 Architecture of a BEV 1.2 Hybrid electric vehicle A hybrid electric vehicle or HEV is a vehicle with an internal combustion engine (ICE), ne
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