Hamid ČUSTOVIĆ Zlatan KOVaČeVIĆ Mirza TVIca RURAL ECOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF SARAJEVO Original Title: RURALNA EKOLOGIJA Editor: Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences of the University of Sarajevo in collaboration

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Hamid ČUSTOVIĆ Zlatan KOVaČeVIĆ Mirza TVIca RURAL ECOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF SARAJEVO Original Title: RURALNA EKOLOGIJA Editor: Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences of the University of Sarajevo in collaboration with the TEMPUS WBREN Consortium For Editor: Mirsad Kurtović, Ph.D., Full Professor Reviewers: Ivica Kisić, Ph.D., Full Professor Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb Danijela Petrović, Dr. Sc., Associate Professor Faculty of Agriculture and Food Technology, University of Mostar Mirsad Kurtović, Ph.D., Full Professor Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Sarajevo Translator: Alica Salihagić Proofreading: Zlatan Buljko, prof. Prepress: Mario Petrak Print: Print Run: 300 copies First Edition SARAJEVO, CIP - Katalogizacija u publikaciji Nacionalna i univerzitetska biblioteka Bosne i Hercegovine, Sarajevo 502/504: (075.8) ČUSTOVIĆ, Hamid Rural Ecology / Hamid Čustović, Zlatan Kovačević, Mirza Tvica ; [translator Alica Salihagić]. - Sarajevo : Poljoprivredno-prehrambeni fakultet = Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, str. : ilustr. ; 24 cm Prijevod djela: Ruralna ekologija. - Bibliograija: str ISBN Kovačević, Zlatan 2. Tvica, Mirza COBISS.BH-ID The University of Sarajevo Senate gave consent to the Textbook Rural Ecology to be published as university publication by its Decision No. 0/ /13 of 17 July 2013. Authors: HAMID ČUSTOVIĆ, Ph.D., Full Professor, University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Science ZLATAN KOVAČEVIĆ, Dr. Sc., Associate Professor University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Agriculture MIRZA TVICA, M.Sc. University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Science This book is issued as part of the project Western Balkan Rural Extension Network through Curriculum Reform (WBREN), funded by the European Commission through the Tempus programme (Grant number: Consortium TEMPUS WBREN). This book relects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. The University of Sarajevo Senate gave consent to the Textbook Rural Ecology to be published as university publication by its Decision No. 0/ /13 of 17 July 2013. COnTEnTs PREFACE InTRODUCTIOn...9 Ecology Concept and Development...9 Major subdivisions of Ecology Ecology study Approaches Ecology and sustainable Development Rural space and Rural Development Rural Ecology Theories of Environment Protection Millennium Ecosystem Assessment CHARACTERIsTICs AnD AssEssMEnT OF BAsIC ECOsYsTEM ELEMEnTs Environment a Collection of Ecological Factors Terrestrial ecosystems Abiotic Factors Climate and Relief Land/Soil Agricultural Ecosystems Agroecological Zoning (AEZ) Types of Agricultural Ecosystems Forest Ecosystems Grassland Ecosystems Wet Habitats, Peatlands And Mires Water Ecosystems Hydrologic Cycle and Soil Water Balance Seas Rivers Lakes Groundwater Self-Puriication of Fresh Water Biotic Factors Adaptation of Organisms Ecosystem Ecology Trophic (Food) Levels in Ecosystem Flow of Energy in Ecosystem Cycling of Elements Carbon Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Sulfur Cycle Phosphorus Cycle Nutrient Regeneration in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems... 73 3. EnDAnGERInG THE EnVIROnMEnT Types of Threats to Environment Natural Disasters Seismic disasters Meteorological Disasters Technical-Technological Threats to Environment Solid Waste Disposal Ecological Warfare Impact of Agriculture on Degradation of Environmen Conversion of Natural Forest and Grassland into Agricultural Ecosystems Intensiication of Agricultural Production and Environment Application of Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticides Impact of Animal Husbandry on Environment Agriculture and Biodiversity soil Degradation Degradation of Forests Degradation of Grassland Ecosystems Air Pollution Acid Rains Greenhouse Efect Agriculture and Greenhouse Efect Depletion of Ozone Layer Ozone Holes Water Pollution Eutrophication of Water Availability of Drinking Water in Arid/Dry Areas REGULATORY FRAMEWORK FOR EnVIROnMEnT PROTECTIOn AT ALL LEVELs Club of Rome and Environmental Issues The stockholm Conference The First Conference of the United nations Rio Declaration The second Un Conference Earth summit Kyoto Protocol EU Agricultural Legislation EU Directives Relevant EU Regulations sustainable MAnAGEMEnT OF natural REsOURCEs sustainable Development Agenda 21 and sustainable Management Energy Resources Basic Principles of Forest Management Basic Principles of Water Management Basic Management Principles in Agricultural Production Intensive Agriculture Sustainable Agriculture...164 Ecological (Organic) Agriculture Ecological Agriculture and Biodiversity Sustainable Agricultural Land Management Land Management Aimed at Adjustment to Climate Changes Good Management Practices in Agriculture Good Agricultural Practices in the Application of Mineral and Organic Fertilizers Organic Fertilizers Mineral Fertilizers The Basic Principles of Farm Waste Management LOCAL BEnEFITs FROM THE sustainable MAnAGEMEnT OF An ECOsYsTEM Rural Development and EU Diversiication of Activities in Rural Area Biodiversity as a Developmental Advantage of Rural Areas Diversity of the Forest Ecosystems Diversity of Agro-Ecosystem Autochthonous Species Organic Farming Promotion of Traditional Knowledge and Values Quality Healthy Food in Rural Areas Hand-Made Products Tourism Local Production of Renewable Energy and Prevention of Climate Change Biomass Energy Wind Energy Small-Scale Run-Of-River Hydro Power Plants PARTICIPATIVE MAnAGEMEnT OF natural REsOURCEs Institutional Framework of sustainable Management Institutional Changes Economic and Financial Interventions Social Factor and Behavior Patterns Technological Measures Measures in the Area of Knowledge Local Government and Management of natural Resources InTRODUCTIOn TO THE EnVIROnMEnTAL IMPACT AssEssMEnT EU Legislation for EIA and sea Role of Various Actors in the Overall Assessment Cycle state of the Environment Indicators Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) Nonlinear (Gradual) Changes in Ecosystems The Millennium Assessment Scenarios REFEREnCEs InTRODUCTIOn PREFACE The issues of rural development, being the most popular issue within the EU and in our country as well, have contributed to a better understanding of the signiicance of the interaction between humans and natural ecosystems that have always been there to support their survival on Earth. Although sustainable development is still an abstract concept, it is as strong as many other concepts such as freedom, equality and justice (Sophocleous et al. 1998). Once a resource has come under the human control, its balance starts to deteriorate. After this point, there are only two options: either a new equilibrium is established, usually at a lower level, or a status of disequilibrium prevails leading to a steady degradation or deterioration of functions, production and services of resources in the system. Both cases have been known throughout human history. Sustainable agricultural exploitations were established in some parts of the world, where they replaced the natural ecosystems. That type of exploitation facilitated the spread of the human race. This is mostly the case in Central Europe. However, in some other cases the exploitation of natural resources has led to an abrupt growth of the local residents and human activities that are followed by increasingly enormous pressure on natural resources, as well as to poverty and abandonment of land. A true example of such case is the Mediterranean region. In many cases, once a man has succeeded in completely exhausting a resource, he seeks the new ones through migrations and trade contributing thus to the expansion of gradual degradation. In other cases, he is trying to replace one resource with another (coal for wood, petroleum for coal). In doing so, they often manage to avoid the sufering due to degradation or exhaustion of resources they have caused. Ecology is a very broad scientiic discipline and therefore it is extremely diicult to address environmental issues in a narrow specialized way. It is always necessary address a wider problem for a better understanding, especially when rural areas are concerned, taking into account their entire natural, cultural and historic complexity. This is exactly the biggest challenge in writing such books or textbooks. Ecology has stemmed from biology, but today it is an independent scientiic discipline with huge dynamics in development and information. Many of its postulates within human ecology are in line with the medical perspective on the environment. In addition to biologists, environmental issues are also dealt with by other professions such as doctors, architects, agronomists, economists, various engineers, chemists, physicists, etc. There are several ecological disciplines: human ecology, autecology, idioecology, demecology, phytoecology, zooecology, social ecology. However, ecology can be divided into general (theoretical) and applied (practical) ecology, and recently there are attempts to establish some other ecologies such as urban 7 RURAL ECOLOGY ecology, rural ecology, ecology of culture, ecology of radiation, etc. In this sense, the authors of this textbook have made an efort to present the problem of rural ecology as an approach derived from the development of Curriculum within TEMPUS Project 15877, Western Balkan Rural Extension Network through Curriculum Reform (WBREN). The University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and the University of Banja Luka, Agricultural Faculty, are the two institutions from Bosnia and Herzegovina participating in this project. The content of this textbook has been deined at the joint working meetings of all the project partners from 12 universities: four from the EU and the rest from the Balkan Region, Macedonia, Serbia and Albania. The textbook will be published in English language too. We would like to take this opportunity to express our gratitude to all those who supported us and gave us valuable suggestions thus contributing to its quality. Special thanks go to the reviewers of the textbook. Sarajevo, 2013 The Authors 8 InTRODUCTIOn 1. InTRODUCTIOn ECOLOGY COnCEPT AnD DEVELOPMEnT Ecology is a young scientiic discipline that has started receiving a lot of attention worldwide in the past years. It is both natural and interdisciplinary science which builds up on the foundations of biology, geography, geology, chemistry, physics and mathematics. The term ecology comes from Greek words: Oikos - house, home, dwelling place, habitation Logos - science, study of, learning, discussion. German zoologist, naturalist, philosopher and evolutionist Ernst Haeckel (1869) used the word ecology for the irst time in 1869 in his book entitled General Morphology of Organisms. According to him, ecology is the economy of nature which pertains to the relations between living organisms and their both organic and inorganic environment. In early 20th century, Alexander von Humboldt, a German explorer, naturalist and geographer who stated everything is interrelated, in his works presents his 9 RURAL ECOLOGY view of distribution of plant species primarily in relation to external conditions (climate). Thanks to him, in 1921 the Agricultural Faculty in Perugia established a department of agroecology. At the beginning of the twentieth century, biologists were engaged only in biology, chemists in chemistry, geologists in geology, physicists in physics..., until the beginning of 1962 and publication of the book entitled Silent Spring by a renowned American marine biologist and conservationist Rachel Carson. Her book brings into focus the application of a pesticide (agent for mass destruction of plant pests) known as DDT, as well as an inducement of various mutations in lora and fauna exposed to its efects. Her open and ierce criticism of this practice in her book eventually resulted in a ban of application of this pesticide. In a way, this book raised environmental awareness in people, and later on this scientiic discipline started getting more publicity worldwide. Nowadays there are numerous deinitions that attempt at determining the subject of ecology. According to the above cited Haeckel E. (1869): ecology represents a science that addresses complex interactions between organisms and their environment, organic and inorganic. Ecology is the science of distribution and abundance of organisms according to Anderwarth (1961). Krebs (1972) deines ecology as a science of interactions which determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. In a broad sense, many believe that Ecology is the science of ecosystems, environment, the science of general and speciic manifestations of the struggle for survival, as well as the science of processes and methods which living organisms use to adjust to continuously changing living conditions, or simply said - ecology studies the totality of relations that living organisms have with respect to each other (common life) and their natural environment. Đukanović, 1996, conveys a deinition by Radkevič, who sees ecology as purely biological science which studies mutual relations between organisms as well as their relation to the environment. Clearly, it is extremely diicult to give an answer to the question»what is ecology» while respecting everything that modern ecology implies and pertains to conceptually. Therefore, all above stated deinitions of ecology are incomplete. They, at a irst glance, outline the issue of the human environment (environment) as an issue of modern civilization and destiny of mankind. However, it is not just about drastic degradation of the environment due to human activity, but also about its improvement and development, which is often overlooked. Nowadays, enormous resources are being invested in new scientiic-technological solutions, projects and systems in order to remove or at least partly mitigate the efects that have become a serious threat to the survival of many organisms and ultimately the mankind itself. Such an approach and understanding of environment resulted in the establishment of a science which, unfortunately, has not fully shaped up its domain. It is commonly 10 InTRODUCTIOn deined as the science of protecting and improving the environment, and as such it is more complex than ecology in all aforementioned original concepts. It could be simply deined as the science of human s impact on the environment. In any case, through familiarizing us with ecological principles, ecology provides information which allows us to have a better understanding of the world that surrounds us. Good knowledge of these ecological principles contributes to the improvement of environment, proper management of natural resources and protection of human health. MAjOR subdivisions OF ECOLOGY Since it is a scientiic discipline, and based on the subject of studying, Ecology can be divided into Phytoecology and Zooecology. As their names indicate, Phytoecology takes the plant as a subject of study and Zooecology studies animal organisms. On the basis of method of study, Ecology can be subdivided as: Idioecology (Autoecology), analytical science that examines the relations between individual organisms and conditions of the environment. Its primary task is to study the relations between individual organisms and external factors. Sinecology (Synthetic ecology) applies synthetic method in the study. It has three levels, as follows: 1. Relations between the population and external environmental conditions; 2. Relations between the community (phytocoenosis and zoocoenosis representing a set of diverse populations) and external environmental conditions; and 3. Examination of ecosystems representing the unity of the biotic community and biotope. This examination also includes examination of mutual relations within a biotic community. According to the most basic geophysical characteristics of Earth, ecology can be divided into terrestrial (on land) and aquatic (marine and limnology) ecology. A subdivision of ecology by type of organisms includes: Microbial ecology (ecology of microorganisms), Phytoecology (plant ecology), 11 RURAL ECOLOGY Zooecology (animal ecology), and Human ecology (ecology of man). The most common subdivision of ecology by the level of organization of studied systems, the relations to the size and organization of a segment of biotic and abiotic components of biosphere includes the following: Autoecology (ecology of individuals/species), Demoecology (ecology of population), Sinecology (ecology of living communities/biocoenoses), Geoecology and global ecology (planetary ecology) ECOLOGY study APPROACHEs According to the above cited Radkevič (1983): Modern ecology is a theoretical base for rational utilization and protection of nature, which has its speciic contents, subject and tasks, as well as research methods. While explaining the term ecology in his book Tourism and Ecology, Mueller H. (2004) emphasizes that ecology, being the science which deals with complex interrelations, provides an insight into complex natural systems but ofers no guidance as to what we should or should not do. In this sense, it is neutral. In order to substantiate this statement, he provided an example showing that ecology does not, in fact, care about human-caused excessive CO 2 emission to the atmosphere. This emission results in the environment to react in the sense of adjusting to the newly created conditions (climate changes warming, as well as increased intake of CO 2 from the atmosphere by green plants and ocean plankton). However, the problem occurs when such adjustments are in contradiction with human interests, thus afecting our lives and economy. In addition, we need to understand that ecological balance in a group of organisms or an individual does not necessarily represent a balanced system for another one. He cited Juergen Dahl (1984) who, in his book entitled The Garden And Its Incomprehensible Devastation, describes this correlation between the evaluation and interest of the subject on the example of a common housely: If a housely is brought into the situation to evaluate environment it surely would ind the absence of rotten lesh a problem which directly threatens its existence. Mueller H. (2004) concludes that, in order for instructions on action or limitations of action to be performed for ecological reasons, it is necessary to supplement ecology with ethical principles. At best ecology can indicate the processes and the efects some occurrence causes in a given ecosystem, but the action aimed at preventing the cause, if efects pose a problem, it depends on man and society who judge the values and set standards, and which is based on ethical considerations. 12 InTRODUCTIOn In 1972, the ecological scene heard another extraordinary voice coming from a Norwegian philosopher and ecologist - Arne Naess. At a lecture in Bucharest, he presented his concept of deep ecology, which made a strong impact and realized a number of approaches and ideas related to the environment during the last decades of the twentieth century. Unlike that ecological movement dealing with consequences, he called supericial ecological movement, Arne Naess advocates for much deeper causes concerning principles on which rest on the whole living world. The supericial ecological movements address the issues of pollution and over-exploitation of resources while deep ecological movements deal with issues such as principles of diversity, complexity, autonomy, decentralization, symbiosis, egalitarianism, classlessness. To this efect, the author of the new doctrine calls all supericial ecological movements anthropocentric as they support the protection of environment motivated by human interests, whereas other ecological movements are ecocentric as they originally start from the point that the natural world outside man has the right to exist regardless of how
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